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MAY 2018
Workshop schedule

• 1:00 – 1:15 - Introduction

• 1:15 – 2:30 - Principles in Coaching
• 1:30 – 3:00 - GROW Coaching Framework
• 3:00 -3:15 - Break
• 3: 15 – 3: 45 Break up by dyad for Coaching Demo; Critique
• 3:45 – 5:00 Post analysis; sharing of Insights and analysis

TIPs in the application of X and Y

• Which approach do you prefer? – as it is for you, it will be

for many members of your team!
• Mix and match appropriately. That said, different
members of your own team may have different attitudes.
Many may thrive on Theory Y management, while others
may need Theory X management. Still others may benefit
from an altogether different approach.
What is Situational Leadership?

• A theory of leadership that proposes that leaders change

their leadership styles based on who they are leading,
• It is up to the leader to change his style not the follower
to adapt to the leader's style . In situational leadership
the style may change continually to meet the needs of
others in the organization based on the situation.
Four Levels of Maturity
Coaching/situational leadership
Leadership/Managerial role in

• TASK BEHAVIOR – refers to the amount of guidance and

direction a leader gives.
• RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR – refers to the amount of
socio-emotional support a leader provides
• READINESS or MATURITY LEVEL – that followers exhibit
in performing a specific task, function or objective.
Situational Leadership Guide in
Low Ability/ Low Will
High Ability/Low will
• GIVE SUPPORT • teach and train, provide guidance
and identify constraints, tap into
• Agree what is needed to get
motivators, praise and endorse,
member engaged in task,
provide clear briefing, develop
• build excitement, give vision for success, structure ‘quick
appreciation, communicate wins’ supervise with frequent
importance of the task feedbacks and clear expectations
Situational Leadership Guide in
High Ability/ High Low Ability/ High Will
• DELEGATE Give additional • GUIDE Teach and train,
responsibility, • Provide guidance, praise and
• Praise and endorse, collaborate endorse, reduce risks,
on decisions, provide freedom in
job methodology, communicate
• Provide tools, feedbacks upfront
trust and recognition, • Relax control as progress is
• Develop stretch goals, broaden
responsibilities, treat as partner.
Skill Level

Identify if the specific task is outside their experience, training,

and understanding of what is being asked of them.
Is their skill level low, high, or somewhere in between?
WILL level or Willingness

What do you observe to be their desire to achieve?

What incentives are being offered?
What is their level of security and confidence?
Continuum of the leader’s role …

• The “levels” actually flow into one another as well.

• It’s not that one day you stop giving direction, and start giving support,
• It is that you get less of one more, or more of the other
• For example, you may have a rep who has an excellent product
knowledge but may have a low level of competency on objection
handling etc. Obviously, you can be more directive on the ‘ objection
handling’ part and give appropriate encouragement on product
knowledge .
• Or you may use probing questions as to why he was not able to
effectively handle an objection raised by a doctor ( during your
observation or work with) and ask him what he needs to do differently.
Core leadership competencies
• Situational Leaders learn to demonstrate four core, common
and critical leadership competencies:
• Diagnose: “Understand the situation they are trying to influence”
• Adapt: “Adjust their behavior in response to the contingences of
the situation”
• Communicate: “Interact with others in a manner they can
understand and accept”
• Advance: “Manage the movement”
• (http://situational.com/the-cls-difference/situational-leadership-
Coaching as a tool for
• Organizational change is now the day-to-day responsibility
of individuals throughout the organization, from the execs at the
top of the pyramid to the frontline employees at the base.
• Regardless of authority or position, the ability to champion
change has become a key factor in organizational performance.
• Translated in terms of Bandura’s model, empowerment refers to a
process whereby an individual’s belief in his or her self-efficacy is
• To empower means either to strengthen this belief or to weaken
one’s belief in personal powerlessness.
Effects of Empowerment

• Empowering means enabling, and it implies raising

subordinates’ convictions in their own
effectiveness ( successfully executing desired
behavior) rather than raising subordinates’ hopes for
favorable performance outcomes.
• Even under conditions of failure to gain desired
outcomes, individuals may feel empowered if their
efficacy belief is reinforced by their leader’s
recognition of their performance ( i.e. “ We may have
lost to competition, but I’m proud of your
performance. We will do better next time)
“ Kaya ko” or “Kakayanin ko”

• Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s effectiveness in

performing specific tasks.
• Personal efficacy stems from internal need=states such as
the intrinsic need for self-determination.
• We will assume that everyone has an internal need for
self-determination and a need to control and cope with
environmental demands.
Supervisors can drive Behavior Change

Situational leadership uses TASK SPECIFICITY to serve as a

mechanism through which leaders maximize their influence-
related impact versus to making GENERALIZATIONS about a
followers’ overall level of ability and motivation.
DYNAMIC Coaching that drive the desired change in
• Create a constructive learning environment to drive on the
job performance!
Organizational theorists identify
supervision practices that are
• Expressing confidence in subordinates accompanied by
high performance expectations( Conger,1986, Kamter,1979 etc.)
• Fosteringopportunities for subordinates to participate in
decision making
• Providing autonomy from bureacratic constraint
(Block,1987, Kanter, 1979 etc.)

• Setting inspirational and/or meaningful goals ( Bennis and

Nanus, 1985 etc.)
Negative effects of empowerment

• Specifically might lead to overconfidence, and in turn ,

misjudgment on the part of subordinates. Because of this
sense of false confidence in positive outcomes,
organizations might persist in efforts that are, in actuality
tactical or strategic errors. ...
What is Coaching?

• To bring a person from where they are to where they

want to be.
• Coaching is the art of facilitating the performance,
learning and development of another‖( Myles Downey)
• Coaching is a process of helping another individual
realize their inner potential, delivering fulfillment to both
the individual and the organization.It's making them
more capable to do their present job on their own and
enjoy doing it well
Benefits of Coaching
• Coaching is the most effective way to develop employees

• When you coach employees, you improve their ability to do their

current jobs and increase their potential to do more in the future

• Coaching is the key to managing multiple priorities

• Coaching leads to improved employee performance, which leads to

increased productivity and bottom-line results.

• Coaching increases employee's self-esteem and job satisfaction

Talk frequently with your team
1. You‘ll be in a better position to detect morale problems
and observe employees who are ready to take on more
2. Pay as much attention to their body language and
nonverbal signals as to what they‘re saying.  Listen
well to their answers.
3. You need to be able to get information from them to
help you make decisions about what their real career
path is and the skills they should acquire in order to be
4. Must know how to ask the right questions without
making people feel uncomfortable.
How to coach

• Build rapport with your employees. Point out their

strengths and note any improvement in performance.
• Treat their mistakes as learning opportunities; never
threaten them
• Encourage their growth by creating a positive
• Be a role model for excellence. Take your own advice,
and your staff will be more likely to emulate your actions.
How to coach ( cont.)

1. When your people do something well, tell them. When

they make mistakes, give them corrective feedback in a
positive manner.
2. Suggest improvements that let them know you believe
they are capable of doing the work right
3. Give feedback. This means being able to assess what
employees need to learn as well as being able to train
4. Become a good teacher.
Harvard Buss Review : May- June
2018 Issue
• Connector Managers give targeted feedback in their areas
of expertise; otherwise, they connect employees with
others on the team or elsewhere in the organization who
are better suited to the task. They spend more time than
the other three types assessing the skills, needs, and
interests of their employees, and they recognize that
many skills are best taught by people other than
• The employees of these managers are three times as
likely as subordinates of the other types to be high
Effective communication techniques:
- Paraphrasing-

• Repeating in your words what you interpreted someone

else to be saying.
• It is a powerful means to further the understanding of
the other person and yourself, and can greatly increase
the impact of another’s comments. It can translate
comments so that even more people can understand
• It conveys: ‘I am listening’; ‘ I care ‘; ‘ I understand you ‘.
Techniques in paraphrasing
• Put the focus of the paraphrase on what the other
person implied, not on what you wanted him/her to
imply, e.g., don’t say, “I believe what you meant to
say was …”. Instead, say
• “If I’m hearing you right, you conveyed that …?”
• Phrase the paraphrase as a question, “So you’re
saying that …?”, so that the other person has the
responsibility and opportunity to refine his/her
original comments .
Techniques in paraphrasing
• Put the focus of the paraphrase on the other person, e.g.,
if the person said, “I don’t get enough resources to do
what I want,” Put the ownership of the paraphrase on
yourself, e.g., “If I’m hearing you right …?” or “If I
understand you correctly …?”
• Put the ownership of the other person’s words on
him/her, e.g., say “If I understand you right, you’re
saying that …?” or “… you believe that …?” or “… you
feel that …?”
Techniques in paraphrasing

• In the paraphrase, use some of the words that the other

person used. For example, if the other person said, “I think
we should do more planning around here.” You might
paraphrase, “If I’m hearing you right in this strategic
planning workshop, you believe that more strategic
planning should be done in our community?”
Techniques in paraphrasing

• You can use a paraphrase to validate your impression of the other’s

comments, e.g., you could say, “So you were frustrated when …?”
• The paraphrase should be shorter than the original comments
made by the other person.
• If the other person responds to your paraphrase that you still don’t
understand him/her, then give the other person 1-2 chances to
restate his position. Then you might cease the paraphrasing;
otherwise, you might embarrass or provoke the other person.
How to Effectively Summarize

• A summary is a concise overview of the most important

points from a communication, whether it’s from a
conversation, presentation or document. Summarizing is a
very important skill for an effective communicator.
• A good summary can verify that people are understanding
each other, can make communications more efficient, and
can ensure that the highlights of communications are
captured and utilized.
Effective summarizing

• Look for any one major point that comes from the
• Organize the main ideas, either just in your mind or written
down. Write a summary that lists and organizes the main
ideas, along with the major point of the communicator.
• The summary should always be shorter than the original
communication. Does not introduce any new main points into
the summary – if you do, make it clear that you’re adding
Coaching vs. Mentoring

• Mentoring is reserved for your most talented employees; its

purpose is is to develop the individual not only for the current
job, but also for the future. This distinction differentiates the
role of the immediate manager and that of the mentor. It also
reduces the possibility of creating conflict between the
employee's manager and the mentor.
• When you coach employees, you improve their ability to do
their current jobs and increase their potential to do more in the
• Coaching helps all your employees or team members
A good coach…

• Knows when to coach…

• Successful when the individual or team being
coached is successful at attaining a higher level of
• Knows when not to coach… when the person is
not willing - When your task is to manage or lead,
Characteristics of a good coach
• Write down their development goals and
recommend training programs and resources that
will help your employees achieve those goal
• When you conduct performance appraisals, be
specific about what each individual can do to
• Clearly explain what you expect of them.
• Make sure people understand how their jobs tie into
the company‘s overall strategy and mission.
Do’s and Don’t of Coaching
1. Deal calmly with dumb mistakes. Losing patience sends a
message to employees that you think they‘re stupid and
erodes their self esteem
2. DON’T be impatient.
3. Be consistent in the way you treat your employees: Once a
coach, always a coach. If you change styles in mid-stream, your
employees won‘t trust you.
4. DON’T change from coach to autocrat.
5. Don‘t promise to reward added effort with a raise or promotion
if you can‘t deliver.
6. DON’T make implied promises.
Coaching and counselling

• Coaching a directive process to train and orient an

employee to the realities of the marketplace and to help
the employees remove barriers to optimum work
• Counselling: a supportive help an employee define and
work through personal problems that affect job
Preparing to coach

1. Write down their development goals and recommend

training programs and resources that will help your
employees achieve those goals
2. When you conduct performance appraisals, be specific
about what each individual can do to improve.
3. Clearly explain what you expect of them.
4. Make sure people understand how their jobs tie into
the company‘s overall strategy and mission.
Skills matrix as a tool in setting
developmental goals
• It is a table that clearly shows the skills held by individuals
in a team, and the skills gap within a team.

• Skills matrix is one of the most simple, but highly

effective tools available to assess training needs

• it is easily reviewed and updated and presents the skills of

team members in a single chart
Coaching Feedback Tips
Be descriptive
behaviors (task-
specific, donot

Describe the
Do not put the
behavior in the
employee on
context of the
the defensive

Only discuss Do not evaluate

changeable or use
behaviors judgments

1. Follow up on a training session

2. Have on-the-spot work progress discussions
3. Have informal coaching conversations with employees
4. Conduct formal performance reviews
5. Constantly be on the look out for opportunities to provide
coaching to your employees.
6. Work with an employee to meet job standards or to
manage their job better
7. Agree to implement a work improvement idea
Coaching candidates must be:
• employees must be receptive to coaching, or the coaching
will be ineffective.
• open to feedback
• eager to improve
• aware of their need
• aware of the possible consequence of not improving their
• able to commit time to being coached
Steps in disciplinary Action

• Updates to HR and your manager

• Termination discussion based on poor performance with
sufficient documentation

• People are more developed in some areas of their job than in

others. They can function independently, without
supervision, on some tasks, but need lots of direction and
support on other tasks. Thus, you must always assess
development level with a specific goal or task in mind. You
cannot determine a person’s competence or commitment in
general, only his or her development level to accomplish a
certain goal.
Always Assess Development level

• Each individual is unique … developed in some areas of their

job than others, or vice versa. Supervision will vary according
to individual strength and weakness.
• Always assess development level with a specific goal or
task in mind. You cannot determine a person’s competence
or commitment in general, only his or her development level
to accomplish a certain goal.
Situational leadership

• A particular leadership style, which is appropriate with a

person at one moment in time, may be inappropriate
with the same person later on.
• Your goal as a manager should be to gradually increase
the competence and confidence of your people so that
you can begin to use less time-consuming styles —
supporting and delegating — and still get high-quality

• Everyone has peak performance potential — you just

need to know where they are coming from and meet
them there
• (Leadership and the One Minute Manager, Blanchard et al)

• TOPIC … What would you like to think/talk about…? Or

tell me about…
• GOAL What do you want to move forward on…? What
can we achieve in the time available…? What would be
the most helpful thing for you to take away from this
• REALITY What is happening now that tells you…?
Describe the current situation… What made you realise
that you need to do something different?

• OPTIONS What could you do to move yourself just one

step forward…? What are your options…? How far
towards your objective will that take you…
• WILL What will you do next…? What could stop you
moving forward? How will you overcome this? How can
you keep yourself motivated? When do you need to
review progress? Daily, weekly, monthly? What do you
need from me?
G - Establish the GOAL
• Does this goal fit with his/her overall career objectives?
And does it fit with the team's objectives? How will you
know that your employee has achieved this goal? How
will you know that the problem or issue is solved?
• Make sure that this is a SMART goal: one that is Specific,
Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-bound.
• First, you and the employee need to look at the behavior
that you want to change, and then structure this change
as a goal that s/he wants to achieve.
R -Examine the current REALITY-
What is happening now?

• Use Open questions – starts with “why, what, how, when,

• As your team member tells you about his current reality,
the solution may start to emerge
• Too often, people try to solve a problem or reach a goal
without fully considering their starting point, and often
they're missing some information that they need in order
to reach their goal effectively.
O - Explore the OPTIONS –”What
could you do?”

• Offer your own suggestions in this step. But let your team
member offer suggestions first, and let him/her do most
of the talking. It's important to guide them in the right
direction, without actually making decisions for them
• Help the employee brainstorm as many good options as
possible. Then, discuss these and help them decide on the
best ones.
• Once you and the employee have explored the current
reality, it's time to determine what is possible – meaning
all of the possible options for reaching the objective.
W - What will you do?

Finally, decide on a date when you'll both review

progress. This will provide some accountability, and
allow the employee to change his approach if the
original plan isn't working
Additional Coaching Tips

• Effective communication is critical

• Commit to an action that will happen today;
• Ask the employee to identify elements that contributed to the
• Involve the employee in the problem-solving process ( ask
how, when, who, what…)
• Document key elements – two copies
• Agree on specific actions to be taken;
• Agree on a follow –up date
Effective coaching communication

• Non-verbal communication is as important as verbal

• Active listening shows interest and will enable you to obtain
additional information from your employee
• What do you think about the team‘s new approach?  Open
questions will glean more information
Effective Coaching Communication
• Clear and consistent messages will facilitate
understanding and avoid miscommunication
• Use the ‗feedback sandwich‘ approach: Positive,
constructive feedback (what they are doing well)
Corrective feedback Positive feedback (actions for
• delivered as soon as possible after the action for which
it is being provided
• clear and concise
• positive, constructive and corrective
Role Playing Objectives

• 1. Apply the GROW Technique in coaching, and the use of

Open questions.

• Everyone has peak performance

potential — you just need to know
where they are coming from and meet
them there
• (Leadership and the One Minute Manager, Blanchard et al)