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Introduction : Air compressor is a

machine which provides high
pressure air. It takes air from the
atmosphere , compresses it to high
pressure , & high pressure air is
stored in a storage vessel , from
where it can be taken out for use .

Fig General setup of air compressor:

Uses of High pressure Air

 1) For inflating automobile tyres.

 2) To clean w/s machines, generators etc.
 3) To operate air operated drills, hammers.
 4) To inject fuel in the diesel engine cylinder.
 5) In spray painting.
 6) To operate air brakes in automobiles.
Uses of High pressure Air

 7) To drive compressed air engines / air motors in

mines ( In mines IC engines & electricity are not used
because of fire risks . So high pressure air operated
machineries are used .)

 1) Reciprocating
 2) Rotary
 The principal parts of a reciprocating air compressor
are same as that of a Reciprocating engine. The
Reciprocating air compressors are further classified as,
 a) Single acting or double acting
 b) Single stage/ multistage.
Working of Single stage
/Single acting RAC
 Fig:
Indicator diagram

 Fig PV diagram for single stage /single acting RAC

neglecting clearance volume
Indicator diagram

 Fig :
Work input for compressor

 1) If the compression follows PVn=C,

Work input for compressor
Work input for compressor
Work input for compressor
Work input for compressor
Work input for compressor
Work input for compressor
Isothermal Efficiency
Methods to improve
Isothermal Efficiency
 1) Effective cooling system:
 2) Multi staging with intercoolers, Fig

 3) Spray injection.
Effect of Clearance on
Volumetric Efficiency
 ηvol= Actual volume of air taken /Stroke vol
 ηvol=Va/Vs = V1-V4/V1-V3 also,
 ηvol=1-C{ (P2/P1)1/n -1}
 =1-C. (P2/P1)1/n +C
 ηvol=1+C-C. (P2/P1)1/n
Effect of Clearance on
Volumetric Efficiency
Effect of Clearance on
Volumetric Efficiency
Expression for WD when the
clearance is considered
 W.D.= n/n-1 .P1(V1-V4).{ [P2/P1] n-1/n -1}

 IP = Indicated Work/cycle .N/60

Actual Indicator Diagram

 Fig :
Free Air Delivery ( FAD)

 It is the volume of air delivered by the

compressor to the atmospheric
temperature & pressure.
 From continuity Equation, WKT ,
 Mass flow rate @ the inlet of
 Mass flow rate @ the outlet of
Free Air Delivery ( FAD)

 Since ,PV =mRT

 m = PV/RT
 P1V1/RT1=P2V2/ RT2 =PfVf/ Tf Negl Cl
 Where , Pf Vf Tf are free air conditions &
 Vf will be FAD . Take Pf=101.325 KPa,
 Tf=288 K, & Vf can be calculated.
 PfVf/ Tf =P1(V1-V4)/T1 =P2(V2-V3)/T2 ,if clearance is
Multistage Air Compressor

 Fig :
Multistage Air Compressor

 Fig :
Multistage Air Compressor

 Ideal Intercooler Pressure,P2=√P1/P3 or

 P2/P1=P3/P2 ie Pressure ratio in each stage is same.
 Work 2-stage=2.n/n-1.P1V1 { (P3/P1)n-1/2n-1}
IIIyWork 3-stae=3.n/n-1.P1V1 { (P4/P1)n-1/3n-1}
IIIyWorkx stage=x.n/n-1.P1V1 { (Px+1/P1)n-1/xn1}
And Min IP =WN/60 J/sec
Multistage Air Compressor

 In General ,
 P2/P1=P3/P2=P4/P3=..=Px+1/Px =k
 Where k= Pressure ratio in each stage.
 From this, P2= kP1
 P3=kP2=k.kP1=k2 P1
 P4=kP3=k.k2P1=k3P1
 Px+1=kx.P1
Multistage Air Compressor

 Px+1=kx.P1 or
 k = {Px+1/P1}1/x
P.T. Total heat rejected/kg of
air with perfect inter cooling
 ={ Cp + Cv [( γ-n )/(γ-1)] } (T2-T1)
 Where (T2-T1)is the temp rise during each stage.
 Total heat rejected in a RAC=
 Heat rejected during compn+Heat rejected during
Inter cooling………(1)

 Now heat rejected during compression,

 Qpoly=(γ-n)/ (γ-1) . WD/kg in Poly. Process
 =(γ-n)/ (γ-1) . P2V2-P1V1/(n-1)
 =(γ-n)/ (γ-1) . R (T2-T1) /(n-1)…….(2)
 Heat rejected in the Intercooler/kg of air,
 = Cp. (T2-T1)………………………(3)

 Total Heat Rejected =(2) +(3)

 =(γ-n)/ (γ-1) . R (T2-T1) /(n-1)+ Cp. (T2-T1)
 As R/ (γ-1) =Cv
 =(γ-n)/ (n-1) . Cv (T2-T1) /(n-1)+ Cp. (T2-T1)
 ={ Cp + Cv [( γ-n )/(γ-1)] } (T2-T1)
 Hence proved