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Manufacturing Technology-II

Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

Manvandra Kumar Singh,


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Mechanical Engg, Mewar University
INTRODUCTION
1-PBS/PHS 2-Drilling

3-Gas Cutting
4-LBM
5-WJM

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Introduction
Materials Removal Processes/Metal Cutting

• The study of metal cutting and machine tools is one


of the most fascinating experiences.

• Machining of materials is adopted to get higher


surface finish, close tolerances, and complex
geometric shapes, which are otherwise difficult to
obtain.

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Conti…
• Metal removal is perhaps the most expensive one
among all the manufacturing processes available.

Because of following reasons:


• From the raw materials, quite a substantial amount of
materials is removed in the form of chips in order to
achieve the required shape.
• A lot of energy is expended in the process of material
removal.

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• So, the choice of materials removal as an
option for manufacturing should be considered
when no other manufacturing suits the
purpose.

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Machine Tool?
• Machine (M/C) tool is defined as one which or an
arrangement of mechanical parts which hold the cutting tool
and able to remove metal from a work piece, which leads to
develop the requisite job a given size, configuration and
finish.

• The M/C tools are the mother machine without them no


components can be produced in their finished form.

• M/C tool has played most significant role in the industrial


revolution.

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• Existence of some form of crude machine tool is
recorded as early as 700 B.C.

• John Wilkinson’s Horizontal Boring Machine was


the most prominent beginning of the m/c tool in 1775.

• The James Watt’s Steam Engine came into reality


only due to the above invention.

• Then, Henry Moudslay developed engine lathe in


1794.
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• And later on, the planer machine tool was invented by
Roberts in 1817.

• And then, Maudslay combined the lead screw, a cross-


slide and changing gear box in the engine lathe that was
almost similar to the current centre lathe.

• In 1818, Eli Whitney invented the milling machine tool.

• In 1840, John Nasmyth invented drill press machine


tool

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• In 1845, Turret Lathe machine tool was invented by
Stephen Fitch.

• In 1865, a complete automatic Turret lathe machine


tool was invented by Christopher Spencer.

• Spencer is also credited for the development of Multi-


spindle lathe.

• Then, surface grinder was invented in 1880.

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• The most important revolution in machine
tool development was Numerical Control (NC)
in 1952, has for first time, brought a great
flexibility to the metal cutting operations.

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VARIETY OF MACHINE TOOL

• Turning machines (Lathes)


• Boring machines
• Grinding machines
• Gear cutting machines
• Drilling machines
• Milling machines
• Shaping and planing machines
• Sawing machines
• Unconventional machining machines
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CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS
REMOVAL PROCESSES
Materials
Non-traditional
EDM,
Removal
ECM,
Processes
LBM, WJM

Axi-symmetric Prismatic Bonded Loose Lapping, USM etc

Grinding, Honing, super finishing


Turning Milling
Etc.
Drilling Shaping
Boring Sawing M.K.Singh, Mechanical Engg, Mewar 12
etc etc University
SPECIALISED MACHINE TOOL

• Automats
• Form relieving lathes
• Copy milling machines
• Centre less grinding machines
• Copy turning machines
• Reaming
• Plano milling machines
• Broaching machines
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TABLE- STATUS OF MACHINE TOOL INDUSTRY IN INDIA
Year Production Import , Export , Consumption Share of production
Millions Millions to total cost %
1987 2,454 1,118 592 2,980 62.5
1988 2,752 1,300 301 3752 65.3
1989 3,393 1,518 493 4418 65.6
1990 4,132 3,404 809 6727 49.4
1991 5,043 3,126 449 7720 59.5
1992 4,998 3,729 236 8491 56.1
1993 4,116 3,619 158 7577 52.2
1994 5,990 5,537 408 11119 50.2
1995 7,198 5,976 445 12729 53.1
1996 8,080 11,003 249 18834 41.6
1997 7,963 7,221 321 14863 51.4
1998 6,712 8,405 606 14511 42.1
1999 5,970 4,727 382 10315 54.2
2000 6,307 4,258 330 10232 58.4
2001 5,282 3,103 373 8012 61.3
2002 5,175 4,332 508 8999 51.9
2003 6,782 6,768 463 13087 49.8
2004 10,122 16,001 491 25632 37.6

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METAL CUTTING

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• The importance of machining processes can be emphasized by the
following facts:

– In the US, more than $100 billions were spent annually on the machining
and related operations

– More than 80% of all the machine tools used in the manufacturing
industry are metal cutting in nature.

– 10-15 % of all the metals produced in USA is converted into chips as


estimated in 1957.

On the basis of the above fact, so, it is important to understand the metal
cutting process in order to make its best use.

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• Before the end of 19th century, there were many
research done on the metal cutting by the following
peoples:
Tresca, Thime, Mallock etc. but results were mostly
scattered.
• But, at the end of 19th century and beginning of the
20th century, A constructive research of 30 year on
metal cutting was done by F.W. Taylor and given an
article of 300 pages published in Transactions of
ASME in 1907.

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CUTTING TOOL
‘+ve’ rake angle ‘-ve’ rake angle

RAKE ANGLE:
•It is the angle between the “rake face” and “normal to the machining direction”.
•“Rake angle” specifies the ease with which a metal is to be cut.
•Higher the rake angle, better is the cutting and less are the cutting forces.
•But, increasing rake angle reduces the metal backup at the tool rake face which reduces
the strength of too tip and heat dissipation.
• Thus, a maximum limit of rake angle is 15 degrees for HSS tool to cut MS.
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TYPES OF RAKE ANGLE

“ZERO and NEGATIVE rake angle are generally used in the case of highly brittle tool materials
such as carbides or diamond for giving extra strength to the tool tip”.

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CLEARANCE ANGLE

CLEARANCE ANGLE:
•It is the angle between machined surface and flank face (underside of the tool).
•Clearance angle are given in such a way that the tool will not spoil (rub) the machined surface,
at the same time increases the cutting forces.
•A large clearance angle reduces the strength of tool tip.
•Generally, 5-6 degrees of clearance angle is used.
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PARAMETERS INFLUENCE THE
‘METAL CUTTING’

• Work materials,
• Cutting tool materials,
• Cutting tool geometry,
• Cutting speed,
• Feed rate,
• Depth of cut
• Cutting fluid.

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• CUTTING SPEED (V, m/s):
The speed with which the cutting tool move through the work
materials.

• FEED RATE (f):


The small relative movement per cycle (per revolution or per
stroke) of the cutting tool in a dir’n usually normal to the
cutting speed dir’n.

• DEPTH OF CUT (d):


The normal distance between the un-machined surface and the
machined surface.
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CHIP FORMATION

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• The metal in front of the tool rake face gets immediately
compressed in two stages:
• 1- First elastically then
• 2- Plastically
• The zone, where compression happens is known as shear zone,
final removal of materials is done by “shearing action” (shear
force).

• This deformed removed metal is known as “chip” which flow over


the rake (tool) face.

• The chip gets further deformed if the friction between the tool rake
face and underside of the chip and this is called as “secondary
deformation”.

• Then the resultant curvature of the chip is known as “chip curl”.


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Piispanen’s Model of Metal Cutting

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Conti…
• Plastic deformation can be caused by yielding, in which strained
layers of material get displaced over other layers along the slip-
planes, which coincide with the direction of maximum shear
stress.

To understand this mechanism “Piispanen” given a model

“He proposed that the undeformed metal act as a stack of cards,


which will slide over one another as the wedge shaped tools
move under these cards”.

A practical example: When a paraffin is cut, block-wise slip is clearly


evident.
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Types of Chip (Chip formation)

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Conti…

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Discontinuous Chips
What are the motivations for discontinuous
chips:
– Brittle materials (ex-cast iron etc.)
– Large chip thickness (high depth of cut)
– Low cutting speed
– Small rake angle

Advantages : 1-Discontinuous chips are easier from the


chip disposal view point.
2- Produces better surface finish.

Demerit: Cutting force becomes unstable with the variation coinciding


with the fracture cycle.
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Continuous Chip
Motivating factors for continuous chips:
– Ductile work materials
– Sharp cutting edge
– Small chip thickness (fine feed)
– Large rake angle
– High cutting speed
– Less friction between chip tool interface through efficient lubrication.

Advantages: 1-This is the most desirable from of chip. 2-The surface finish obtained
is good and cutting is smooth. 3-It also helps in having higher tool life. 4-Lower
power consumption.

Disadvantages: Because of the large coils of chips, the chip disposal is a problem.

Remedy: To avoid this problem various chip breakers have been developed, which
are in the form of a step or grooves in the tool rake face
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Continuous Chip with BUE
When the friction between tool and chip is high while machining
ductile materials, some particles of chip adhere to the tool rake
face near the tool tip. When such sizeable materials piles up on
the rake face, it acts as a cutting edge in place of the actual
cutting edge is known as built-up-edge (BUE).

BUE is harder than the parent work material due to work


hardening.

As the size of BUE increases, it becomes unstable and parts of it get


removed while cutting which partly adhere to the chip underside
and partly to the machined surface that causes finished surface
to be rough.
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• Since the cutting is being carried out by the BUE and not the
actual tool tip, the life of the cutting tool increases while
cutting with BUE.

• Therefore, the BUE is not harmful while rough machining.

• The factors which promotes BUE formation:


– Low cutting speed
– High feed
– Low rake angle

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BUE
BUE develop in the following steps:
1. The development of BUE on the tool is due to the high
normal load on the rake face leading to adhesion between
the chip and tool.
2. This adhesion may be so severe that instead of the chip
sliding over the tool face, considerable plastic flow and
eventually rupture occur within the chip.
3. Further layers build up until a large nose of material project
from the cutting edge.
BUE CYCLE

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SHEAR ZONE
Two schools of thought to analyze the metal
removal process

Very thin and planar deformation zone Thick and fan shape deformation zone

Physically it is impossible to exist, if we need this then: •Physically it is possible and


•Acceleration has to be infinity (for cutting speed from Vi to Vc) realistic.
•Stress gradient has to be very large across the shear plane
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ORTHOGONAL CUTTING
• Turning, milling are 3-D metal cutting operations and termed
as Oblique cutting
• Since, it is difficult to analyze because of its 3-D nature
• Therefore to simplify this the orthogonal cutting is introduced
where cutting edge is perpendicular to the cutting velocity.
• Parting operation in turning is orthogonal.
• Metal cutting will mostly discussed on the orthogonal cutting.

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MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL METAL
CUTTING

• The current analysis is based on Merchant’s


thin shear plane model, considering the
minimum energy principles.

• This model is applicable at very high cutting


speeds, which are generally practiced in
production.

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ASSUMPTIONS for Orthogonal Cutting
analysis
1. The tool is perfectly sharp and has no contact along the
clearance face.
2. The surface, where shear is occurring is a plane.
3. The cutting edge is a straight line extending perpendicular to
the direction of motion, and generates a plane surface as the
work moves past it.
4. The chip does not flow to either side or no side spread.
5. Uncut chip thickness is constant.
6. Width of the tool is greater than the width of the work.
7. A continuous chip is produced without any BUE.
8. Work moves with a uniform velocity.
9. The stresses on the shear plane are uniformly distributed.
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Conti…

Fig. Various forces acting in orthogonal cutting


Fig. Free body diagram of chip
FH – Cutting force along the primary cutting motion
FV – Force perpendicular to the primary tool motion (Thrust force)
Fs – Force along the shear plane (shear force)
Ns – Force normal to the shear plane
F – Frictional force along the rake face
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N– Normal force perpendicular to the rake face University 38
Merchant’s cutting force circle in
orthogonal cutting (OC)

Fig. Merchant’s cutting force circle in OC

Fig. Cutting force vector diagram

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2φ+ β-α= π/2

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Shear Angle Calculation, Experimentally
Where,
r- chip thickness ratio/cutting
ratio
t1- uncut chip thickness
t2- chip thickness
α-rake angle
θ- shear angle

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SHEAR STRAIN CALCULATIONS

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Power required in metal cutting
• Most of the energy consumed in metal cutting is utilized in plastic
deformation. So
• Total work done or energy required (power) for metal cutting:
WT/PT = FH × V ------ (1)
• Work done in primary shear zone or plane:
WS/PS = FS × VS ------ (2)
• Work done in secondary shear zone or plane:
Wf/Pf = Ff × Vf (VC) ------ (3)
• So, total work done or energy required (power):
WT/PT = FH × V = WS/PS + Wf/Pf = FS × VS + Ff × Vf (VC)
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Material/Metal Removal Rate (MRR)

• Material removal rate (MRR) = V×b×t

• To understand the better picture of efficiency of metal cutting


operation, a new parameter has been introduced i.e. specific
cutting energy (us) that is independent of cutting process
parameter.
us = (FH×V)/MRR

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Cutting Tool & Its Characteristics

• Important characteristics of a cutting tool


materials:
– Higher hardness
– Hot hardness
– Wear resistance
– Toughness
– Low friction
– Better thermal characteristics

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Cutting Tool Materials

• Carbon tool steels (earliest tool materials)


• High speed steel (HSS) (new generation tool materials around
20th century)
• Cast cobalt alloys (also called stellites, developed by PM)
• Cemented carbides
• Coated carbides
• Ceramics
• Diamond
• Cubic boron nitride (cBN)

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Comparative properties of cutting tool
materials
Cutting tool Hardness, RA Transverse
materials rupture
Room 540 °C 760 °C strength (×10³
temperature MPa)

HSS 85-87 77-82 Very low 3.8-4.5

Cast cobalt 82-85 75-82 70-75 1.4-2.8

Carbides 89-94 80-87 70-82 Up to 2.4

Ceramics 94 90 87 0.05-0.4

Diamond 7000 Knoop 7000 Knoop 7000 Knoop ---

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Variation of hardness with temperature
for various cutting tool materials

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Summary of cutting tool materials
Tool materials Work materials Remarks

Carbon steel Low strength, softer materials, non- Low cutting sped, low strength
ferrous alloys, plastics materials
Low/medium Low strength, softer materials, non- Low cutting sped, low strength
alloy steel ferrous alloys, plastics materials
HSS All materials of low and medium Low to medium cutting speeds,
strength and hardness low to medium strength materials
Cemented All materials up to medium strength Not suitable for low speed
carbides and hardness applications
Coated carbides Cast iron, alloy steels, stainless steel, Not for Ti alloys, Not for Non-
supper alloys. ferrous alloys
Ceramics Cast iron, Ni-based super alloys, non- Not for low speed operation or
ferrous alloys, plastics interrupted cutting, not for
machining Al, Ti alloys
cBN Hardened alloy steel, HSS, Ni-based High strength, hard materials
super alloys, hardened chill cast iron
Diamond Pure Cu, Al, Al-Si alloys, rock, cement, Not for machining low carbon
plastic etc. steel, Co, Ni, Ti, Zr

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Cutting tool geometry

Fig. Tool geometry of single point (right hand) cutting tool


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Conti…

During the specification of the tool geometry


two important consideration (Armarego and
Brown) to be made:
– The ease with which the tool geometry can be
maintained through the grinding and inspection
process
– The mechanics of the process and its relationship
with the tool geometry

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Tool geometry system

• American Standard Association (ASA) system


• Orthogonal Rake System (ORS)
• ISO system or Normal Rake system (NRS)

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