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Information Technology Infrastructure Library

Foundation Certification

Service Delivery Processes

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Service Level Management

The goal for SLM is to maintain and improve IT Service quality,
through a constant cycle of agreeing, monitoring and reporting
upon IT Service achievements and instigation of actions to
eradicate poor service - in line with business or Cost justification.
Through these methods, a better relationship between IT and
its Customers can be developed
SLM establishes Service Level Agreements
• SLAs are set by knowing the requirements of business and knowing the capabilities of IT
• SLA is made out of the following
Service catalogue
Service level requirement
Individual SLAs
Operational level agreement ( is a conformity with internal IT departments on
the maintenance and availability of certain components of service are
determined) and contracts
Service spec sheet
Service quality plan.
Monitor and revision report.
Service improvement programs (SIP)

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Service Level Management - Responsibilities

Service Catalogue lists all of the services being

provided, a summary of their characteristics and details of
the Customers and maintainers of each
Service Level Agreement is negotiated to achieve
a compromise between the customer’s SLR and IT
Capabilities to deliver the services.
Operational Level Agreement are documents
that support agreement between internal IT departments
on the desired service level.
Underpinning Contracts is documented contract
with external supplier on delivery of services required to
provide SLA level of service.
Service Specsheet. This is a detailed technical
document that is the bridge between SLAs and IT System.
This documents decoded service requirements in technical
Service Quality Plan. SQP details various
performance indicators which acts as measures and targets
for service delivery.
Service Improvement Programs are set of
activities are planned and implemented in order to support
CRM – Maintains relationship with customer

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Service Level Management Process

SLM Process
Service capabilities and review contracts with external
vendors ( Underpinning Contracts).
Planning monitoring capabilities for monitoring SLAs.
Establish initial perception of services.
Produce a service catalogue
Plan an SLA Structure based on expectations and
Seek Agreement.
Establish monitoring capabilities and metrics for
Review UCs and OLAs
Publicize existence of SLA.
Manage Ongoing Process
Through review of SLAs
Monitoring compliance of service levels to SLAs and
Periodic Reviews
Periodically all SLAs, OLAs and UCs are reviewed.
Creation of Service Improvement Programs
SLA Maintenance

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Service Level Management – SLA elements

Elements of a Service Level Agreement

Introduction Reliability
Parties to the agreement In terms of MTBSI or MTBF
title and brief description of the Throughput ( Capacity)
agreement Number of concurrent s users.
signatories Number of transactions
dates: start, end, review Transaction Turnaround times
scope of the agreement; what is Escalation
covered and what is excluded Who, when, what etc..
responsibilities of both the Service Change process
provider and the Customer Targets for approving and
a description of the Services implementing RFCs
covered. IT Service continuity and Security
Service Hours Disaster Recovery, BCP
Normal operation Charging
Extended Hours Charging conditions.
Support Service Reporting and reviewing
Hours Distribution lists, contents of the
response time reports.
Repair time Performance Incentives / Penalties
Service Calendar Penalty conditions
Availability Cost plus arrangements
In terms of percentages

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Availability Management

To predict, plan for and manage the availability of service
by ensuring that sufficient, reliable and properly maintained CI
could support SLAs, third party contractual agreements are in
place and Changes are proposed to prevent future loss of service
• Ensure that IT Services are designed to deliver the levels of availability required by business.
• provide a range of IT Availability reporting to ensure that agreed levels of Availability, reliability and
maintainability are measured and monitored on an ongoing basis
• optimize the Availability of the IT Infrastructure to deliver cost effective improvements that deliver
tangible benefits to the business and User
• Determine availability requirements ( includes recovery requirements
Ensure shortfalls in IT Availability are recognized and
hkkkkappropriate corrective actions are identified and progressed
Create and maintain a forward looking Availability Plan aimed
hkkkkat improving the overall Availability of IT Services and
hkkkkInfrastructure components to ensure existing and future
hkkkkbusiness Availability requirements can be satisfied. Analyze,
hkkkkcollect, maintain availability data
Monitor the compliance with SLA
Establish Availability Targets
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Availability Management - Definitions

• Availability Ability of a component or service to perform its required function at a stated instant or
over a slated period of time.
Availability = (Agreed Service time – Actual Downtime) /
Agreed Service Time
• Reliability Ability of a component or service to return to a state in which the desired functionality will
be provided again. Qualitatively it is the freedom from failure and resilience of the system.
• Serviceability A contractual term used to define the support to be received from am external supplier
in which it is covered what they will support in case of unavailability of one or more services.
• Maintainability The ability of service to return to a state in which the desired functionality is provided
• Security The implementation of justifiable controls to ensure continued IT service within same
• Vital Business Function ( VBF) Business critical elements of business process supported by an IT

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Availability Management Process

Key Inputs are availability requirements in terms of availability, reliability, maintainability. Also, service
monitoring information, incidents, problems and changes.
Key Outputs availability design recommendations, availability improvement techniques and guidelines,
agreed target of availability, reliability and maintainability, Availability reporting, Monitoring
requirements and Availability plan.
Key Activities are determine availability requirements, determine VBF, define targets of availability
parameters, Establish measures for recording efficiency, Monitoring and Trend analysis, Reviews and
Investigation to find out the reasons of unavailability and maintain availability plan.
Cost of Availability increases for High Availability (HA) Services.
Key Benefits have a single accountability
for availability and ownership to take care
of all availability related activities.
Availability Planning includes
determining user requirements, design for
availability, capability reviews, Availability
Improvement programs, etc..
Availability Measurement and
Reporting ( Eg. % Availability, Duration
of downtime, frequency of downtime)

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Availability Management – Security and Risk Analysis

Confidentiality Protecting sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure.
Integrity Safeguarding the accuracy and completeness of information and software.
Availability Ensuring that information and services are available when required.
Availability management takes care of security requirements, while designing for
availability. Typically, additional security requirements impact availability ( Eg. Using
HTTPS instead of HTTP).

Risk Analysis

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Capacity Management

Balancing to determine the right, cost justifiable capacity for IT
resources such that the service levels agreed with business are
achieved at the right time
Identifies and specifies needs of the client, translates the needs to
necessary actions to engage resources and guard performance
Monitor performance and throughput of IT Services and supporting infrastructure
Undertake tuning activities to make the most efficient use of existing resources.
Understand the current demands and produce forecasts of capacity and influence future
Maintain a Capacity Plan which will enable the IT Services delivery as defined in SLA.
Maintain Capacity Database (CDB) which has Information about server and network,
technical data, capacity plan, Management and technical reports
Conduct Business Service Workload (BSW) leveling, which is balancing to ensure that
processing capacity is cost justified.
Make sure that available supply of processing power matches the demand.

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Capacity Management Process

Demand Management aspect of Capacity

Management is responsible for interface with
SLM and Business to understand the
Capacity requirements.
Business Capacity Management is the sub
process which is responsible for ensuring
that the future business requirements for IT
Services are considered, planned and
implemented in a timely fashion.
Service Capacity Management focus of this
sub process is on the performance of the IT
Services used by the customers. Responsible
for monitoring performance of all services.
Ensure that SLA and SLR are met and
required data is collected ( through
monitoring) and recorded.
Resource Capacity Management Focus of this
sub process is individual components of IT
Infrastructure. It will ensure that all
components within the IT Infrastructure that
are part of delivering services are monitored
and measured, in order to support required
Service Capacity

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Capacity Management Process

Application Sizing Is the process of estimating resource requirements to support the

proposed application change to ensure that it meets required / forecasted service levels.
Modeling is the technique used to support Capacity Management’s prime objective of
predicting the capacity utilization. Many techniques like Trend Analysis, Simulations and
Baseline Modeling.

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Financial Management

Develop policies for Budgeting, IT Accounting and Charging
Estimating, Planning and Budgeting
Targets and Measures
Help IT Manager by providing information on Cost Assessment, IT
expenditures justification, Developing IT Budgets
Budgeting is the Process of predicting and controlling the spending of money within the
organization and consists of a periodic negotiation cycle to set budgets (usually annual) and the day-
to-day monitoring of the current budgets
IT Accounting is the set of processes that enable the IT organization to account fully for the way
its money is spent (particularly the ability to identify costs by Customer, by service, by activity). It
usually involves ledgers and should be overseen by someone trained in accountancy
Charging is the set of processes required to bill Customers for the services supplied to them. To
achieve this requires sound IT Accounting, to a level of detail determined by the requirements of the
analysis, billing and reporting processes. ( Eg. Usage Basis, Turnkey, Fixed Cost etc..)
Cost Units and Classifications ( Fixed, Variable, Direct, Indirect, Capital, Operational )
Cost Benefit Analysis ( CBA). Every change and or enhancements should have CBA for the cost
justification for implementing the change / enhancement.

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IT Service Continuity Management

• Support BCM process by ensuring the required IT technical and service facilities
can be recovered within the agreed business time scales
• Risk Analysis to Plan for potential disasters, countermeasures and managing the
• Business Impact Analysis on potential failure
Scope - The risks covered by ITSCM tend to be those that could result in serious disruption to
business processes, for example the loss of, or denial of access to, IT systems or networks.
Business Continuity Management (BCM) is concerned with managing risks to ensure that at all
times an organization can continue operating to, at least, a pre-determined minimum level. The BCM
process involves reducing the risk to an acceptable level and planning for the recovery of business
processes should a risk materialize and a disruption to the business occur. ITSCM is a part of BCM
ITSCM Lifecycle
Initiation – This involves defining scope of contingency arrangements.
Requirement Analysis and Strategy Definition – Requirement analysis involves Business
Impact Analysis and Risk Analysis. Agreeable risk reduction measures and recovery options are
detailed in the strategy.
Implementation – Once the strategy has been agreed the strategy, the strategy is implemented
through various planned steps.
Operational Management – Involves education and awareness, Training, Review, Testing,
Change control and Assurance
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IT Service Continuity Management - Concepts

Recovery Options
Do Nothing ( Lowest Cost)
Manual workaround
Reciprocal arrangement (organizations backup each other).
Gradual recovery ( by replacing takes 3-4 days)
Intermediate recovery ( 24 hours –called warm stand by)
Immediate recovery ( Hot stand by – alternate site , mirroring)
IT Service Continuity Plans should have the following
Administration ( who has the responsibility)
IT Infrastructure ( Scope, SLAs, manuals)
Infrastructure Management operating procedures.
Personnel ( who is going to replace whom)
Contingency site details ( arrangements, locations, contacts, facilities, transport, how to build,
restore etc,,)
Return to normal – ( How , where and how long)
The overall plan should be tested periodically to ensure that contingency arrangements work.
Individual testing ( departments) and overall testing is required.

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