Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 67

Pathology of CNS

Neuropathology

Oleh:
Dr. Cahyono Kaelan, Ph.D, Sp.PA(K), Sp.S
Topics
1.Introduction to Neuroanatomy
2.Neuronal Degeneration
3.Congenital Abnormality (Hydrocephalus)
4. Strokes (HS & NHS)
5. Infection ( Encephalitis, Meningitis)
6. CNS Tumors
7.Degenerative CNS Diseases (AD & PD)
The anatomy of the brain
CNS Cellular
• Neuron
• Astrocytes
• Oligodendroglia
• Microglia
• Ependym
NEURONAL DEGENERATION
Neuronal Degeneration
• Chromatolysis:
is the dissolution of
the Nissl bodies in the
cell body of a neuron.
• Neurolysis:
the breaking down of
nervous tissue (as
from disease or injury)
• Neurophagia:
phagocytoses by
microglia
CONGENITAL ABNORMALITY
(HYDROCEPHALUS)
Congenital Abnormality
(Hydrocephalus)

• Hydro = Water
• Cephalus = Head
• Infection within during pregnancy
• Disturbing of CSF circulation
STROKE
Stroke

• HS = Hemorrhagic
stroke
• NHS = Non
Hemorrhagic
stroke
HS
NHS
• Thrombus
• Emboli lepas akbt atrial fibrillasi, penyakit
jantung
• Atherosclerosis =Perkapuran p.darah
• DM
• Hyperlipidaemia
• Hypertensi
• Dyscrasia darah (gangguan darah)
INFECTION
( ENCEPHALITIS, MENINGITIS)
Infeksi ( Meningitis, Encephalitis )

• Radang selaput meninges


• M-Purulenta
• M-TBC
• Panas tinggi
• Kejang-kejang
• Kesadaran menurun
• Kaku kuduk
• Slide ( Praktikum Meningitis Purulenta)
TUMORS
CNS Tumors
(Neoplasma sesuai asalnya)

• Astrocytoma
• Schwannoma
• Oligodendroglioma
• Ependymoma
• Choroid plexius papiloma
• Meningioma
Astrositoma Grade 1
• Astrositoma
pilositic berupa
kistik dengan cairan
kuning kecoklatan
dan adanya nodul
mural (mural
nodule).
• Sel
Sign and symptom
• Slow growing, and may grow to a large size before
causing symptoms.
• The symptoms will depend on the location
• The first symptoms are usually due to increased
pressure on the brain caused by the growing tumor.
• Headache and weakness in an arm or leg are the most
common, although seizures, personality changes, or
visual problems may also occur.
• Pain and loss of sensation or weakness in the arms or
legs are the most common symptoms of spinal cord
meningioma.
• Most people with meningiomas will have no symptoms.
Tekanan intra kranial & Herniasi
Penyebab Peninggian TIK :
Brain edema, Tumor, Stroke (HS dan NHS),
Hydrocephalus, Trauma Perdarahan.
TIK meninggi  Herniasi (Penurunan bagian
otak ke bagian bawah / celah
• Herniasi  menekan batang otak   pusat
pernapasan dan Jantung Kematian
Herniation

Supratentorial herniation
1. Uncal (transtentorial)
2. Central
3. Cingulate (subfalcine)
4. Transcalvarial

Infratentorial herniation
5. Upward (upward cerebellar
or upward transtentorial)
6. Tonsillar (downward cerebellar)
DEGENERATIVE DISEASE
(ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE DAN PARKINSON DISEASE)
Pathology
AD (Alzheimer’s Disease)
Atrofi lobus frontalis d temporalis
Parkinson Disease

Gejala (TRAP)
• Tremor : resting tremor
• Rigidity : cogwheel phenomena Gejala tambahan
(gerakan pasif, terputus2 dan • motorik: freezing (bhenti
langkah jalan cepat tp pendek ditempat saat mau melangkah,
sdg berjalan), start hesitation
(festination) (ragu2 mulai melangkah),
• Akinesia: mask face, hipofonia, distonia ddl
drooling, mikrografia) dll • Otonom: konstipasi, impotensi
seksual
• Postural reflex terganggu: pull test • Mental: lambat berpikir,
depresi, dementia
• Lain-lain:
Pathogenesis
• Degenerative (old), > 65 tahun
• Genetics
• Traumatic (repetitive injury / Pugulistic)
• Post infections (Encephalitis)
• Parkinsonism= Parkinson akibat obat2an
/psikotropika= usia muda (Bedakan dgn real
PD)
Pathology PD

• Mid brain
• Kerusakan Subtantia Nigra
• Pigmented neuron
• Levy body
• Gliosis
for the attention