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• The "wood" used for building, carpentry or various other

engineering purposes is termed as "timber".

• Wood is used extensively for buildings, bridges, utility poles,

piles, floor, trusses, roofs

• Wood is used in the following forms:

– Natural form, and
– Engineered wood products (laminates, plywood, etc)

• Low cost, availability, ease of use, and renewable

• Trees are classified into two types based on growth
– Exogenous: Growth from center out by adding concentric layer of wood
– Endogenous: Growth with intertwined fibers, such as bamboo
• Predominant physical features of tree stem
– Bark
– Cambium Sapwood functions as storehouse for
– Wood (sap wood and heartwood) starches and as a pipeline to transport
– Pith sap

Heartwood are cells that are

chemically and physically altered by
mineral deposit. It provides structural
strength for the tree

Annual rings or tree rings are the

concentric layers in the stem of
exogenous trees
Each annual ring is composed of earlywood
and latewood. Earlywood grows during
spring time and has large cell openings
(cavities). Latewood grows during summer
and consists of dense, dark, and thick cells
wall, which produce a stronger wood than
• Wood is an anisotropic material because it has different properties in
various directions

• Three-axis orientation in wood are

– Longitudinal
– Radical or across the growth rings
– Tangential or tangent to the growth rings

• An isotropic nature affects physical and mechanical properties of wood

such as shrinkage, stiffness, and strength

• The wood cells have a rectangular cross section. The center of the
tubes is hollow. The tube structure resists stresses parallel to its
length, but it will deform when loaded on its side

• Tubes are 100/1 (length to diameter)


Wood is produced through following processes:

• Harvesting
• Sawing into desired shapes and sizes
• Seasoning
• Surfacing
• Preservation
Sawing of wood into desired shapes and sizes
• Harvested logs are transported to sawmill where they are cut into
following useful dimensional shapes:
• 50 - 125 mm (2 - 5 inch) thick, sawing and surfacing on all four sides
remove 5-10 mm from the dimensions
• Sizes include 24, 26, 28, 210, 212, 44 referring to rough cut
dimensions in inches, actual sizes are less
• Lengths range from 8 to 24 ft
• Uses include studs, sill, and top plates, joists, beams, rafters, trusses,
and decking
Heavy timber
• Rough sawn dimensions of 46, 66, 88 reduced by 10 mm per side
due to surfacing.
• Uses include heavy-frame construction, landscaping, railroad ties, and
marine construction
Round stock
• Poles and posts used for building, marine pilings, and utility poles
Seasoning of wood
• Seasoning is the process of removing moisture from a harvested wood
• Green wood contains 30 to 200% moisture by oven-dried weight, this is
lowered to 7% for dry areas or up to 14% in damp areas

Air drying (inexpensive and slow)

• Stack boards with air space between them to allow drying
• After 3 to 4 months, it reaches the local humidity level
• Often requires further drying to reach acceptable levels

Kiln drying (scientific and expensive)

• Boards dried at 70-120 F for 4-10 days
• Rapid drying may result in cracks and deformed lumber, and post-
process wood is thirsty, so it must be covered and cared for properly
Surfacing of wood
• Planning (surfacing) to produce a smooth surface
• Post-drying surfacing yields higher quality lumber because it
removes small defects developed during the drying
• In case of pre-surfacing, the dimensions are slightly
increases to compensate for shrinkage during seasoning
Wood preservation
• The wood needs to be preserved against the degradation caused by
various organisms such as: fungi, bacteria, insects, and marine
• The quality of preservation depends on the following:
The type of preservative
The degree of penetration by preservative
The amount of the chemical retained in the wood
Types of preservatives
• Paints
• Petroleum-based solutions
• These are very effective but environmentally sensitive.
• Used where a high degree of environmental exposure exists and human contact is
not a concern such as utility poles, railroad ties, retaining walls
• Waterborne preservatives (salts)
• Ammoniacal copper arsenate
• Chromated copper arsenate
• Ammoniocal copper zinc arsenate
• Advantages: Cleanliness and ability to be painted
• Disadvantages: Their removal by leaching when exposed to moist conditions over
long periods of time. Environmentally sensitive.
• Used for wood structure such as residual decks and fences
Wood preservation---contd.
Preservative application techniques
• Superficial treatment
– Techniques include coatings applied by painting, spraying, or

• Fluid penetration process

– Occurs by capillary action and is a function of surface tension,
angle of contact,
– time, temperature, and pressure

• Pressure-treated the wood is placed into an airtight steel

cylinder and immersed in a preservative. Increasing
pressure drives the chemical into the wood. There are full
cell and empty cell processes.
Moisture content (MC)
• MC is the weight of water as a percentage of the oven-dry
weight of the wood

weight of water
MC (%) = 100
oven-dry weight
• Oven-dried is attained in an oven at 100ºC to 150ºC until
the wood attains a constant weight

• Physical properties, such as weight, shrinkage and

strength depend on the moisture content of wood
Thermal conductivity, Thermal diffusivity and Electrical resistivity
Thermal Conductivity:
• It is the rate of heat flow
• Thermal conductivity for wood is a fraction of most metals and 3 to 4 times greater
than most common insulating material
• It depends on grain orientation, moisture content, specific gravity, extractive
content, and irregularities
• Heat flow parallel to grain is 2.0 to 2.8 times greater than in the radial direction
• As the moisture content increases from 0 to 40%, the thermal conductivity
increases by about 30%
• It has linear correlation with specific gravity meaning heavier wood conduct heat
Thermal Diffusivity:
• It is a measure of the rate at which a material absorbs heat from its surroundings
• For wood, it is much smaller than that of other common building materials
• Thermal diffusivity value of wood averages 0.006 mm/s (0.00025 inch/s)
Electrical Resistivity:
• Air-dry wood is a good electrical insulator
• Resistivity decreases by a factor of three for each percentage increase in moisture
• Wood has the resistivity of water when it reaches the fiber saturation point (FSP)
• Vary widely depending on the tree species and direction of the grain
relative to the direction of the force
• Compressive and tensile strengths in the direction parallel to grain are
found to be several times more than that in the direction perpendicular
to grain
• Columns, posts, and members of a truss subjected to axial loads are
the examples of loads parallel to grain.

• A vertical member supported to a horizontal member is an example of

load perpendicular to grain

• The tensile strength parallel to the grain is larger than the compressive
strength in the same direction
Creep, and Damping capacity

• Wood continuously deforms and creeps under sustained loads
Damping Capacity:
• Reduction in amplitude of vibration over time due to internal friction
within material and resistance to support system
• Higher moisture content means a proportional increase in damping up to
• Wood structures dampen vibrations more quickly than metal structures
• Damping capacity of wood parallel to grain is 10 times that of structural
• Constituents of glass
• Methods of manufacture
• Types
• Use and significance in civil engineering
• Advantages and drawbacks

Glass is an amorphous (non- crystalline) solid which is often transparent and

has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in things like
window panels, tableware, and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and
historically the oldest, types of glass are based on the chemical compound
silica (silicon dioxide), the primary constituent of sand. Glass has been a
fascinating material to humankind since it was first made in about 500 bc.
• The major ingredient for glassmaking is silica, in the form ofsand. Only sand of exceptional
purity can be used to make glass. If the sand contains a trace of iron, for instance, the glass
made with it will have a greenish color.
• Boron oxide is one of the main ingredients in so called Pyrex glass. Its ability to strengthen the
structure of glass and protect it from thermal expansion, cracking and thermal shock makes it
perfect for production of many kitchen cookware, optical component and reagent bottles.
• Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) represent important ingredient of modern glass that adds both
positive and negative features. It successfully lowers the melting point of silica to more
manageable 1200 °C but it also makes the glass water soluble.
• To prevent glass from being water soluble and to increase its chemical structure, lime (calcium
oxide, CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) are added. Glass
enriched with lime represents over 90% of the glass that is use today.
• Addition of lead oxide, barium and lanthanum oxide can increase glass refractive index,
making it more reflecting and suitable for optical purposes (eyeglasses and lenses). Thorium
oxide served a similar role in the past, but it was phased out from manufacture because of its
• Sodium sulfate , sodium chloride, or antimony oxide can be added to prevent the creation
of air bubbles in the glass mixture.
• Iron can strengthen ability of glass to absorb infrared energy and heat. Glass made that way
can today most commonly be found in movie projectors.
• Cerium (IV) oxide is responsible for absorbing UV radiation.

• Making glass is a very ancient process, with archaeological evidence of

glass making dating back to before 500 BC. Once a rare and prized art,
manufacturing glass has become a common industry thanks to the
Pilkington process.
• Traditionally glass was made by blowing liquid glass derived by melting
sand calcium oxide and sodium carbonate to extremely high temperatures
and then cooling the liquid to the desired shape. Since a few thousand
years the recipe to make glass has been the same. It’s just that its
properties can be enhanced by adding certain admixtures to the raw
materials or by providing suitable coating to meet different needs.
• Large quantities of raw materials (clear sand, calcium oxide and sodium
carbonate)are brought to the glass production plant. They are then weighed and
mixed in the right proportion. Certain admixtures are added to the batch to give
the glass appropriate proprieties or color.
• The mixture is then heated in a gas fired furnace or electric smelter, pot furnace
or kiln. Quartz sand without additives becomes glass at a temperature of 2,300
degrees Celsius Adding sodium carbonate (soda) reduces the temperature
needed to make glass to 1,500 degrees Celsius.
• A homogeneous mixture of molten glass is then formed. This mixture is then
floated on molten tin to form glass of desired thickness. After the hot end of the
process is over, the glass is set to cool. The way in which the glass is cooled
determines its strength. It has to be cooled after maintaining a suitable
temperature i.e. it has to be annealed. If it cooled over an extremely short
duration of time the glass can become too brittle to handle. Annealing glass is
critical to its durability
• Glass making is an energy extensive process. One tonne of glass production
requires 4 gigaj oules of energy.
Float Glass: Float glass is also called soda lime glass or clear glass. This is produced by annealing
the molten glass and is clear and flat. It has too much transparency and can cause glare. It is
used in making canopies, shop fronts, glass blocks, railing partitions, etc.
Tinted Glass: Certain additions to the glass batch mix can add color to the clear glass without
compromising its strength. Iron oxide is added to give glass a green tint; sulphar in different
concentrations can make the glass yellow, red or black. Copper sulphate can turn it blue. Etc.
Toughened Glass This type of glass is tempered, may have distortions and low visibility but it
breaks into small dice-like pieces at modulus of rupture of 3600 psi. Hence it is used in making
fire resistant doors etc. They are available in same weight and thickness range as float glass.
Laminated Glass: This type of glass is made by sandwiching glass panels within a protective
layer. It is heavier than normal glass and may cause optical distortions as well. It is tough and
protects from UV radiation (99%) and insulates sound by 50%. Used in glass facades,
aquariums, bridges, staircases, floor slabs, etc.
Shatterproof glass: By adding a polyvinyl butyral layer, shatter proof glass is made. This type of
glass does not form sharp edged pieces even when broken. Used in skylight, window, flooring,
Extra clean glass: The water moves over them without leaving any marks and photocatylitic i.e.
they are covered with Nanoparticles that attack and break dirt making it easier to clean and
Double Glazed Units: These are made by providing air gap between two glass panels in order
to reduce the heat loss and gain. Normal glass can cause immense amount of heat gain and
upto 30%of loss of heat of air conditioning energy. Green, energy efficient glass can reduce
this impact.
Chromatic glass: This type of glass can control daylight and transparency effectively. These
glass are available in three forms- photochromatic (light sensitive lamination on glass),
thermochromatic (heat sensitive lamination on glass) and electrochromatic (light sensitive
glass the transparency of which can be controlled by electricity switch.) It can be used in
meeting rooms and ICUs
Glass wool: Glass wool is a thermal insulation that consists of intertwined and flexible glass
fibers, which causes it to "package" air, and consequently make good insulating materials.
Glass wool can be used as filler or insulators in buildings, also for soundproofing.
Glass blocks: Hollow glass wall blocks are manufactured as two separate halves and, while the
glass is still molten, the two pieces are pressed together and annealed. The resulting glass
blocks will have a partial vacuum at the hollow center. Glass bricks provide visual
obscuration while admitting light
• Glass as landscaping material
• Glass used in pavements
• Glass as sculptures
• Electromagnetic dampening.
• Glass as a structural element structural glass facades are most easily categorized by
the structure types that support them.
• Allow optimum light (natural dayl-ighting) inside the building, and thus reduces the cost
for artificial lighting.
• Reduce the heat gain inside the building, and thus reduces electricity and cooling
• Reflective glasses come with reflective coating that filters heat and let optimum light
into the building.
• Glass for green buildings

• Glass can absorb, refracts or transmits light.

• It can be made transparent or translucent so it adds extraordinary beauty to the
• the glass is fully weather resistance so it can withstand the effects of the wind, rain,
or the sun and can retain its appearance and integrity.
• Glass does not rust so it does not degrade gradually by chemical and surrounding
environment effects.
• Glass has a smooth glossy surface so it is dust proof and can be easily cleaned.
• Glass allows natural light to enter the house even if doors/windows are closed so
thus it saves energy
• it is an excellent insulator against electricity.it is impossible to conduct an electric
current under the influence of an electric field.
• glass is 100% recyclable and it does not degrade during the recycling process,
hence it can be recycled again and again without loss of quality or purity.
• the glass is excellent abrasion resistant so it will resist surface wear caused by flat
rubbing and contact with another material.
• It is unaffected by noise, air, water and most of the acids hence discoloration,
alteration in the degree of shine, softening, swelling, the detachment of coatings and
blistering will not occur.
• when used in the interiors, glass saves space.
Disadvantages : manufacturing of glass is high energy consuming process due to
high temperature required for processing the raw materials, and it is expensive
material and ultimately increases the cost of a building.
• the glass is very rigid and brittle materials so when it is subjected to stress, it
breaks without significant (strain).
• the glass is less impact resistant so the capability of the glass to withstand a
suddenly applied load is very poor.
• the glass is affected by alkalis ions. Alkali solution simply dissolves a glass surface
and as long as the supply of alkali is sufficient, this type of corrosion takes place at
a uniform rate.
• the glass is also unsafe for earthquake proven area. Unfortunately, there is no such
glass as an earthquake proof material but costly treatment makes them withstand
against earthquake.
• the glass is poor in terms of heat preservation, leading to higher costs in the
operation of air-conditioners. though many feel that once you provide glass in a
building façade, you are free from painting expenses for ever but this is not fine.
You may have to spend equally for cleaning of glass. Sometimes it is as costly as
expose painting. Again, you may paint building once in a 5 years but for glass you
have to clean every year.
• glass absorbs heat and hence act as a greenhouse and hence not suitable in
warm and hot climates. It will increase ac load and more energy consideration for
air conditioning.
• Objectives
• Composition
• Types
• Consideration in choosing a particular paint
• Introduction
• objectives and applications of varnish

Among the factors that will influence the selection on types of finishing are as
a) price
b) sound insulator
c) heat insulator
d) attractive / beautiful or not
e) durable / long lasting
f) resistant to chemical reaction
Different finishing surfaces used today are stone, marble, tile, wood panel, wall
paper, plastering, wood finishes, paint and varnishes

• Paint contains three main ingredients: pigment, binder and solvent.

The pigment provides the texture, color and the hiding properties of the
paint. Pigments actually used to be pretty dangerous and included: lead,
chromates and asbestos. Titanium dioxide and iron oxides are safe, high
grade pigments and are found in better quality paints. Clay and silica are
also used but don’t hold up as well
• the binder is what holds everything together. In oil paint the binder is usually
linseed oil which is frequently mixed with one or more other vegetable oils.
In water base paint one popular binder is poly vinyl acetate (white glue).
• The solvent in water base paint is water. In oil base paint the solvent is
thinner (petrochemical distillate). When the water is evaporating out of latex
paint and when the thinner is evaporating out of oil base paint both process
are referred to as drying. Before they evaporate, the solvents keep their
respective pigments and binders in solution and help them penetrate deeply
into the surface being painted. After the solvents have evaporated they
leaving a thin hardened layer of pigment and binder that we know as paint.
• There are other additives which help flow, reduce bubbles, control
consistency, etc.,
• to protect the material from weathering, oxidation process and damages by insects.
• to improve the beauty of the material
• to facilitate the cleaning process of the surface
• Distemper: this is perhaps the most economical type of paint available in asian market. The
major constituents of distemper are chalk, lime, water and some coloring agents if necessary.
Distemper is a water based paint.
• Emulsions is a liquid having fine suspended particles. It is commonly known as plastic paint.
This is water based and provides a rich and matt finish to interior walls. The differentiating
factor of emulsion paints is its acrylic quality. Its composition imparts excellent durability to
the painted surface and gives the walls a just painted look. It washable and most stains can
be removed easily by wiping with a cloth dipped in a mild soap solution. The paint film is also
fungus and mildew resistant
• Enamel paint is paint that air dries to a hard, usually glossy, finish, used for coating surfaces
that are outdoors or otherwise subject to hard wear or variations in temperature typically the
term "enamel paint" is used to describe oil-based covering products, usually with a significant
amount of gloss in them, however recently many latex or water-based paints have adopted
the term as well.
• Solvent based paints : lustre paints, enamel paints and oil paints all come under the
category of solvent based paints. They cannot be pre-mixed with water. Oil based paints take
a longer time to dry and often produce strong odors which are irritating and sometimes even
toxic in nature. The advantage with these paints is that they really last long and produce rich
and desiring effects on the wall.

• Color
• Coverage
• Washability
• Odour
• Cost

A preparation consisting of various resins and drying oil (linseed oil,
walnut oil) dissolved in an Turpentine ,oil , water or in alcohol. When a
varnish is applied to the surface of wood or metal, it dries and leaves a
hard and generally transparent coating. It is a shiny coating which is
applied on a floor or furniture. It dries clear and luminous. It gives a hard,
lustrous and transparent finish to the surface.

• Varnishes can be used to protect wooden surfaces or floors from the effects
of weathering.
• Applied as topcoat in worn surfaces
• They help enhance the natural look of any surface particularly used to
enhance natural grains in wood.
• Abrasion resistance
• Scratch resistance
• Moisture resistance
• Chemical resistance
• Hardness.

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