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SAFETY

What is safety?
• Being away from hazard
• The condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk
or injury.
• According to osha, one who is capable of identifying existing and
predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which
are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has
authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
HAZARDS
• Hazard is something that can cause harm, e.g. electricity, chemicals,
working up a ladder, noise, a keyboard, a bully at work, stress, etc.
• Hazards are classified into two types,
• Unsafe conditions
• Unsafe act

Unsafe conditions Unsafe act


Physical conditions causing injuries Working with out PPE
Workplace being unsafe (vague) Not following safety instructions
Ex: barricades not provided near Ex: Operating equipment at unsafe speed.
excavation
RISK
• Combination of probability in severity. Probability of an incident and
consequences of the same.
• Risk can be categorized as
• Medium risk
• High risk
• Very high risk (by few companies)
• RISK = HAZARD * EXPOSURE

RISK
HAZARD
Falling
Working in higher
down and
elevations
loss of life
METHADOLOGY FOR HAZARD CONTROL
Identification of
potential hazards

Issue drawings for Assess the risk for


construction each hazard

Review drawings
with contractors and Apply hierarchy of
owners for additional control
information
HIERARCHY OF CONTROL
SAFETY MEASURES FOLLOWED ON SITE

• Electrical safety
• Fire safety
• Excavation safety
• Material handling
ELECTRICAL SAFETY
• MCB ( miniature circuit breaker) are provided wherever heavy
electricity using machines are used.
• Earthing connection is given to all electric equipment.
• Electric wires are not left on the ground but are arranged properly in
particular height to protect from damages to wires and humans.
• Excavators are not given permission to work under high voltages lines.
• Transformers are given protection by fencing, cautions boards are
provided and the earth layers are well graded with soil, coal and
aggregates to avoid leak of current.
• Inspection is done regularly on all electrical equipment.
Factors for flow of high current

• Large area of contact


• High grip
• Less resistive human body
• High voltage
• Wet conditions
• Time duration of current flow

Human capacity for resisting electric shock is 15mA


FIRE SAFETY
• Workmen are given proper induction on fire safety and precautions to
be taken on site.
• Fire can be stopped by cutting of the source of fire, this is done by
using proper extinguisher based on type of fire.
• Fire classification is listed below
• A – fire on combustible materials (solids)
• B – liquid fire (petroleum, vegetable oil)
• C – gas fire (hydrogen, ascetaline)
• D – metal fire (Al, Mg powder)
• Based on the above classification fire extinguisher types are used i.e.
dry chemical powder, carbon dioxide or foam based extinguisher.
• Regular drills are conducted for awareness on fire safety.
• Caution boards are provided in fire prone areas, like stores with fire
wood, fuel storage tanks.

Never use water on electric fire


EXCAVATION SAFETY
• Barricades are provided around the excavation area with 1 meter free
board as protection and indication for local public and workmen.
• If the depth is more than 1.5 meters than sides are made into slopes to
avoid the collapse of soil.
• Ladder are provided for movement of workmen in and out of trench
for working.
• Shoring's are provided to ensure the safety of workmen working
inside.
MATERIAL HANDLING
• This project involves mainly laying of pipes and manholes. They are
staked up in and around precast yard.
• Pipes are staked in an orderly manner with sufficient support so that
they do not roll over.
• Manhole risers are staked at a height not more than 1.5 meter.
• Material handling is done in two forms
• Using carne
• Using man power

• While using crane immense precautions are taken. To avoid the


toppling of crane or falling of load lifted
Other practices followed in site

• Workmen are allowed into the site only after induction program,
where they are given knowledge on work safety and rules to be
followed.
• PPE’s are provided to everyone on site and mandatorily worn.
• Bar bending, welding works are done in a separate prescribed
area for safety.
• Urs drink is given to workmen to prevent fatigue.