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DRILLING TECHNIQUES

(TE-3)
OURCE EXPLORATION MINING OPERATION O/P Drilling

U/G Devt drilling

CONSTRUCTION
DRILLING TECHNIQUES
• PRINCIPLES OF DRILLING
- It is a method of making a vertical, inclined or
horizontal hole beneath the surface of the earth to
obtain subsurface information about the earth
resources, create holes for mine blastholes, gather
physical, geological and engineering character of the
subsurface materials, and design and construction for
infrastructures.
- It can be done by using mechanized equipment to
obtain preferably soil, rocks, water, etc. that will be
used by highly technical personnel in geology,
petroleum engineering & mining engineering
profession.
• Drill - a mechanized equipment used to
make a hole beneath the surface of the
earth.
• Bedrock – any solid rock in place
underlying a soil, clay or other
overburden.
• Drillhole – a drilled hole for the purpose
of obtaining physical, geological and
engineering character of the material
beneath the surface of the earth.
• Blasthole – a drilled hole used mainly for
mining exploration and blasting purposes.
• Core Drill – a rotary rock drill which the work is
done by the abrasion of diamond sets in the
head of the boring tools.
• Percent Core Recovery (%CR) - is the length
of core recovered (CR) divided by the Length of
Run (LR) x 100%.
• Rock Quality Designation (RQD) - is the sum
of length of core pieces 10 cm or longer divided
by the length of run x 100%.
• DRILLING APPLICABILITY CONDITIONS
• Resource Exploration:
– Mineral & Rock Exploration
– Water Exploration
– Geothermal Exploration
– Oil & Natural Gas Exploration
• Construction:
– Geological & Geotechnical Investigation
– Rock Mechanic Studies
– Bored-Pile Drilling
– Soil Nailing
– Rock Bolting
• Mining:
– Blasthole Opening in O/P mining
– Blasthole Opening in U/G mining
– Blasting of Huge Rock Boulders
• Environmental Assessment/Monitoring:
– Groundwater Monitoring Wells
– Soil Contamination Studies
• Rescue Operation:
- Mine Rescue
• MAJOR IMPORTANCE OF DRILLING:
• Resource Exploration:
– Obtain or gather subsurface materials such as minerals, soil/rocks and other
buried materials for visual examination and laboratory analysis;
– Provide samples for evaluation of the quantity/volume and grade of mineral
reserve;
– Perform in-situ testing to determine the mineralogic and petrographic properties
• Construction:
– Provide holes for the design of foundations such as buildings, bridges, etc.
– Provide holes for the construction and installation of structural foundations;
– Perform in-situ testing to measure engineering properties of foundation materials
– Provide holes for slope protection such as soil nailing and rock bolting
• Mining:
– Provide holes for rock blasting in O/P and U/G mining operation
– Break boulders of rocks in secondary blasting
– Provide ventilation holes in U/G mines
• Environmental Studies
• Collect soil and rock samples for environmental assessment studies;
• Provide holes for ground monitoring wells;
• Rescue Operation:
• Trace location of trap mine workers in U/G mines
PREPARING A DRILLING PROGRAM
• Requirements Prior to Planning a Drilling
Program:
- main purpose of drilling or information needed;
- availability of raw materials & machine parts;
- peace and order;
- availability of technical, skilled & support
personnel;
- water sources;
- social acceptability;
- geological & engineering maps
- accessible routes
PLANNING & EXECUTING A DRILLING
PROGRAM
1. Equipment Selection
- Study area - Boring Depth
- Terrain Features - Sampling type required
- Geologic condition
2. Boring Spacing
- Structures : 1 hole/bldg or 15-30 mtrs
- Dams : 15-30 mtrs
- Mineral Explo : depends on the evaluator geologist
3. Boring Depth: Mineral Explo : 50 meters or more
Foundation Explo: 10 - 30 meters
4. Location: Major Structures (Foundation), Grid Points
5. Cost Estimates
PRE-DRILLING FACTORS
– Geology
– Location and Accessibility
– Terrain Conditions
– Water Sources
– Peace and Order
– Existing Structures & Facilities
– Existing Utilities
– Potentially hazardous areas
Assignment # 1
• Research for the following:
1. Core Drill 11. Core 21. Drill Run
2. Drill Cuttings 12. Bailing 22. Driller
3. Sludge 13. Roughneck 23.Mast
4. Bit 14. Toolpusher 24. Borehole
5. Drilling Fluid 15. Core Barrel 25. Drillhole
6. Annulus 16. Drill Platform
7. Drill Casing 17. Drilling Mud
8. Drill Rod 18. Mud/Settling Pit
9. Drill String 19. Top Hammer Drill
10.Mud/Water Pump 20. Down-the-Hole Drill
Drilling Methods
1. Percussion Drilling
a. Churn Drilling
b. Cable Tool Drilling
c. Continuous Driving Using Hammer
2. Core Drilling
a. Conventional Drilling
b. Wire-line Drilling
3. Conventional Rotary Drilling
4. Reverse Circulation Drilling
5. Rotary-Percussive (Down-The-Hole) (DTH)
6. Auger Drilling
7. Construction Bored-Pile Drilling
a. Continuous Flight Augers
b. Rotary Drilling
MAJOR ACTIVITIES IN DRILLING
OPERATION
–Drill Site Survey
–Mobilization
–Site Preparation
–Drilling Operation
–Core Handling and Storage
–Dismantling and Site Clearing
–Demobilization
–Report Preparation
Percussion Drilling
• Before percussion drills
were piston-type drills.
The drill steel was solid
and attached to an
extension of the drill
piston. Hole cleaning
was accomplished by
pumping action of the
steel in the hole. Down
holes were drilled wet
and cleaned with a blow
pipe while upholes were
drilled dry, allowing the
cuttings to drop out by
gravity.
A. CHURN DRILLING

• This is performed by rhythmic raising and


dropping of the bit on the bottom of the hole.
The striking end of the bit is allowed to fall
freely until it is close to the bottom of the hole. It
utilizes a hollow casing driven into the sampled
material leaving an inside core of relatively
undisturbed material where it is then pulled out
a cable tool bit, broken, pumped or lifted to
surface.
• Types of Percussion Drills
• Piston Drill – the drill steel is attached to the
piston and both reciprocate and rotate.
• Hammer Drill - the piston or hammer
reciprocates in a cylinder and strikes the drill
steel, anvil block, or tappet on its forward
stroke.
Two (2) Basic Principle of Hammer Drill
1. The principle that makes the piston
reciprocate in the cylinder
2. The principle that makes the drill steel and bit
rotate.
Ex. Jackhammers, Drifters, most U/G Drills
CORE DRILLING
CORE DRILLING
It is the process of drilling
holes through materials
such as rock, clay, sand
or boulders, using a bit
inset with diamonds, for
the purpose of obtaining
a sample or core.
Major Applications
- Foundation
Exploration
- Grouting
- Angle Hole Drilling
- Mineral Exploration
Applicability of Core Drilling in Industries
1.Construction Industries
It is used in subsurface foundation sampling
and testing, grout hole drilling and grouting of
tie back anchors for high rise building and major
infrastructures such as dams, tunnels, etc.
2. Mining Industries
It is used in subsurface mineral exploration,
preliminary investigation for oil, water wells, and
blasthole drilling in open pit mines.
• CORE DRILLING
• Core drilling, unlike any other type of drilling is not
really a production process.
• It is not involved with the making of holes or rapid
advance of footage, but has as its end goal the
collection of accurate information.
• In core drilling, it is not how big the hole or how deep
the hole but rather the contents of the hole that
matters.
• In core drilling, it is the core all important product and
the most essential pieces of information that can be
recovered. Other knowledge such as water level,
presence of voids is gained as a byproduct but the
core itself, can be physically examined, felt, tested,
smelled, tasted, split and assayed, is the real purpose.
Two (2) Core Drilling Methods
1.Conventional Drilling System
This uses a rotary drill machine rod
and drilling fluids in conjunction with
a swivel-type double-tube core
barrel. The core barrel consists of
inner and outer tubes separate by a
narrow annular space. The inner
tube holds the core and remains
stationary during coring while the
outer tube, to which the hollow core
but is attached turns around it.
Drilling fluids passes between the
inner and outer tubes flushing the
cuttings produced by the core bit
upward, outside the drill rod. When
core sample is recovered the drill
rod and core barrel are pulled-out
from the hole to recover the sample
in the inner tube of the core barrel.
To continue drilling, rods and core
barrel are lowered again into the
bottom of the hole.
2. Wire-line Drilling System
This is modified system over
conventional drilling where it
also uses a swivel-type
double-tube core barrel
where the inner tube
containing the core can be
hoisted through the drill rods
while the outer tube and rods
remain in the hole. The core
sample is extruded from the
solid inner tube. However, a
third tube may added is
required to obtain softer
formation. This method is
preferred over conventional
system due to the time saved
in retrieving the core sample.
4-Essential Component of Core Drill
• The Drill – provides a means of rotating the diamond bit and
drill rods at a controlled rate of penetration and pressure
• Platform – provides a stable mounting for the drill and
allows the drill to withstand the down pressure, rotation, and
repeated raising and lowering of the drill rods, core barrel, or
soil sampling tubes. During the process of drilling, the rig
must be kept as level and firm as possible. This is
accomplished by building a good, solid platform and placing
the drill assembly on it. It can be made of wood, concrete or
steel. Platform serves two (2) main purpose:
- it provides a firm foundation of the rig;
- it serves as a safe, clean working platform for
the drill operator and drill helper;
• Derrick- provides a means of hoisting and lowering of the
necessary tools;
• Pump System – circulates either water or mud to the face of
the drill bit.It prevents burning, polishing or glazing of the
diamond in a bit. It removes rock cuttings from the drillhole.
It helps to prevent the core from blocking in the core barrel.
• Above ground, the equipment of Core
Drill:
Drill, Derrick, Pump
Inside the hole, the equipment of Core
Drill:
Casing, Drill Rod, Core
Barrel, Bits, Reamer shell,
core lifter, adapters and
other various accessories
• Types of Drill According to Mounting
- Truck Mounted
- Trailer-Mounted
– Crawler-Mounted
– Skid-Mounted
– Steel Platform
• Kinds of Drill According to Manufacturer
– Sprague and Henwood
– Christensen Drill
– Atlas Copco
– Boart Longyear
– Koken
– Toho
1. Mud tank
2. Shale shakers
3. Suction line (mud pump)
4. Mud pump
5. Motor or power source
6. Vibrating hose
7. Draw-works
8. Standpipe
9. Kelly hose
10. Goose-neck
11. Traveling block
12. Drill line
13. Crown block
14. Derrick
15. Monkey board
16. Stand (of drill pipe)
17. Pipe rack (floor)
18. Swivel (On newer rigs this may be replaced by
a top drive)
19. Kelly drive
20. Rotary table
21. Drill floor
22. Bell nipple
23. Blowout preventer (BOP) Annular
24. Blowout preventers (BOPs) pipe ram & shear
ram
25. Drill string
26. Drill bit
27. Casing head
28. Flow line
Diamond Bits Used in Core Drilling
Steps in Core Drilling Operation
• Reconnaissance of the drill site
• Mobilization of equipment to site
• Preparatory works at site : temporary shelter
house, locate and identify water sources and
pipelines, construction of drill platforms;
• Setting of the drill rig
• Drilling operation
• Clearing of area
• Demobilization
Basic Procedures in Core Drilling
A. Setting up the drill
1. study drill location in detail
2. build a good platform
3. erect the derrick
4. establish fluid circulation
B. Case or “mud-up” hole
C. Start drilling
1. Lower bit and core barrel to bottom
2. Start fluid circulation
a) Initially-slow rpm
b) increase RPM to optimum
D. Recover core
1. Break core by applying steady upward force
2. Bring core barrel to surface
3. Record.mark and store core in appropriate core boxes.
Operating Hints and Techniques for
Successful Core Drilling
• The core is important
• Build a good platform
• Drive the casing straight
• Watch the suction hose of the pump
• Watch the water pressure
• The drill location or drill site
• Tighten the rods and casings
• Drill mud if necessary
• Take care of the bit
• Know the sounds and signs of drilling
• Keep the hole clean
• Correct the amount of water is important
• Know your depth
• Daily maintenance is a must
• Poor core recovery
ROTARY DRILLING
(Direct rotary/conventional method)
The system uses a pump or
compressor to circulate a fluid
(air, water or drilling mud)
through the rods to cool and
lubricate the bit and flush the
cuttings upward, outside the
drill rod to the surface. It
utilizes a variety of drill bits
like: roller cone, drag, auger,
and diamond bits. This is
applicable for shallow
overburden where high
penetration rate needed. Drill
cuttings (chips of pulverized
rock produced by the action
of the bit) are obtained.
Application of Rotary Drilling

1. For drilling of blastholes in open pit


mines;
2. For water well exploration
3. For geothermal, oil, natural gas
exploration;
4. For ventilation purposes
Type of Rotary Drill
• Drag-bit Rotary Drill - The sharing or plowing action of a
drag-type rotary drill bit is performed by a variety of tools,
including blade, diamond, and shot drills, as well as rope, chain
and rotary saws. Drag action at the cutting surface is supplied
by 2 forces: the thrust( a static load acting axially) and the
torque (force component of a rotational moment acting
tangentially.
The mechanism of penetration of drag-bit drilling is as follows:
- as the cutting edge of the bit comes in contact w/ the rock,
elastic deformation occurs;
- rock is crushed in the high-stress zone adjacent to the bit;
- cracks propagate along shear trajectories to the surface
forming chips;
- bit rebounds and moves forward to contact solid rock again,
displacing the broken fragments.
• Roller-Bit Rotary Drill - The same drill rig may be
used with rolling-cutter bits as w/ drag-bits, employing
the same forces to achieve penetration (although
higher levels of thrust and torque are utilized, and
heavier machines are customary). However, the
geometry of the roller bit is such that a hybrid cutting
action, a combination of percussion and rotary. As bit
turns, cutting teeth mounted on each rotating cone
alternately engage the rock, impacting, indenting and
shaving it.
• Rotary-Percussion Drill - This is also a hybrid
form of drilling, combining separate percussive and
rotational actions. Either drag or roller bits are used.
The super-imposing action of percussion on a rotary
system means that higher impact forces are realized
than in straight rotary drilling, but thrust and torque
forces are still operative. Again, rock failures occurs
by crushing and chipping action
Types of Rotary Bits
Cross-Bit

Tricone Roller Bit

Button Bit
Drag Bit
Reverse Circulation Drilling
Nearly identical to rotary
drilling, except the drill
fluids flows down the
annular space between
the inner and outer tubes
of double-walled drill pipe
and the cuttings are
flushed upward through
the inner tube. A modified
roller cone bit is used.
This method combines the
speed of rotary drilling
with the capability of
obtaining a relatively
contaminated sample of
strata drilled.
ROTARY-PERCUSSIVE DRILLING
Rotary-Percussive Drill
(Down-The-Hole) This is
also a hybrid form of
drilling, combining
separate percussive and
rotational actions. Either
drag or roller bits are used.
The super-imposing action
of percussion on a rotary
system means that higher
impact forces are realized
than in straight rotary
drilling, but thrust and
torque forces are still
operative. Again, rock
failures occurs by crushing
and chipping action.
AUGER BORING
1. Auger Boring
Two (2) basic auger methods used in soil
sampling and structural foundations for
engineering purposes.
1. Continuous Flight Augers
2. Hollow Stem Augers
Continuous Flight
Augers – used for
general surveys. They
are used to depths of
100 feet or more
depending in
equipment available
and drilling conditions.
A cutter head is
attached to the leading
section of the flight and
cuts approximately 1-
inch clearance for the
flights that follow.
Hollow Stem Augers – for
detailed surveys. It provides
a faster means of advancing
a hole thru many types of
soil by eliminating the need
to remove the auger during
sampling. It has large
hollow center. When the
hole is being advanced, a
center stem and plug are
inserted into the hollow
center of the auger. The
center plug with drag bit
attached and located in the
face of the cutter head aids
in the advancement of the
hole. The center stem
consist of AW rods that
connect at the bottom to the
plug or bit insert and at the
top to a drive adapter to
ensure that the center stem
and bit rotate with augers.
2. Rotary Wash Boring
It is generally most
appropriate method for use in
soil formation and high
weathered rocks below the
goundwater level;
In rotary wash borings, the
sides of the hole are
supported either by casing or
with use of drilling fluid.
Where drill casing is used,
the boring is advance
sequentially by:
a) driving the casing to the
desired sample depth;
b) cleaning out the hole to the
bottom of the casing;
c) inserting the sampling
device and obtaining the
sample from below the
bottom of the casing.
For holes drilled using drilling fluids to stabilize the borehole walls,
casing should still be used at the top of the hole to protect
against sloughing of the ground due to surface activity, and to
facilitate circulation of the drilling fluid. In addition to stabilizing
the borehole walls, the drilling fluid (water, bentonite, foam or
other synthetic products) also removes the drill cuttings from
the boring. In granular and cohesive soils, bentonite or polymer
additives are typically used to increase the weight of the drill
fluid and thereby minimize stress reduction in the soil at the
bottom of boring. For borings advanced with the use of drilling
fluids, it is important to maintain the level of the drilling fluid at
or above the ground surface to maintain a positive pressure for
the full depth of the boring.
Two (2) types of bits are used in rotary wash boring method. Drag
bits are commonly used in clays and loose sands, whereas
roller bits are used to penetrate dense coarse-grained granular
soils, cemented zones, and soft or weathered rock.
Quiz 3
1. Define briefly the following terms:
a) Core
b) reverse circulation drilling
c) Annular
d) Borehole
2. Cite at least 3 applicability condition of auger drills.
3. Differentiate churn drilling from percussion drilling.
4. If you are tasked to supervise a drilling project,
discuss briefly your basis on the selection of an
appropriate drilling methods you will apply in your
project.
DRILLING APPLICATIONS
• Resource Exploration:
– Mineral & Rock Exploration
– Water Exploration
– Geothermal Exploration
– Oil & Natural Gas Exploration
• Construction:
– Geological & Geotechnical Investigation
– Rock Mechanic Studies
– Bored-Pile Drilling
– Soil Nailing
– Rock Bolting
• Mining:
– Blasthole Opening in O/P mining
– Blasthole Opening in U/G mining
– Blasting of Huge Rock Boulders
• Environmental Assessment/Monitoring:
– Groundwater Monitoring Wells
– Soil Contamination Studies
• Rescue Operation:
- Mine Rescue