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Identify the types of system software

Summarize the features of several

stand-alone operating systems

Describe the functions of an operating system

Identify various network operating systems

Discuss ways that some operating
systems help administrators control a
network and administer security
Identify devices that use several
embedded operating systems
Explain the purpose of the utilities
included with most operating systems
Explain the purpose of various
stand-alone utility programs
 What is system software?

Programs that Two types are

control operation operating systems
of computer and utility programs

Operating system (OS)

(sometimes called the
software environment or platform)
coordinates all activities
among computer
 What are the functions of an operating system?
start the computer provide a user interface manage programs



control a

provide file monitor establish an schedule jobs and

management and performance Internet connection configure devices
other utilities
 How does a personal computer boot up?
Step 1. Power supply Step 4. Results of POST are
sends signal to com- compared with data in CMOS chip
ponents in system unit Step 5. BIOS looks for system files
Step 2. Processor in floppy disk drive and then hard
accesses BIOS to start disk
computer Step 6. Kernel (core) of operating
Step 3. BIOS runs tests, system loads into RAM
called the POST, to
Step 7. Operating system in memory
check components such
takes control of computer
as mouse, keyboard,
and adapter cards Step 8. Operating system loads
configuration information and
displays desktop on screen
Step 9. Operating system executes
programs in StartUp folder
Step 10. Click Start to display list of
applications you can run
What messages display on the
screen when you boot the
 Booting
 Features in common with
application software
◦ Icons
◦ Pointer
◦ Windows
◦ Menus
◦ Tabs
◦ Dialog boxes
◦ Help
◦ Gesture Control
◦ Files and Folders
What is booting?
 Process of starting or restarting a computer
 Cold boot
Turning on
computer that has
been powered off
 Warm boot
computer that is
powered on
Warm boot from Windows
Warm boot from system unit
What is a recovery disk?
 Contains system files that will start computer when
computer cannot boot
 Also called boot disk

Step 1. Click Start button on taskbar, Step 2. Click Backup on Systems Tools Step 3. Click Automated
point to All Programs on Start menu, submenu to open the Backup Utility System Recovery Wizard
point to Accessories on All Programs window. (If Backup or Restore Wizard button to create recovery disk.
submenu, point to Systems Tools on displays, click Advanced Mode link.) Point Follow the on-screen
Accessories submenu, and then point to Automated System Recovery Wizard instructions and insert a
to Backup. button. diskette when prompted.
What is a user interface?
 Controls how you enter data and instructions and how
information displays on screen

command-line (DOS) interface graphical (Windows) interface

What is a graphical user
interface (GUI)?

 User interacts with

menus and visual
images such as icons
and buttons
What is single user/
 Working on two or
more programs that
reside in memory at
same time
 Foreground contains
application you are using
 Background contains
programs that are
running but are not
in use
all running
What are other program management features of
operating systems?

Enables two or
multiprocessing more users to
run programs
Can support two
or more processors
running programs multiuser
at same time
Has duplicate
components such as
processors, memory,
fault-tolerant computer and disk drives
Continues to
operate when one
of its components
What is memory management?
 Optimizing use of random access memory (RAM)
 With virtual memory (VM), portion of hard disk is
allocated to function as RAM
Step 1. The
operating system
transfers the least
recently used data
and program
instructions to disk
Step 2. The
because memory is
needed for other operating system
functions. transfers data and
program instructions
from disk to
memory when they
are needed.
 How does an operating system schedule jobs?

Adjusts schedule
based on
job’s priority Sending
Receiving data
from input device
to output device
A job is operation
the processor manages Transferring items
between storage
and memory

p. 8.11
What is spooling?
 Sending print jobs to buffer instead of
directly to printer
 Print jobs line up in queue
 What is a device driver?

Program that With Plug and Play,

tells operating system operating system
how to communicate
automatically configures
with device Driver new devices as you
Also called driver install them
 Allow communication between a device and the computer
 Loaded into memory each time a computer is started
 When a new device is added, new device drivers must be
◦ Add a Device Wizard – step-by-step
 Windows already has many drivers within the system
 May need to update device drivers if not running properly
 How do you install a device driver?

Step 3. Click Add a Step 4. Add Printer

printer link. Follow Wizard searches for
Step 1. Open Control Step 2. Click Printers and
on-screen instructions. Plug and Play printers
Panel window. Point to Other Hardware link. Point
on your computer. If it
Printers and Other to Add a printer link.
finds any such printers,
Hardware link.
it installs them.

Step 5. If Add Printer Wizard cannot find any Plug and

Play printers, you can select type of printer you want to
install. An on-screen prompt may ask you to insert floppy
disk, CD-ROM or DVD-ROM that contains necessary
driver files to complete the installation of printer.
How do you establish an Internet connection?
 Windows XP includes New Connection Wizard
 Guides user through setting up connection between
computer and Internet
 How does an operating system monitor performance?
 Provides program, called performance monitor,
that assesses and reports information about
system resources
and devices
 What are three categories of operating systems?

Embedded Network

 What are some characteristics of operating systems?

Proprietary Device-
software independent
Privately owned and
Runs only on specific limited to specific vendor Runs on many
type of computer or computer model manufacturers’

compatible Upward
Works with application compatible
software written for Runs on new versions of
earlier version of operating system
operating system
 What is DOS (Disk Operating System)?

Developed in
early 1980s
for personal D Used command-line
interface when first
developed, later
Hardly used today included menus
because it does
not offer GUI
 How do Windows versions compare?
Windows Version Year Released
Windows 3.x 1990
Windows NT 3.1 1993
Windows 95 1995
Windows NT Workstation 4.0 1996
Windows 98 1998
Windows Millennium Edition 2000
Windows 2000 Professional 2000
Windows XP 2001
Windows 2003 Server 2003
Windows Vista 2006
Windows Server 2008 2008
Windows 7 2009
Windows 8 / Windows Server 2012 2012
Windows 8.1 / Windows Server 2012 R2 2013
Windows 10 / Windows Server 10 2015
 What is Windows XP?
 Microsoft’s fastest, most reliable Windows
operating system
 Available in three
Home Edition,
and Tablet PC
 What are some features of Windows XP?

Windows XP Features

Appearance and Performance

Help and Support
Communications and the Web
Digital Media
What is Mac OS X?
 Available only for computers manufactured
by Apple
 Macintosh operating
system has been
model for most GUIs
What is OS/2 Warp Client?
 IBM’s GUI multitasking operating system
 Supports networking, Java, the Internet, and
speech recognition
What is UNIX?
 Used by power users because of its flexibility
and power
 Most versions
offer GUI
 Both a stand-alone
and a network
operating system
 What is UNIX?
 Operating system developed in the late 1960s for
midrange servers
 Multiuser, multitasking operating system
 More expensive, requires high level of technical
knowledge; harder to install, maintain, and upgrade
 “UNIX” initially referred to the original UNIX operating
system, now refers to a group of similar operating
systems based on UNIX
 Single UNIX Specification
 A standardized UNIX environment
What is Linux?
 Developed in 1991
 Popular, free, multitasking UNIX-type
operating system
 Open-source software —

code is available to
 Both a stand-alone
and a network
operating system
Red Hat provides a version of Linux called Red Hat
Linux. The GNOME graphical user interface is shown
in this example.
 What is Linux?
Originally used a command line interface, most recent
versions use a GUI
Strong support from mainstream companies, such as
IBM, NVIDIA, HP, Dell, and Novell
Individuals and organizations are switching to Linux
and other open source software because of cost
Chrome OS:
 The first cloud operating system
 Essentially is the Chrome Web browser
redesigned to run a computer, in addition to
accessing Web resources
 Replaces traditional desktop operating systems
 Is currently only available preinstalled on
Chrome devices
What is a network operating system?
 Allows users to share printer, Internet
access, files, and programs on a network
 Administers security
by establishing user
name and password for
each user
What are examples of
operating systems?
Designed for
Windows Warp Server
Server 2003 for e-business
Upgrade to Windows IBM’s network
2000 Server operating system
Solaris for businesses
 Version of UNIX
developed by Sun
 Specifically for
What is an embedded operating
 Found on most mobile
computers, PDAs, and other
small devices
 Windows CE .NET is
scaled-down version of
What are two operating systems for PDAs?
 Pocket PC 2002 for Pocket PC
 Palm OS for Palm, Visor, and CLIE
What is Symbian OS?
 Open-source, multitasking operating system
designed for smart phones
 Make telephone calls,
save appointments,
browse Web, send
and receive e-mail
and faxes, and more
What is a utility program?
 System software that performs
maintenance-type tasks
 Also called
What is a file manager?
 Performs functions such as copying, renaming,
deleting, and moving files
 Image viewer
displays contents
of graphics file
when you double
click on it
 What is an uninstaller?

Removes a In Windows XP,

program and uninstaller is in Add/Remove
all associated files Programs in Control Panel
What is a disk scanner?
 Detects and corrects problems on
hard disk or floppy disk
 Searches for and removes
unnecessary files
What is a disk defragmenter?
 Reorganizes files and unused space on hard
disk so programs run faster
fragmented disk file before defragmenting
file after

p. 8.17 Fig. 8-19 Next

What is a diagnostic utility?
 Compiles technical information
about hardware and some
 Prepares report outlining
 Identifies and eliminates nonessential files
 Frees up valuable space and improves
system performance
 Utility program included with Windows 8
 Makes a copy of all files in the libraries,
contacts, favorites and the desktop
 Helps prevent the effect of disk failure
What is a backup utility?
 Copies selected files or entire hard disk onto
another disk or tape
 Most compress files
during backup to
require less storage
 What is a screen saver?
 Causes monitor’s screen to display moving
image or blank screen if there is no activity
for a specified time
 To secure computer,
user configures screen
saver to require
password to
What is a virus?
 Potentially damaging computer program
 Affects computer without user’s knowledge

What is an antivirus program?
 Identifies and removes viruses in memory, storage
media, and incoming files
 Must be updated frequently
What is a personal firewall?
 Protects personal computer from unauthorized
 Monitors all
to and from
What is a file compression utility?
 Shrinks size of files to free up room
and improve performance
 Compressed files are sometimes called
zipped files
 Two popular utilities:
PKZIPTM and WinZip®
 What is a personal computer maintenance utility?
 Identifies and fixes operating system problems and
disk problems
 Some continuously
monitor computer to
identify problems
before they occur
Define an operating system

Discuss a variety of stand-alone

operating systems, network operating systems,
and embedded operating systems
Discuss the functions common to
most operating systems

Describe several stand-alone

utility programs
Introduce several utility programs commonly
found in operating systems