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April 2006

PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD

Philippe Duquesnoy
PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Principle of the numerical-index method

A0 0
C3 A1 1
11
A
C2 A2 2
10

C1 3
A3 9

B0
C0 4
8
C B
B1
120 ° B3 B2 7 5
6

Application of three-phase
Normal order of Relative positions of
voltage to a series of
phase sequence vectors defined in space,
transformers with delta-star
("conventional direction") using a numerical index
connection

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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Application to transformers
 Equivalency numerical coupling indexes / phase shift in degrees
 Numerical index = quotient by 30 of the phase shift in degrees :

Phase-shift
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360
(in degrees)
Numerical 12
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
indexes or 0

 Application for any three-phase transformer :

 Three-phase voltage system is applied to any of the windings
 Result at the terminals of the other winding : voltage system lagged by "30 x N" degrees
 N (0 ~ 11) : transformer coupling-group index

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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Application to transformers (cont’d)
0  Direction of "voltage" vector :
 Vector "0" : direction 6  0
10 2
 Vector "4" : direction 10  4
 Vector "8" : direction 2  8

8 4  End of a vector  add 6 to the index :

6
 If sum <= 11  index end = result
 If sum > 11  index end = result - 12

 Information needed for determination of numerical index of a transformer :

 Relative directions of the windings
 Internal connections

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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Transformers with star-star coupling
 Demonstration w/ forward voltage system 0-4-8 applied to the primary winding

0 (6) (6) 0
0 0

(10) (10)
4 4

(2) (2)
4 8 8 4
8 8

00

 Voltages on the primary : 0-4-8

 Voltages on the secondary : 0-4-8
 Secondary voltages not shifted / primary voltages
8 4
 numerical index of the transformer is 0 8 4

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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Transformers with star-delta coupling
 Supply via forward-voltage system
 Demonstration w/ forward voltage system 0-4-8 applied to the primary winding
0 11
(6) (6) (0)
0 11
(10)
(10) (10) (4)
4 3
(2) 3
(2) (2) (8)
8 7
(6)
4
8
7

11 0

 Voltages on the primary : 0-4-8

 Voltages on the secondary : 11-3-7 3
 Secondary voltages lagging 330° / primary voltages 4
8
 numerical index of the transformer is 11 7

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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Transformers with delta-star coupling
 Supply via forward-voltage system
 Demonstration w/ forward voltage system 0-4-8 applied to the primary winding
0
(1)
11
0 11
(11) ( 5) (5)

(5)
3
4
(3) (9) (9) 3
(9)
8 4 8 7
(7) (1) (1)

11
0

 Voltages on the primary : 0-4-8

 Voltages on the secondary : 11-3-7
3
 Secondary voltages lagging 330° / primary voltages
 numerical index of the transformer is 11 8 4

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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Transformers with star-delta coupling
 Supply via reverse-voltage system
 Demonstration w/ forward voltage system 0-8-4 applied to the primary winding
0 1
(6) (6) (0)
0 1
(2)
(2) (2) (8)
8 9
(10) 9
(10) (10) (4)
4 5
(6)
4
8
5

0 1

 Voltages on the primary : 0-8-4

 Voltages on the secondary : 1-9-5 9

 Secondary voltages lagging 330° / primary voltages 4

8
 numerical index of the transformer is 11 5

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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Transformers with star-zigzag coupling
 Supply via forward-voltage system
 Demonstration w/ forward voltage system 0-4-8 applied to the primary winding
(6) (0)
(6) 11
0
(6) (0)
0 11

(10) (4)
(10)
4 (10) (4) 3
3

8 4 (2) (8)
(2)
8 7
(2) (8)
7

11 0

 Voltages on the primary : 0-4-8

 Voltages on the secondary : 11-3-7 3
 Secondary voltages lagging 330° / primary voltages 8 4

 numerical index of the transformer is 11 7

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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Transformers with zigzag-star coupling
 Supply via forward-voltage system
 Demonstration w/ forward voltage system 0-4-8 applied to the primary winding
(11) (5)
0 (5)
0 (11) 11 11
(5)

(3) (9)
4 (9)
(3) (9) 3 3

4 (7) (1)
8 (1)
8 7 7
(7) (1)

0
11
 Voltages on the primary : 0-4-8
 Voltages on the secondary : 11-3-7
3
 Secondary voltages lagging 330° / primary voltages
4
 numerical index of the transformer is 11 8
7 10
PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Application to looped three-phase network
Application rules
 Starting from a "break" point, give a phase index to each conductor
 Follow the path of the three conductors through the network elements
 Each conductor retains its phase index
 Transformer  introduction of a phase shift that will depend on :
 Index "N" of coupling group
 Order taken by the voltage phases applied to terminals
 "Break" point : comparison of phase indexes each side of this point
 phase-coincidence (or not) ?
 If no phase coincidence :
 Analyse of three-wire drawing  necessary changes of connection
 Possibility of new transformer to be determined

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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
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Phase diagram of 4
a looped network 0
0 4 8 0 4 8
Substation P N 11
1 5 9
1
5
8 0 4 9
8 9 5 1
0
4
4 0 8 Substation T
N 11 Substation R
3 11 7 5 1 9
7 5
11 1
3 9
3 11 7
5 1 9
Substation S N6

11 7 3
11 7 3
11
7
3 12
PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Application to differential protections
P2 P1 P1 P2
0 0 0 Generator
S2 S1 S1 S2
6 0 4 4 6 0
 opposition of "input" indexes !
10 4
G 10 4
4
8 8
8  difference of 6 between indexes
2 8 2 8
 Matching transformers :
 only for ratio adjustment (if needed)
0 4 8 2 10 6

Differential protection
measurement devices

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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Application to differential protections
Transformer
 Diagram to be drawn up and numbered
 Opposition of "receiver" / "generator" indexes !
 difference of 6 between indexes
 Phase shift "input" / "output" of transformer to be corrected by matching transformers
 "Connection" of matching transformers :
 Transformer "star" winding side  matching transformers in star/delta configuration
 Transformer "delta" winding side  matching transformers in star/star configuration
 Hardware wiring or software parameter
 Matching transformers used for ratio adjustment
 Hardware wiring or software parameter

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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
Yd11y0 6 0 11 11
5
10 4 3 3
0 6 9
0 2 8 7 7
0 4 10 1
4 6 0
0
4 8 2 6
8 10 4
4 5 9 1
8 11 3 7
8 10
2 8
2 11 3 7
0 4 8
5 9 1
6 10 2
6 10 2
5 0 4 8
87
6 10 2 bias 5
0 4 8 11 0 4 8
6 10 2
11 3 7
5 9 1
9
87 bias 9
3

1
87 bias 1
7
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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Transformers coupling : symbols and conventions
 Coupling system defined by :
 Letters written in the order of the voltages
• Upper Case : High Voltage
• lower case : Low Voltage
 D or d : delta configuration
 Y or y : Star configuration
 Z or z : Zigzag configuration
 Number indicating the numerical index :
• Phase shift HV / LV (HV = reference !)
 If star side neutral point earthed letter N or n added

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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Methods for verification of the coupling index of a transformer
Transformer YNd11 Direct method
A-N B-N C-N
a-b b-c c-a
a b c
A-a = 0 B-a C-a
A B C N 11 0
A-b B-b C-b
A-c B-c C-c
a A A-b
A-c

b
c
C-c C-b B-b

B-c
C B
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PHASE-SHIFT REPRESENTATION :
THE NUMERICAL INDEX METHOD
 Methods for determining the coupling index of a transformer (cont’d)
"Polarity" method

Polarities read / Set of terminals

Coupling
a-b a-c b-c
index
a b a c b c
+ - + - - + 0
+ -
+ - 0 0 - + 1
k + - - + - + 2
0 0 - + - + 3
A B C - + - + - + 4
- mV +
a b c N - + - + 0 0 5
- + - + + - 6
- + 0 0 + - 7
- + + - + - 8
0 0 + - + - 9
+ - + - + - 10
+ - + - 0 0 11

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