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MULTIPLE

ACCESS
CHANNELING
PROTOCOLS
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FDMA
Frequency Division
Multiple Access
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“ FDMA is the division of the
frequency band allocated for
wireless cellular telephone
communication
channels.
into

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FDMA ⊙ FDMA in Analogue Advanced
Mobile Phone System (AMPS)
⊙ The Digital-Advanced Mobile
Phone Service (D- AMPS) also
uses FDMA but adds time
division multiple access
(TDMA)
⊙ Each channel can be
assigned to only one user at a 4

FDMA is a method that lets more
than one user to share a single radio
frequency spectrum. This is done by
assigning active users a different
frequency channel.

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Frequency
Division
Multiplexing

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⊙ Between the different used
Guard Band
frequency channels is a small
amount of bandwidth not used.
This space is called a guard
band.
⊙ This bandwidth is necessary to
cater for instability of the
sender, frequency shifts due to
movement (the Doppler effect)
and no-ideal filtering. 7
⊙ Continuous ⊙ FDMA requires
transmission high-performing
Main filters in the radio
⊙ Narrow bandwidth
Features hardware, in
⊙ Low overhead
contrast to TDMA
⊙ Simple hardware at and CDMA.
mobile unit and BS :
⊙ FDMA is not
(1) no digital
vulnerable to the
processing needed
timing problems that
(2) ease of framing
TDMA has.
and
synchronization. ⊙ Due to the
frequency filtering,
⊙ FDMA can be used
FDMA is not
with both analog
sensitive to near- far
and digital signal.
problem. 8
Channel
Assignment
All channels in a
cell are available to
all the mobiles.
Channel
assignment is
carried out on a
first-come first-
served basis.

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Channel
Assignment
The number of
channels, given a
frequency spectrum
BT , depends on
the modulation
technique and the
guard bands
between the
channels. These
guard bands can be
used to minimize
adjacent channel
interference.

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Advantages If channel is not Channel Simple
in use, it sits bandwidth is algorithmically,
idle. relatively and from a
narrow (30kHz) hardware
. standpoint

Fairly efficient Capacity increase No restriction


when the number can be obtained by regarding the type
of stations is small reducing the of baseband or
and the traffic is information bit rate type of modulation
uniformly constant and using efficient
digital code
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Disadvantage The presence of Requires right Maximum bit
s guard bands. RF filtering to rate per channel
minimize is fixed.
adjacent
channel
interference.

Small inhibiting Does not differ


flexibility in bit rate significantly from
capability. analog system.

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2
TDMA
Time Division
Multiple Access
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⊙ TDMA is digital transmission
technology that allows a number
of users to access a single radio-
frequency (RF) channel without
interference by allocating unique
time slots to each user within each
channel.

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“ TDMA divides each cellular
channel into three time slots in
order to increase the amount of
data that can be carried.

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TDMA
The reason for
choosing TDMA for
all standards was
that it enables some
vital features for
system operation in
an advanced
cellular or PCS
environment.

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TDMA
TDMA relies upon
the fact that the
audio signal has
been digitized i-e
divided into a
number of
milliseconds-long
packets. It allocates
a single frequency
channel for a short
time and then
moves to another
channel.

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⊙ “CLOCK” is required for TDMA.
SYNCHRONIZAT
⊙ All transmitters and receivers must
ION IN TDMA be aware of this ``clock'' to schedule
their transmissions and receptions
and transmissions are
synchronized.
⊙ In cellular telephone systems a
clock signal indicates the beginning
of timeslots is transmitted by the
base stations. From this signals,
mobile stations can determine when
their turn comes up. 18
TDMA
EVOLUTION

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⊙ Shares single ⊙ TDMA uses different
carrier frequency time slots for Tx and
Main with multiple users. Rx, thus duplexers
Features are not required.
⊙ Non-continuous
transmission. This ⊙ Global Systems for
results in low battery Mobile
consumption since communications
the subscriber (GSM) uses the
transmitter can be TDMA technique.
turned OFF when
not in use.
⊙ Slots can be
assigned on
demand in dynamic
TDMA. 20
Advantages It carry data It provides the It is the most cost
rates of 64 kbps user with effective
technology to
to 120 Mbps. extended convert an
battery life and analogue system to
talk time. digital.

TDMA technology TDMA allows the No restriction


operator to do services
separates users regarding the type
like fax, voice band
according to time, it data, and SMS as well of baseband or
ensures that there as bandwidth-intensive type of modulation
will be no application such as
multimedia and
interference
videoconferencing. 21
Each user has a It is subjected to
Disadvantage predefined time slot. multipath distortion.
When moving from A signal coming from
one cell to other, if all a tower to a handset
the time slots in this might come from any
cell are full the user one of several
might be directions. It might
disconnected. have bounced off
several different
buildings before
arriving.

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3
CDMA
Code Division
Multiple Access
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⊙ There is no restriction on time and
frequency in this scheme.
⊙ Parallel communication without
collision and whole bandwidth can
be used.
⊙ Users are separated by code not by
time slot and frequency slot.

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Advantages Potentially larger W-CDMA (3G) Better signal
bandwidth = 10MHz.
capacity (more quality.
The transition from one
users can BS to another (handoff)
communicate is not abrupt, as in
simultaneously) TDMA, and provides
better quality. No
absolute limit on the
number of users

Easy addition of Impossible for hackers


to decipher the code
more users.
sent.

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Disadvantage As the number of Self-jamming Near- Far- problem
s users increases, arises.
the overall quality
of service
decreases

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