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CHAPTER 4

Environmental
Scanning and
Industry Analysis

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS POLICY


10TH EDITION
THOMAS L. WHEELEN J. DAVID HUNGER

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Enviromental Scanning
• Is the monitoring,evaluation, and
dissemination of information from the
external and internal environments to key
people within the corporation.
Identifying External Environmental Variables

• Economic forces that regulate the exchange of


materials,money,energy,and information.
• Technology forces that generate problem-
solving inventions.
• Political-legal forces that allocate power and
provide constraining and protecting laws and
regulations.
• Sociocultural forces that regulate the
values,mores,and costums of society.
Some Important Variables In
The Societal Environment
economic technological Political-legal Sosiocultural
GDP trends Total government spending Antivirus regulations Lifestyle changes
for R&D

Interest rates Total industry spending for Environmental protection Career expectations
R&D laws

Money supply Focus of technological efforts Tax laws Consumer activism

Inflation rates Patent protection Special incentives Rate of family formation

Unemployment level New products Foreign trade regulations Growth rate of population

Wage/price control New developments in Attitude toward foreign Regional shifts in population
technology transfer from lab companies
to marketplace

Devaluation/revaluation Productivity improvement Laws on hiring and Life expectancies


through automation promotion

Energy availability and cost Internet availability Stability of goverment Birthrates

Currency markets Telecommunication Outsourcing regulation Pension plans


infrastructure

Disposable and discretionary Computer hacking activity Foreign”sweat shops” Health care and level of
income education
Environmental Variables
Societal Environment

Economic Forces --
–Regulate exchange of materials, money, energy and
information

Technological Forces --
–Generate problem-solving inventions

Political-legal Forces --
–Allocate power; provide laws and regulations

Sociocultural Forces --
–Regulate values, mores, and customs of society

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Demographic Trends

SOCIOCULTURAL FORCE

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Transformational Sociocultural Trends

8 Current Trends –

–Increasing environmental awareness


–Growing health consciousness
–Expanding seniors market
–Impact of the Generation Y boomlet
–Declining mass market
–Changing pace and location of life
–Changing household composition
–Increasing diversity of workforce & market

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International Societal Environments

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Task Environment

Task environment --

–Elements or groups that directly affect a corporation


and are affected by it

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Scanning the Task Environment

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Analyzing the Task Environment

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Porter’s Approach to Industry Analysis

Threat of New Entrants (Ancaman Masuk Pendatang Baru)

 Economies of scale
 Product differentiation
 Capital requirements
 Switching costs ( biaya latihan, biaya peralatan
pelengkap yang harus diganti, dan desain ulang
produk)
 Access to distribution channels
 Cost disadvantages
 Government policy

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Porter’s Approach to Industry Analysis

Rivalry Among Existing Firms (Persaingan sesama


Perusahaan dalam Industri)

–Number of competitors
–Rate of industry growth
–Product or service characteristics
–Amount of fixed costs
–Capacity
–Height of exit barriers
–Diversity of rivals

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Porter’s Approach to Industry Analysis

•Threat of Substitute Products or Services

•Bargaining Power of Buyers

•Bargaining Power of Suppliers

•Relative Power of Other Stakeholders


(pemerintah, serikat pekerja, lingkungan masyarakat,
kreditor, pemasok, asosiasi dagang, kelompok yang
mempunyai kepentingan lain, dan pemegang saham)

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Industry Evolution

Fragmented Industry
No dominant industry

Consolidated Industry
Dominated by a few large firms

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International Risk Assessment

Continuum of International Industries

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Strategic Groups

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Strategic Types

General Types

Defenders are companies with limited product lines


that focus on improving the efficiency of their existing
operations.
Prospectors are companies with fairly broad product
lines that focus on product innovation and market
opportunities.
Analyzers are corporations that operate in at least
two different product-market areas, one stable and
one variable.
Reactors are corporations that lack a consistent
strategy-structure-culture relationship.
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Competitive Intelligence

Called business intelligence

Gathering information on a company’s


competitors

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Forecasting

Forecasting Techniques --

–Extrapolation
–Brainstorming
–Expert opinion
–Delphi technique
–Statistical modeling
–Scenario writing

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Synthesis of External Factors -- EFAS

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