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Nanotechnology

and its
applications in
catalysis and
membrane
technology
Nano Technology

– A more generalized description of nanotechnology was


subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology
Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the
manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized
from 1 to 100 nanometers.
Benefits

– Stronger
– Lighter
– More durable
– More reactive
– Better electrical Conductor
Applications

– Electronics
– Medicine
– Food
– Fuel cell
– Battery space
– Water purification
– Biomedical application such as sensors
– Fabrics etc
Nanomaterials and
membrane technology

– Why use membrane technology


– Application in separation technology
– Purpose of removing CO2
– Polymeric membrane and trade off
– Purpose of nano filler in membrane technology
Nanomaterials and
membrane technology

– S. Galaleldin et. al. synthesized MMM with the


polyethersulfone (PES) as a polymer and TiO2 as a filler and
discussed its performance for the separation of CO2.
– FESEM showed the morphology of synthesized membrane.
It was observed that increasing the content of filler
increase the agglomeration, even at low percentage, the
agglomeration is observed. Due to the agglomeration of
membrane, the performance of membrane was decreased.
Nanomaterials and
membrane technology

Fig. 1:FESEM images of the cross-section of MMMs at 5,000x


magnification (a) PES-TiO2 5%, (b) PES-TiO2 10% and (c) PES-
TiO2 15%.
Nanomaterials and
membrane technology

– It was seen that the permeability of MMM was increased


as compared to pure polymer.
– However, the selectivity was decreased at high content of
filler due to the agglomeration. The maximum selectivity
was achieved at 5 wt. % of TiO2.
– This can be attributed to the incorporation of the inorganic
filler which facilitates better removal of CO2 as compared to
CH4.
– High loadings of filler particles disrupt the chain packing of
the polymer and increases the free volumes for CH4 to
permeate, resulting in drastically reduced selectivity.
Nanotechnology and Catalysis
Historical Hierarchy

– The field of nano catalysis is not as new as could be expected


from the current nano hype. Actually, its concept is known
since the 1950s when the term nanotechnology was not even
known

Fig. 2: Historical Hierarchy of Nano Catalyst


Introduction

– Catalysis:
Is the increase in the rate of chemical reaction due to the
participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.
– Nano catalyst:
A catalyst composed of nanoparticles smaller than 100nm in
at least one dimension porous compounds having pore
diameter not bigger than 100 nm
– Catalysis
Is the increase in the rate of chemical reaction due to the
participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.
Benefits of nano catalysts in
chemical industry

Fig. 3 Benefits of nano catalysts in chemical industry


Global Catalyst Industry

Fig. 4: Global Catalyst Industry

https://www.lucintel.com/catalysts-market-2018.aspx
Nano Catalysts

– Homogeneous Nano
catalysts
Nanoparticles are naturally
attracted towards one another in
these conditions and will clump
together to form larger particles.
– Heterogeneous Nano
catalysts
Heterogeneous catalysts are much
easier to remove from the reaction
mixture, and are also more
adaptable to continuous flow
processes
Homogeneous Nano Catalyst
Preparation methods

– Chemical Reduction Method


Reduction of transition metal salt in solution to form the nano
particles.
– Ligand Displacement Method
Displacement of the ligand in the organometallic complex.
– Condensation vapor method
Evaporation of transition metal vapors at reduced pressure and
subsequent co-condensation of these metals at low temperature
with organic vapors.
– Electrochemical Reduction Method
Precursor metal ions are reduced at the cathode using anode at
the metal source.
Heterogeneous Nano
catalyst preparation method

– Adsorption Method
Heterogeneous metal nano catalyst are prepared by
adsorption of nanoparticles onto support which involves
functionalization of support to adsorb nanoparticles on to
them.
– Example:
Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of oleic acid-
coated TiO2 nanoparticles carrying MoO2 in the oxidation of
olefins and sulphides using economical peroxides.
Catalytic activity of nano
catalyst

– Catalytic activity of Nanocatalyst depends on following parameters

1. Geometry

2. Composition

3. Oxidation state

4. Physical environment

5. Chemical environment

https://www.slideshare.net/foolishcrack/nanocatalyst-108342252
Industrial Applications

– Nanomaterials offer many possibilities as catalysts to meet


future global demands in the following catalytic process
technology
– Petroleum Refining
– Petrochemical industry
– Synthetic fuel production
– Polymer manufacturing
– Pharmaceutical sector
– Food processing
– Chemical Sector