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SDJ INTERNATIONAL

COLLEGE
TOPIC :

Concept of Digital Marketing


with Examples
Prepared by:-
• Mistry Hetav (208)
Guided by:- • Modi Bhargav (211)
Prof. Jalshri Dave • Patel Khyaati (234)
• Patel Krutika (235)
• Reshamwala Pragati (267)
MARKETING MANAGEMENT-II 1
Intra Individual Conflict
• Intra individual conflict arises from
frustration, numerous roles which demand
equal attention but is not always possible to
devotee, goals having both negative and
positive aspects, cognitive dissonances and
neurotic tendencies.
• An individual driven by an inner state of
deficiency himself and herself in some
action to fulfill the deficiency.
• The frustrated individual adopts any of four
defence mechanism: aggression, withdrawal,
fixation or compromise.
• Goal conflict is more complex than conflict
from frustration. Goal conflict occurs when
the attainment of one goal excludes the
possiblity of attaining the another one. Four
major form of goal conflict
1. Approach-approach conflict
2. Approach-avoidance conflict
3. Avoidance-avoidance conflict
4. Multiple approach-avoidance conflict
Approach-Approach Conflict
• You need to make a decision, but don't know what to do. You've got
two options and they both sound good. It's your decision. So what
are you going to do? You basically have a conflict on your hands
that's not so easy to resolve.
• The approach-approach conflict is when there's conflict within a
person where he or she needs to decide between two appealing
goals. The conflict is typically resolved when there's movement
towards one of the goals. This makes it easier to make the final
decision.
Example
• Vacation - It's time to plan your family vacation for the year. Not
shockingly, the kids are leaning towards the Disney World vacation.
You and your spouse are leaning towards a tropical beach vacation
in Hawaii. Each option has advantages and disadvantages. It's your
job as a parent to make the decision. This falls under approach-
approach conflict because you have to decide between two pretty
appealing destinations.
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
• Lora had been relatively healthy her entire life. Unfortunately, even with the state
of modern health, she knew that at age 65 she might start to develop some
medical problems. So, Lora went to her primary care physician and asked for a
complete physical.
• Sitting in the doctor's office after the exam, Lora could sense that something was
wrong. Her doctor informed her that he detected a lump in her breast. Although
he was going to conduct a biopsy to make sure, he was concerned that she might
have breast cancer. Given her family history, Lora was concerned that she might
have breast cancer, too. She knew that the whatever choices she'd be given would
be undesirable; however, she would have to make a choice regardless. Lora was
facing what is known as an avoidance-avoidance conflict, whereby an individual
wants to avoid making a decision because the alternatives are objectionable.
Example
• Being alone for Thanksgiving or listening to Uncle Earl’s stories
• The choice between losing your rook or your bishop in chess
• Being late for work or getting a speeding ticket
• Not going to prom or going with your cousin
• Cleaning the garage or getting yelled at
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
• Every decision you make comes with some sort of conflict. There may be other
appealing options, advantages and disadvantages, or nothing positive about a
given choice. In the decision-making process, psychologists have discovered
three types of conflict: approach-approach, approach-avoidance, and
avoidance-avoidance. In this lesson, we will discuss the approach-avoidance
conflict.
• Approach-avoidance conflict occurs when an individual is faced with a
decision to pursue or avoid something that has advantages and disadvantages.
This form of conflict involves only one goal. The name comes from the
advantages of the goal making the person want to approach the goal and the
disadvantages making him or her want to avoid it.
Example
• Getting help from someone who will gloat
• A good looking person with bad breath
• Tickets to a hot show but at full price
• A better job with a longer commute
• A new puppy you are allergic to
• Being sober but losing friends
Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflict
• Multiple Approach-Avoidance describes the internal mental debate
(sometimes called a conflict) that weighs the pros and cons of
differing situations that have both good and bad elements. The
name comes from visualizing yourself approaching and avoiding
different aspects of situations at the same time.

Example
An example would be choosing between two different cars, each
with differing pros and cons. One car gets great gas mileage and has
lots of fancy stuff (approaching) but is very expensive and expensive
to maintain (avoidance). The other car is cheap and cheap to
maintain (approaching) but very boring and won't last long term
(avoidance). Your mind will weigh these different options and
eventually come to a decision based on the information you
considered. As humans this is a very common internal debate that
we use daily, from choosing what food to eat (healthy food vs. tasty
junk food) to where we will live (country vs. city).
RECOGNIZING INTERPERSONAL
CONFLICT
While common, interpersonal conflicts are not always
obvious. It’s not as simple as two people screaming at
each other, though it can escalate to that point.
Common signs of interpersonal conflict include:
• Aggressive body language
• Conversations are sullen or apprehensive if they
happen at all.
• Gossip
• Heated arguments
• Negative facial expressions
• Lack of candor, openness or honesty.
STRATEGIES TO RESOLVE
INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT
• SATISFACTION FOR ALL
The issue must be resolved to the full satisfaction of all parties
involved. If one person feels that he or she has been cheated out of
their deserved resolution, they will continue to cause conflict,
making the situation even more complicated. If the problem cannot
be fully solved, then a compromise must be reached that everyone
involved is happy with.
• DON’T INTERRUPT
This is one of the hardest things to enforce when resolving a
conflict. People feel the need to interrupt the other speaker when
they believe that they are being maligned or misspoken of. They
feel the need to defend themselves and this often manifests as an
interruption that will often cause even more conflict.
• ENCOURAGE LISTENING
A good number of the problems you will experience will be caused by poor or
insufficient communication. Make it a point to teach active listening to your team
members. Active listening involves gathering information from what you hear that
can be applied later in the conversation. This is an essential skill for painless
conflict resolution.
• EQUAL FOOTING
This can be difficult to obtain because of the inherent chain of command that
exists within most companies, but your team members need to, at least in matters
of conflict resolution, be able to maintain equal footing with the other people
involved in the situation. A person who feels he is being treated as a subordinate
where conflict is concerned is likely to become resentful, making the resolution
more difficult.
• DON’T HOLD GRUDGES
As the great monkey, Rafiki once said: “It doesn’t matter, it’s in the past!” It does
not matter what sort of past history the conflict participants may have. Don’t
linger on things that have happened in the past, and don’t allow either party to
use these things as ammunition for their conflicts. Grudges can be nasty things
and they make it hard to find common ground.
• FOCUS ON COMMON
No matter how dramatic the conflict, you should always be able to find
some form of common ground. It could be related the conflict or it could
be something as far-removed as a mutual hate for a single sports team.
Focus on these pieces of common ground as a foundation for finding a
solution to the conflict at hand.
• NO WINNER
Conflicts should not be looked upon as competitions, where one person
has to win and the other is left with nothing. The conflict should be
resolved to the satisfaction of both parties. If one party is left unsatisfied,
then nothing has been resolved. This is where compromise will become
essential and should be encouraged and embraced where possible.
• FACTS ONLY
When it comes to interpersonal conflict, there is no room for your opinion
on the conflict. The only thing that should be considered are the facts
resolving the incidents. Opinions are too changeable and cannot be relied
upon as a source of information for conflict resolution.
• DON’T JUMP
Jumping to conclusions or making assumptions about one or both
parties involved in a conflict can make it nearly impossible to find
an acceptable solution. Don’t assume you know what is being
thought or felt by either party, because this will put you at a distinct
disadvantage. Instead, allow each person involved to express
themselves however they see fit and simply move on from there.
• WALK AWAY
While this might seem a little counterintuitive, it is important to
walk away from a situation if you are angry. Nothing can be
accomplished through anger and if one or both parties are furious,
all that will be achieved is more conflict. Remove yourself until you
are able to calm down enough to have a rational conversation. If
you get mad again, don’t hesitate to remove yourself multiple
times.
Most of these may seem like common sense to you right now, but
it’s surprisingly easy to forget common sense and rationality when
you are furious over a real or perceived slight.

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