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Beams

Shear & Moment Diagrams


E. Evans
2/9/06
Beams
• Members that are slender and support
loads applied perpendicular to their
longitudinal axis.

Distributed Load, w(x) Concentrated Load, P

Longitudinal
Axis

Span, L
Types of Beams
• Depends on the support configuration
FH
Pin
FV
FV
FH Fixed
Roller

M
Fv Roller Pin
FH

FV FV
Statically Indeterminate Beams

Continuous Beam

Propped Cantilever
Beam

• Can you guess how we find the “extra”


reactions?
Internal Reactions in Beams
• At any cut in a beam, there are 3 possible
internal reactions required for equilibrium:
– normal force,
– shear force,
– bending moment.
P

a b
L
Internal Reactions in Beams
• At any cut in a beam, there are 3 possible
internal reactions required for equilibrium:
– normal force,
– shear force,
– bending moment. Positive Directions
Shown!!!
Left Side of Cut M

N
Pb/L V
x
Internal Reactions in Beams
• At any cut in a beam, there are 3 possible
internal reactions required for equilibrium:
– normal force,
– shear force,
– bending moment. Positive Directions
Shown!!!
M V Right Side of Cut

N
Pa/L
L-x
Finding Internal Reactions
• Pick left side of the cut:
– Find the sum of all the vertical forces to the
left of the cut, including V. Solve for shear, V.
– Find the sum of all the horizontal forces to the
left of the cut, including N. Solve for axial
force, N. It’s usually, but not always, 0.
– Sum the moments of all the forces to the left
of the cut about the point of the cut. Include
M. Solve for bending moment, M
• Pick the right side of the cut:
– Same as above, except to the right of the cut.
Example: Find the internal reactions at
points indicated. All axial force reactions
are zero. Points are 2-ft apart.
P = 20 kips

1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10

6 7

8 kips 12 kips
12 ft
20 ft

Point 6 is just left of P and Point 7 is just right of P.


P = 20 kips
1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10

6 7

8 kips 12 kips
12 ft
20 ft
8 kips
V x
(kips)
-12 kips
96
80
64 72
48 48
32
16 24
M x
(ft-kips)
V & M Diagrams P = 20 kips

8 kips 12 kips
12 ft
20 ft
8 kips
V
(kips) x

What is the slope -12 kips


of this line? 96 ft-kips What is the slope
96 ft-kips/12’ = 8 kips b of this line?
-12 kips
M a c
(ft-kips) x
V & M Diagrams P = 20 kips

8 kips 12 kips
12 ft
20 ft
8 kips
V
(kips) x

What is the area of


the blue rectangle? -12 kips
96 ft-kips What is the area of
96 ft-kips the green rectangle?
b
-96 ft-kips
M a c
(ft-kips) x
Draw Some Conclusions
• The magnitude of the shear at a point
equals the slope of the moment diagram at
that point.
• The area under the shear diagram
between two points equals the change in
moments between those two points.
• At points where the shear is zero, the
moment is a local maximum or minimum.
The Relationship Between Load, Shear and
Bending Moment

w ( x )  the load function


V( x )  w ( x )dx

M( x )   V( x )dx
Common Relationships

0 Constant Linear
Load

Constant Linear Parabolic


Shear

Linear Parabolic Cubic


Moment
Common Relationships

0 0 Constant
Load M

Constant Constant Linear


Shear

Linear Linear Parabolic


Moment
Example: Draw Shear & Moment
diagrams for the following beam

12 kN 8 kN
A C
D
B

1m 3m 1m
RA = 7 kN  RC = 13 kN 
12 kN 8 kN
A C
D
B

1m 3m 1m

7 8
7 8
V
(kN) -15
-5
7
M
(kN-m)

2.4 m -8