Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 48

ATS Training Outline

 What is a Transfer Switch?


 Application
 What Makes A Transfer Switch Reliable?
 Segmented Contacts, Arc Gaps
 Transfer Switch Mechanism Analysis
 Control Panel Evolution
 Application Issues
 Motor Load transfer (Inphase, DTTS, etc.)
 Switching The Neutral in Ground Fault Systems
 What Are The Codes & Standards
 UL 1008, CSA, IEC 60947-6, NFPA 700, 701, 702

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
ATS Training Outline

 Automatic Transfer Switches & Derivatives


 Automatic Transfer Switch
 Closed Transition Switch
 Automatic Transfer/ Bypass Switch
 Static Transfer Switch & Hybrid Static Transfer
 Communication Products
 Remote Annunciators
 PC Based Software Systems

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Why Are Transfer
Switches Needed?

 To assure continuity of vital electrical power for


essential loads:
 Prevent accidents, theft, panic, loss of revenue
 Comply with codes & standards
 Comply with government regulations

 Whenever two or more sources of power are utilized


for essential electrical loads.

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Causes of Interruptions
Up & Downstream
 Heavy utility demands
 Lightning
 Fires
 Earthquakes
 Ice storms
 Auto accidents
 Short circuits
 Ground faults
 Human errors

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Impact of ATS Failures

 Panic & Confusion


 Loss of lights (10 second rule)
 Elevators, escalators, electric doors
 Traffic control
 Communications

 Loss of Life
 Hospital equipment
- Life support, Operating Rooms & ER
 Radar equipment

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Impact of ATS Failures
 Loss of revenue
 Cash registers
 Assembly lines
 Toll gates
 Refrigeration
 Loss of property
 Fire alarms, fire pumps
 Intrusion alarms
 Loss of information
 Computers
 Data Centers

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Where Are Transfer
Switches Used?
 Hospitals & other health care facilities
 Telecommunications & other utilities
 Banks & computer facilities
 Industrial buildings & WWTPs
 Office buildings
 Airports
 Government & military installations
 Police & security systems
 Bridge & tunnels

4 16 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Automatic Transfer Switch
Design Considerations

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switch Definitions

 A device which transfers electrical loads between two


dissimilar sources of power by using either manual or
automatic controls.

UTILITY LOAD GENERATOR

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switch
Legal Definitions

UL-1008: “1.4 A transfer switch as


covered by these requirements is a device
that automatically transfers a common load
from a normal supply to an alternate supply
in the event of failure of the normal
supply,and automatically returns the load
to the normal supply when the normal
supply is restored.”
UTILITY LOAD GENERATOR

 IEEE, NEMA ICS. 10-199 (replaced 2-447) and EGSA:


“An Automatic Transfer Switch is self-acting equipment
for transferring one or more load conductor
connections from one power source to another.

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switch
Legal Definitions
 IEC 60947.6.1: A device for transferring of one or
more load circuits from one supply to another. A
self acting equipment containing the transfer
switching device(s) & other necessary devices for
monitoring supply circuits and for transferring
one or more load circuits from one supply to
another.

UTILITY LOAD GENERATOR

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Seven Major Functions of
Automatic Transfer Switches

 Carry Current Continuously


 Detect Power Failures
 Initiate Alternate Source
 Transfer Load
 Sense Restoration of Normal
 Re-Transfer Load to Normal
 Withstand and Close- In On
Fault Currents

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switch & Overcurrent
Protective Device Locations

Transfer Switches should be located as


close to the load as possible to protect
against internal building failures in
X
addition to utility outages.

CB CB

X
Overcurrent Protective Devices (Fuses
or Circuit Breakers) should be located X
as close to the source as possible to
provide protection of service X
conductors. NEC requires CB no more
than 20 ft. from source. This also helps X
assure proper system coordination. CB CB
UTILITY LOAD GENERATOR
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Basic Transfer Switch Types

 Automatic transfer switches operate automatically


upon source failure or voltage reduction.

 Non-automatic transfer switches must be manually


initiated and can be either electrically or mechanically
operated.
 For manual or auto-start engine - generators
 Switches with selector/ toggle switches that disable
automatic transfer or retransfer must me labeled non-
automatic per UL 1008 standard

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switch Types

Non - Automatic Transfer Switches


 Electrically Operated
 No or Basic Sensing
 Full Sensing
 Electrically Operated

Automatic Transfer Switches


 Most Transfer Switches Are Normal Seeking
 Selective Normal
 Non - Selective Normal

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Power Switching Solutions
Selective Normal ATS

 Definition: A transfer switch whose control circuitry is


configured for “Normal Seeking Operation”. In other words, it
always wants to be connected to a preferred source. The user
can choose which service is the normal/preferred source.

 Typical Configurations
 Utility to Generator
-
Standard/Conventional type ATS
 Utility to Utility

 Generator to Generator

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Power Switching Solutions
Selective Normal ATS

 Generator to Generator -
 Description of Operation: The transfer switch is configured to
transfer a critical load between two (2) engine generator
sources, where one of the generators is the preferred source.

 Utility to Utility -
 Description of Operation: The transfer switch is configured to
transfer a critical load between two (2) utility sources, where
one of the utilities is the preferred source. Most applications
require the same time delays on both sources and three
phase U.V. sensing on both sources as a minimum.

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Power Switching Solutions
Non - Selective Normal ATS

 Definition: A transfer switch whose control circuitry


is configured such that it has no preference as to
which source it is connected to. In other words, it is
a power seeking device.

 Typical Configurations
 Utility to Generator

 Utility
to Utility
 Generator to Generator

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Power Switching Solutions
Non - Selective Normal ATS

 Description of Operation:
- The transfer switch is configured to transfer a
critical load to an emergency source upon
normal source failure.
- The transfer switch does not retransfer upon
restoration of the normal source.
- The transfer switch only re-transfers to the
normal source if the emergency source fails, or
toggle switch is activated.

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Basic Transfer Switch Components
Control Panel Transfer Switch
TD 2 Alternate Source
Time Delay Voltage &
Transfer to Frequency
Alternate Sensing

Transfer Transfer
Controls Operator
Time Delay

Load
Re-transfer
to Normal TD 3

Time Delay Voltage


to Start Sensing
Engine- Gen.
TD 1 T.D. E-G
Cooldown TD 4
Normal Source

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switches
Physical Elements

TRANSFER CONTROL
PANEL PANEL
Power Switching Mechanism
Control Panel/ Controller
 TS Panel/ Contactor
 Solenoid Operator  Voltage and Frequency
 Motor Mechanism(s) Sensing
 Main & Arcing Contacts
 Control and Auxiliary Contacts  4 Time Delays
 Power Connections  Input/Output Controls
 Mechanical Lugs
 Bus Stab/ Bar  Annunciation Devices

Over 90% of ATSs are supplied in enclosures by manufacturer, also mounted in switchboards & motor control centers.
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Typical Transfer Switch Amp Sizes
600 Volts

600 - 800 Amps

1000 - 1200 Amps


1600 - 2000 Amps*
30 - 200 Amps

225 - 400 Amps

*Available up to 4000 amps

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Contact Transfer
Configurations
 Break Before Make - Open Transition
 One set of contacts open before the other set close
 Load is disconnected from power during all transfers

Normal
Loads
20-100 m/secs
off -time

Emergency

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Contact Transfer
Configurations
 Make Before Break - Closed Transition
 Contacts overlap with hot-hot & acceptable sources
 Load is not disconnected from power during transfers
 Transfers Open Transition If Source Fails - Retransfers
Closed Transition

Normal 100 m/secs


TS N overlap-time
Loads
TS E

Emergency
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switch
Design Criteria

Single Solenoid Operator


 True double-throw design Coil
 Inherently interlocked
 Simple and reliable
Core
 Speed of operation
 Other Types of Industry
Operators Available Weights
 Linear Motor(s)
 Gear Motors

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
ATS Control Circuit Design
Transfer Switch Controls
 The single solenoid operator of the
power transfer device is powered via
the SE & ER relays in the control
panel.
 The control panel logic initiates the
transfer of the load by energizing the
SE (normal) relay for emergency to
normal transfers or the ER
(emergency) relay for normal to
emergency transfers.
 The switch operator is always
powered from the source to
which the load is being.
 Prevents transfers to a bad source

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switch
Design Criteria
Contact Designs
 Electrical & Mechanical
engineering designs
 Specifically for ATS applications
 Between Two Live Sources
 Main contact material
 Solid vs. segmented contacts
 Arcing contact material
 Contact pressure
 Wiping action
 Neutral switching
 Easy to inspect and maintain
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switch
Design Criteria

Arcing Isolation and Suppression

 Speed of operation
 Wide arc gaps
 Arc chutes
 Arcing tip or separate contacts
 Neutral switching with overlapping contacts

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switch
Design Criteria

Contact Design
 Designed for transfer
switch applications

 Designed by ASCO

 Main contact materials

 Arcing contact material

4 18 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switch
Design Criteria

Contact Design
 Mechanical Pressure on
Main Contacts

 Solid vs. Segmented


Contacts

 Contact Wiping Action

4 18 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Easy Replacement Of
Main Contacts

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switch
Design Criteria

Arcing Isolation and Suppression

 Speed of operation
 Wide arc gaps
 Arc chutes
 Arcing tip or separate contacts
 Neutral switching with overlapping contacts

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
Transfer Switch
Design Criteria

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
ATS Control Circuit Design
Control Panel
TD 2
 Source Monitoring Time Delay Voltage &
Transfer to Frequency
 Time Delays Alternate Sensing

 Other Signals
 Pilot Lights & Test Switch
Transfer
 Transfer Switch Controls Time Delay
Controls
Re-transfer
to Normal TD 3

Time Delay Voltage


to Start Sensing
Engine- Gen.
TD 1 T.D. E-G
Cooldown TD 4

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
ATS Control Circuit Design
Source Monitoring
 The control panel monitors:
 source voltage
- RMS or average voltage (ignore spikes)
- single phase or three phase
- line to line
 source frequency - 50/60, 100, 400 Hz
 switch position
 The control panel does not monitor
 load current
 Special control panels available
 VDC - batteries
 High Speed - less than 1 second
 EG- EG applications

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
ATS Control Circuit Design
Time Delays

 Momentary Normal Source Failure Override (Feat. 1)


 How long must a normal source failure exist prior to starting the
transfer sequence?
 Normal to Emergency Transfer Time Delay (Feat. 2B)
 How long must the emergency source be acceptable prior to
transferring the load from normal to emergency?
 Emergency to Normal Transfer Time Delay (Feat. 3A)
 How long must the normal source be acceptable prior to re-
transferring the load from emergency to normal?
 Engine Cool Down Time Delay (Feat. 2E)
 How long must the generator run unloaded after the load has been
retransferred to the normal source?

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
ATS Control Circuit Design
Other Signals

 Engine Start Contacts (Feature 7/8)


 Used by the controller to signal the generator to start
 Switch Position Contacts (Feat. 14A/B)
 Used for remote indication of switch position
 Test Switch (Feat.5)
 Used to simulate a normal source failure and start a test
transfer sequence
 Time Delay Bypass Switch (Feat.6B)
 Used to bypass the emergency to normal time delay

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
ASCO ATS Design Innovations
 Modularized controls
 Molded-panel TS units
 Close differential sensing
 Inphase transfer
 Overlapping neutral transfer
 ATS-Bypass/Isolation switches
 High WCR designs
 Microcomputer-controlled ATSs
 Closed transition transfer switches
 Network supervision
 High shock ABTs
 Class 1E nuclear-rated ATSs

4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On
4 We
WeKeep
KeepYour
YourPower
PowerOn
On