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# Chapter 6

## Project Scheduling: Crashing and

Activity Networks
Gantt Charts
 Establish a time-phased network
 Can be used as a tracking tool

## Benefits of Gantt charts

1. Easy to create and comprehend
2. Identify the schedule baseline network
3. Allow for updating and control
4. Identify resource needs
Create a Gantt chart based on
the activities listed in the table.

Z 8 -- U 3 W
Y 5 Z T 6 V
X 8 Z S 7 U,T
W 4 Y,X R 9 S
V 5 W
Gantt Chart With Resources in MS Project
CRASHING PROJECTS – UNDER WHAT
CONDITIONS?

## • The initial schedule may be too optimistic.

• Market needs change and the project is in
demand earlier than anticipated.
• The project has slipped considerably behind
schedule.
• The contractual situation provides even more
incentive to avoid schedule slippage.
Crashing
The process of accelerating a project

## Principal methods for crashing

 Improving existing resources’ productivity
 Changing work methods
 Increasing the quantity of resources
CRASHING ACTIVITIES – AN EXAMPLE

## Formula Slope = crash cost – normal cost

normal time – crash time

## Example – Calculating the Cost of Crashing

SUPPOSE:
NORMAL ACTIVITY DURATION = 8 WEEKS
NORMAL COST = \$14,000
CRASHED ACTIVITY DURATION = 5 WEEKS
CRASHED COST = \$23,000

## 23,000 – 14,000 or, \$9,000 = \$3,000 per week

8–5 3
Managerial Considerations
• Determine activity fixed and variable costs
• The crash point is the fully expedited activity
• Shorten activities on the critical path
• Cease crashing when
– the target completion time is reached
– the crashing cost exceeds the penalty cost
What is the lowest cost to complete this
project in 53 weeks? Times are in weeks
and costs in dollars.
Activity Pred Normal Crashe Normal Crashe
duration d cost d cost
duration
A -- 14 9 500 1500
B A 5 2 1000 1600
C A 10 8 2000 2900
D B, C 8 5 1000 2500
E D 6 5 1600 1900
F D 9 6 1500 3000
G E, F 7 4 600 1800
H G 15 11 1600 3600
Other costs
• Previous examples only includes direct costs
– Late penalties
• \$ per day late
Activity on Arrow Networks

##  Activities represented by arrows

 Widely used in construction
 Event nodes easy to flag
 Forward and backward pass logic similar to AON
 Two activities may not begin and end at
common nodes
 Dummy activities may be required
Project delta
Activity Pre Duration
A 5
B A 5
C A 6
D B,C 13
E B 6
F D 4
G C 9
H E,F,G 2
Two Succesors
AOA Network
Forward Pass
Backwards pass
1. Use AOA to sketch the network that represents the
project as described in the table.
2. Calculate early and late start and finish times for all
activities.
Activity Time Pred Activity Time Pred
A 3 -- F 4 D
B 5 A G 2 C
C 7 A H 5 E,F,G
D 3 B,C
E 5 B
Probability of meeting a particular due date

## (Due Date - Mean)

(D   )
Z= ----------------------- Z 
 2
Standard Deviation
Trong đó:
D – Due date
µ - TE
σµ - standard devitation

## “Z” is the number you can look up in the border of the

Normal Distribution Table

24
25
7.4. Phương pháp – kỹ thuật quản trị thời gian và tiến độ
Xác suất hoàn thành dự án với PERT
Ví dụ: CP of Project X is A-C-F-I-K-L with variance is 0-0.11-0.25-
0.03-0.11 and standard devitation is 0.7071, TE is 15.66 days.
Q: Find the probability to finish the project in 16 days?
If the probability is 95%, find the due date?
Trả lời:
Z = (16–15.66)/0.7071 = 0.48
68.44%
P= 95%=> Z = 1.65
D = 16.83 days

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