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Hidrogeologi lanjutan

Ir. Moh Sholichin, MT., PhD

www. Water.lecture.ub.ac.id
Air dalam Batuan Bumi
Hydrogeology Defined
Water Earth
Earth materials
• Rock
• Sediment (Soil)
• Fluids (Water)
Geologic processes
• Form,
• Transform and
• Distribute (redistribute) Earth materials
 Water is a primary agent of many (all?)
geologic processes
Hydrogeology Defined
Water Earth Interactions

Interactions go both ways

 GeologyGroundwater
 Geology controls flow
and availability of
groundwater because
 Groundwater flows
through the pore
spaces and/or
 Groundwater 
geologic processes.
Hydrogeology Defined
Water Earth Interactions

Geology controls groundwater flow

 Permeable pathways are controlled by
distributions of geological materials.
 E.g., Artesian (confined) aquifer
Hydrogeology Defined
Water Earth Interactions

Geology controls groundwater flow

 Permeable pathways are controlled by
distributions of geological materials.
 Groundwater availability is controlled by geology.
Hydrogeology Defined
Water Earth Interactions

Geology controls groundwater flow

 Permeable pathways are controlled by
distributions of geological materials.
 Groundwater availability is controlled by geology.
 Subsurface contaminant
transport in is controlled
by geology.
Hydrogeology Defined
Water Earth Interactions

Groundwater controls geologic processes

 Igneous Rocks:
Groundwater controls water
content of magmas.
 Metamorphic Rocks:
Metasomatism (change in
composition) is controlled by
superheated pore fluids.
 Volcanism: Geysers are an
example of volcanic activity
interacting with groundwater.
Hydrogeology Defined
Water Earth Interactions

Groundwater controls geologic processes

 Landforms: Valley development and karst topography are
examples of groundwater geomorphology.
 Landslides: Groundwater controls slope failure.

 Earthquakes: Fluids control fracturing, fault movement,

lubrication and pressures.
Hydrogeology Subdisciplines
 Water resource evaluation
 What controls how much
groundwater is stored and can be
safely extracted?
 What controls where groundwater
comes from and where it flows?
 What controls natural water quality:
natural interactions with geological
materials control the chemistry of
 How can we protect groundwater
recharge areas and groundwater
reservoirs from contamination and
Hydrogeology Subdisciplines
 Contaminant Hydrogeology
 Anthropogenic effects: degradation
of water quality due to human
influences (contamination)
 How fast are dissolved
contaminants carried by
 Transport pathways of
contaminants: Where are sources
of contamination impacting the
groundwater, where are the going
and what are the destinations?
 Remediation (clean-up) of
contaminants dissolved in the
Darcy’s Law
Answers the fundamental questions of hydrogeology.

 What controls:
 How much groundwater
 How fast groundwater
 Where groundwater
Darcy’s Law
Henry Darcy’s Experiment (Dijon, France 1856)
Darcy investigated ground water flow under controlled conditions

h1 h2 Q  h, Q  1 x , Q  A
A h
Q: Volumetric flow rate [L3/T]
Q A: Cross Sectional Area (Perp. to flow)
K: The proportionality constant is added
to form the following equation:
h  h : Hydraulic Gradient
h Slope = h/x x
h1 ~ dh/dx Q  A h  Q   K A h
h x x
x K units [L/T]
x1 x2 x
Calculating Velocity with Darcy’s Law
 Q= Vw/t
 Q: volumetric flow rate in m3/sec
 Vw: Is the volume of water passing through area “a” during
 t: the period of measurement (or unit time).
 Q= Vw/t = H∙W∙D/t = a∙v v
 a: the area available to flow
 D: the distance traveled during t Vw
 v : Average linear velocity
 In a porous medium: a = A∙n
 A: cross sectional area (perpendicular to flow)
 n: porous For media of porosity
K h
 Q = A∙n∙v v 
n x
 v = Q/(n∙A)=q/n
Darcy’s Law (cont.)

 Other useful forms of Darcy’sUsed

Lawfor calculating
Volumetric Flow Rate Q   K A Volumes of groundwater
dx flowing during period of

Volumetric Flux Q dh Used for calculating

q  K
(a.k.a. Darcy Flux or A= dx Q given A
Specific discharge)
Ave. Linear
Q q K dh Used for calculating
Velocity A.n = n = v   average velocity of
n dx
groundwater transport
(e.g., contaminant
Assumptions: Laminar, saturated flow
Darcy’s Law Application
 Settling Pond Example*
A company has installed two settling ponds to:
Settle suspended solids from effluent
Filter water before it discharges to stream
Damp flow surges
Questions to be addressed:
How much flow can Pond 1 receive
without overflowing? Q?
Pond 2
How long will water (contamination)
Pond 1

take to reach Pond 2 on average?v?
N How much contaminant mass will enter
0 5000 ft Pond 2 (per unit time)? M?

*This is a hypothetical example based on a composite of a few real cases

Application (cont.)

Water flows between ponds through

Pond 1 Pond 2 the saturated fine sand barrier driven
1510 ft

by the head difference


Elev.= Elev.=
658.74 ft 652.23 ft
Sand x =186 Q? v? M?
h=6.51 ft K
b=8.56 ft
Pond x =186 ft
Clay x
Not to scale
Application (cont.)

 Develop your mathematical representation

(i.e., convert your conceptual model into a mathematical model)
 Formulate reasonable assumptions

Saturated flow (constant hydraulic conductivity)

Laminar flow (a fundamental Darcy’s Law assumption)
Parallel flow (so you can use 1-D Darcy’s law)
 Formulate a mathematical representation of your conceptual model that:

 Meets the assumptions and

 Addresses the objectives

h K h
Q? Q   K A v? v   M? M = Q C
x n x
Application (cont.)
 Collect data to complete your Conceptual Model and
to Set up your Mathematical Model
 The model determines the data to be collected
 Cross sectional area (A = w b)
 w: length perpendicular to flow h
 b: thickness of the permeable unit Q  K A Q?
 Hydraulic gradient (h/x) x
 h: difference in water level in ponds
x: flow path length, width of barrier K h

 Hydraulic Parameters n x
 K: hydraulic tests and/or laboratory tests
 n: estimated from grainsize and/or laboratory tests M = Q C M?
 Sensitivity analysis
 Which parameters influence the results most strongly?
 Which parameter uncertainty lead to the most uncertainty in the results?
Ground Water Zones
 Degree of saturation
defines different soil
water zones
Soil and Groundwater
Unsaturated Zone:
Water in pendular
Caplillary Fringe:
Water is pulled above
the water table by
capilary suction
Water Table: where
fluid pressure is equal to
atmospheric pressure
Saturated Zone:
Where all pores are
completely filled with water.
Phreatic Zone: Saturated zone below the water table
 Ground water and
the Water cycle
 Infiltration
 Infiltration capacity
 Overland flow
 Ground water
 GW flow
 GW discharge
Bedrock Hydrogeology
 Hydraulic
of bedrock is
controlled by

 Size of fracture openings

 Spacing of fractures
 Interconnectedness of fractures
Porosity and
 Porosity: Percent of
volume that is void space.

 Sediment: Determined by
how tightly packed and how 30%
clean (silt and clay), (usually 5%
between 20 and 40%)

 Rock: Determined by size

and number of fractures
(most often very low, <5%) 1%
Porosity and
 Permeability: Ease with
which water will flow through
a porous material
 Sediment: Proportional to
sediment size
 GravelExcellent Excellent
 SandGood
 SiltModerate
 ClayPoor
 Rock: Proportional to fracture
size and number. Can be good Poor
to excellent
Porosity and
 Permeability is not
proportional to

Table 11.1 30% 5%

The Water Table

 Water table: the

separating the
vadose zone
from the
saturated zone.
 Measured using
water level in well

Fig. 11.1
Ground-Water Flow
 Precipitation
 Infiltration
 Ground-water
 Ground-water flow
 Ground-water
discharge to
 Springs
 Streams and
 Wells
Ground-Water Flow

 Velocity is
proportional to
 Permeability
Fast (e.g., cm per day)
 Slope of the water
 Inversely
Proportional to
 porosity
Slow (e.g., mm per day)
Natural Water
Table Fluctuations
 Infiltration
 Recharges ground
 Raises water table
 Provides water to
springs, streams
and wells
 Reduction of
infiltration causes
water table to drop
Natural Water
Table Fluctuations
 Reduction of
infiltration causes
water table to drop
 Wells go dry
 Springs go dry
 Discharge of rivers
 Artificial causes
 Pavement
 Drainage
Effects of
Pumping Wells
 Pumping wells
 Accelerates flow
near well
 May reverse
ground-water flow
 Causes water table
 Forms a cone of
Effects of
Pumping Wells
 Pumping wells
 Accelerate flow
 Reverse flow Water Table
Low well
 Cause water Cone of Dry Spring
table drawdown Depression
 Form cones of Stream Low well
Low river

Pumping well
Effects of
Dry well

Pumping Wells
 Continued water- Losing
Dry well

table drawdown
 May dry up
springs and wells
 May reverse flow
of rivers (and
may contaminate Dry well
aquifer) Dry river

 May dry up rivers

and wetlands
 Gaining streams
 Humid regions
 Wet season
 Loosing streams
 Humid regions, smaller
streams, dry season
 Arid regions
 Dry stream bed
Confined Aquifers
Confined Aquifers
Ground-Water Contamination
 Dissolved contamination travels with ground water flow

 Contamination can
be transported to
water supply
aquifers down flow

 Pumping will draw

contamination into
water supply
Ground-Water Contamination
 Leaking Gasoline
 Floats on water
 Dissolves in
ground water
 Transported by
ground water
 Contaminates
shallow aquifers
Ground-Water Contamination
 Dense solvents
 E.g., dry cleaning
fluid (TCE)
 Sinks past water
 Flows down the
slope of an
impermeable layer
 Contaminates
deeper portions of
 Effects of pumping
 Accelerates ground water flow
toward well
 Captures contamination within
cone of depression
 May reverse ground water flow

 Can draw contamination up hill

 Will cause saltwater intrusion

Ground Water Action
 Ground water
chemically weathers
 E.g., slightly acidic
ground water dissolves
 Caves are formed
 Permeability is increased
 Caves drain
 Speleothems form
Ground Water Action
 Karst Topography
 Caves  Disappearing streams
 Sink holes  Giant springs
 Karst valleys