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Ms.

Cynthia Bea
Professor
The Endocrine system is an integrated system of
small organs that involve the release of extracellular
signaling molecules known as hormones. The
endocrine system is instrumental in regulating
metabolism, growth and development and puberty,
tissue function, and plays a part also in mood. In
general, the endocrine system is in charge of body
processes that happen slowly, such as cell growth.
Faster processes like breathing and body movement
are controlled by the nervous system. But even though
the nervous system and endocrine system are
separate systems, they often work together to help the
body function properly.
Major Endocrine Glands
Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland

The pituitary gland is called the “master


gland” but it is under the control of the
hypothalamus. Together, they control many
other endocrine functions. They secrete a
number of hormones, especially several
which are important to the female menstrual
cycle, pregnancy, birth, and lactation (milk
production).
Thyroid gland

A hormones regulate metabolism, therefore


body temperature and weight. The thyroid
hormones contain iodine, which the thyroid
needs in order to manufacture these
hormones. If a person lacks iodine in his/her
diet, the thyroid cannot make the hormones,
causing a deficiency. In response to the
body’s feedback loops calling for more
thyroid hormones, the thyroid gland then
enlarges to attempt to compensate. This
disorder is called goiter
Pineal gland

This gland is located near the center of the


brain in humans, and is stimulated by nerves
from the eyes. SAD or seasonal affective
disorder (syndrome) is a disorder in which
too much melatonin is produced, especially
during the long nights of winter, causing
profound depression, oversleeping, weight
gain, tiredness, and sadness.
Pancreas
This organ has two functions. produces (in addition to
others) two important hormones, insulin and glucagons.
They work together to maintain a steady level of glucose, or
sugar, in the blood and to keep the body supplied with fuel
to produce and maintain stores of energy. It serves as a
ducted gland, secreting digestive enzymes into the small
intestine. It also serves as a ductless gland in that the islets
of Langerhans secrete insulin and glucagon to regulate the
blood sugar level. The -islet cells secrete insulin to tell the
liver to take excess glucose out of circulation to lower a
blood sugar level that’s too high. If a person’s body does not
make enough insulin (and/or there is a reduced response of
the target cells in the liver), the blood sugar rises, perhaps
out of control, and we say that the person has diabetes
mellitus.
Thymus gland

The master gland of the immune system located behind


the breastbone. It tends to disappear or become
nonfunctional in adults. Hormones produced by this
organ stimulate the production of certain infection-
fighting cells. It is of central importance in the
maturation of T cells. T cells emigrate from the thymus
and constitute the peripheral T cell repertoire
responsible for directing many facets of the adaptive
immune system. Loss of the thymus at an early age
through genetic mutation or surgical removal results in
severe immunodeficiency and a high susceptibility to
infection.
Adrenal glands

These sit on top of the kidneys. They consist of two parts, the outer
cortex and the inner medulla. he adrenal glands have two parts, each of
which produces a set of hormones and has a different function. The
outer part, the adrenal cortex, produces hormones called
corticosteroids that influence or regulate salt and water balance in the
body, the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system,
and sexual development and function. The inner part, the adrenal
medulla produces catecholamine such as epinephrine. Also called
adrenaline, epinephrine increases blood pressure and heart rate when
the body experiences stress. The medulla secretes epinephrine (=
adrenaline) and other similar hormones in response to stressors such
as fright, anger, caffeine, or low blood sugar. Two glands located above
the kidneys. They produce several kinds of hormones, including a small
amount of sex hormones. They produce steroid hormones, adrenaline
and noradrenaline, which help control heart rate, blood pressure, and
other important body functions.
Gonads or sex organs
In addition to producing gametes, the female ovaries and
male testes (singular = testis) also secrete hormones.
Therefore, these hormones are called sex hormones.
The secretion of sex hormones by the gonads is
controlled by pituitary gland hormones such as FSH and
LH. While both sexes make some of each of the
hormones, typically male testes secrete primarily
androgens including testosterone. Female ovaries make
estrogen and progesterone in varying amounts
depending on where in her cycle a woman is. In a
pregnant woman, the baby’s placenta also secretes
hormones to maintain the pregnancy.
DISEASES
GOITERS

A thyroid goiter is a dramatic enlargement of


the thyroid gland. Goiters are often removed
because of cosmetic reasons or, more
commonly, because they compress other vital
structures of the neck including the trachea and
the esophagus making breathing and
swallowing difficult. Sometimes goiters will
actually grow into the chest where they can
cause trouble as well.
Diabetes

Is a disorder characterized by hyperglycemia or


elevated blood glucose (blood sugar). Our bodies
function best at a certain level of sugar in the
bloodstream. If the amount of sugar in our blood
runs too high or too low, then we typically feel
bad. Diabetes is the name of the condition where
the blood sugar level consistently runs too high.
T he end