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G. B.

PANT OF INSTITUTE & TECHNOLOGY

comparison OF PARALLEL PROCESSING VIA HPC CLUSTER VS


NON PARALLEL PROCESSOR
PRESENTED BY presented to
Utkarsh panwar Mr. V.K. tamta
Niraj kumar
Manoj singh
Abhishek Kumar
contents
• What is a Cluster?
• What is a Beowulf Cluster?
• Implementation Requirement
• HPC Cluster Architecture
• Message Passing Interface
• Network File System
• Secure Shell(SSH)
• Implementation Of HPC Cluster
• Output Comparison
• Advantages vs Disadvantages
• Conclusion
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What is a cluster?
• A cluster is a group of several computers connected to each other
• Different methods of connecting the computers:
• Distributed
• Computers widely separated, connected over the internet
• Used by research groups like SETI@home and GIMPS
• Workstation Cluster
• Collection of Workstations loosely connected by LAN
• Cluster Farm
• PC’s connected over LAN that perform work when idle

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What is a Beowulf Cluster

• A Beowulf Cluster is one class of a cluster


computer
• Uses Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS)
hardware
• Typically contains both master and slave
nodes
• Not defined by a specific piece of
hardware

Fig:1

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Implementation Requirement
• Hardware Requirement with configuration
• Ethernet cables
• Switch
• Low End CPU’s

• Software Requirement
• MPI(Message Passing Interface)
• C language
• GNU GCC compiler
• NFS(Network File System)
• SSH(Secure Shell)

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HPC Cluster Architecture
• Master-Slave configuration
• Master Node
• Task Assignment
• Storing the calculated results

• Slave Node
• Does assigned work
• Communicates with other nodes
• Sends results to master node
Fig:2

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Message Passing Interface(MPI)
• The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is a library specification that
allows HPC to pass information between its various nodes and
clusters.

• MPI primarily addresses the message-passing parallel programming


model: data is moved from the address space of one process to that
of another process through cooperative operations on each process.

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Reasons for Using MPI:
• Standardization - MPI is the only message passing library that can be
considered as a standard one. It is supported on virtually all HPC
platforms. Practically, it has replaced all previous message passing
libraries.

• Portability - There is little or no need to modify your source code


when you port your application to a different platform that supports
(and is compliant with) the MPI standard.

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Network File System (NFS)

• NFS (Network File System) is the most


widely server to provide files over
network. With NFS server we can
share folders over the network and
allowed clients or system can access
those shared folders and can use
them in their applications.

• The NFS is an open standard defined


in Request for Comments (RFC),
allowing anyone to implement the
protocol.
Fig:3 9
Secure Shell (SSH)
• SSH, stands for Secure Shell (sometimes known as Secure Socket
Shell), is a Cryptographic Protocol that can be used to access remote
server and VPS from your local systems.
• SSH works on port 22 no. SSH is completely secure and It encrypts all
traffic between remote and local systems.
• SSH is actually a suite of three utilities namely slogin, ssh, and scp.
These three utilities are the secure replacement of the earlier UNIX
utilities namely rlogin, rsh, and rcp
• To install SSH on ubuntu system for cluster sudo apt-get install
openssh-server command used.
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Implementation of HPC Cluster
• Setting up the Cluster
• Setting up a local area network:
• Assignment of static IP’s
• Configuring the SSH
• Creation of NFS
• Setting up the MPI
• Execution Phase
• Writing the code in NFS directory
• Distributing the Compiled code to slave nodes
• Execution by slave nodes
• Results received by Master Node

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Sample Example

• Comparison of execution time taken in parallel processing and


non-parallel processing while performing matrix multiplication.

• The size of the matrix is increased linearly compare the


performances of both.

• The configuration of processors has been saved to a file called


machinefile.

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Sample of the code

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Contd.

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Contd.

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Output Comparison

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HPC Cluster Advantages
• Price/Performance
• Using COTS hardware greatly reduces associated costs

• Scalability
• By using individual nodes, more can easily be added by slightly altering the
network

• Convergence Architecture
• Using commodity hardware has standardized operating systems, instruction
sets, and communication protocols
• Code portability has greatly increased
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HPC Cluster Advantages
• Flexibility of Configuration and Upgrades
• Large variety of COTS components
• Standardization of COTS components allows for easy upgrades

• Technology Tracking
• Can use new components as soon as they come out
• No delay time waiting for manufacturers to integrate components

• High Availability
• System will continue to run if an individual node fails

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HPC Cluster Advantages
• Level of Control
• System is easily configured to users liking

• Development Cost and Time


• No special hardware needs to be designed
• Less time designing system, just pick parts to be used
• Cheaper mass market components

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HPC Cluster Disadvantages
• Programming Difficulty
• Programs need to be highly parallelized to take advantage of hardware design
• Distributed Memory
• Program data is split over the individual nodes
• Network speed can bottleneck performance
• Results may need to be compiled by a single node
• Heating problem may occur

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Conclusion
• For small size inputs, parallel processing via HPC cluster is not very
effective but as the input size increases the performance of parallel
computation surpasses the non parallel computation for the same
input size.

• For simulation purposes , a Beowulf based HPC cluster is a valid


choice

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References
• Fig:1 http://www.cs.mtu.edu/beowulf/misc/cluster.jpg
• Fig:2 https://sinjinsmith.net/wp-
content/uploads/2015/01/beowulf_cluster.jpg
• Fig:3 https://cdn1.slideserve.com/2914139/network-file-system-nfs-
n.jpg

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