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What are they?

Destroy disease causing viruses and bacteria


Fight against antigens (substance that stimulates the
immune system to produce antibodies)
Specific shape that binds with foreign substances to
attack it
Send signals to other parts of the immune system
Examples: Antibodies and complement proteins
How are they made?

In the cell- transcription and translation provide the


genes that make the amino acid sequence
tRNA- assembles the protein until the ribosome
encounters a “stop” codon
Protein synthesis- puts the amino acids together that
make up defense proteins
The cell’s genes represent the amino acid
arrangement to make the protein function properly
Inside the Cell….
The genes from DNA are expressed through
transcription and translation

Transcription- the information in a gene’s DNA is


transferred to the RNA in the nucleus

Translation- takes place in the cytoplasm; the


ribosomes read the sequence of mRNA bases

tRNA- assembles the protein by connecting codons in


protein synthesis
Antibodies- Y-shaped so they can attach onto
foreign substances (antigens)

Highly specialized to recognize specific antigens

Binding site on each “arm” of the Y

Each binding site is specifically shaped (lock


and key fitting)

Only antigens that match that binding site will fit


and get destroyed
Immunoglobulin
Made up of glycoprotein molecules (produced
by plasma B cells) in response to an immunogen

Functions as an antibody

Main antibody isotope found in blood and fluids

Controls infections of body tissue

Rids the body of pathogens


IgG Antibodies
Most common and most important
Circulate in the blood and other body fluids
Defend against invading bacteria and viruses
Binding with antigens activates immune cells
that engulf and destroy antigens
Moves easily across cell membrane
Amino Acid Sequence of IgG
1 mkhlwfflll vaaprwvlsq

vqlqesgpgl vkpsetlslt ctvsggsiss hywswirqsp

61 gkglqwigyi yysgstnysp

slksrvtisv etsknqfslk

ltsmtaadta vyycar
ITP (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura)

Body destroys the platelets as they are made


while a typical, healthy platelet is circulates for
9-10 days
Can cause internal and external bleeding
without injury
Symptoms- red dots on skin, large bruises,
bleeding in gums
IgG use for ITP
IVIG (intra venous immunoglobulin) is a treatment for ITP
The IgG antibody is used to neutralize the foreign objects
such as ITP
IVIG is formed by taking IgG antibodies from 2o,ooo
donors and mixing them together
Infusion IVIG has proven to be effective in immune
deficiency disorder like ITP
IVIG supplies the antibodies for people who cannot make
them
SITUATION
An ITP (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura)
(low platelets) antigen is about to invade
someone’s blood cells and cause them to have
terrible virus for the rest of their life. First group
to match all of the antibodies binding sites to the
correct antigens stops the ITP antigen and gets
a prize!
Websites
www.morphosys.com/technolo www.itpanswers.com
gies/antibodies/function
www.nplate.com/patient/under
www.science.howstuffworks.c standing-itp/symptoms
om
www.cidpusa.org/ivig.html
ghr.nlm.nih.gov

www.scienceclarified.com

pathmicro.med.sc.edu

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov