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DIRECTING

UNIT - 4

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Introduction
 Directing/Direction is a function of
management performed by top level
management in order to achieve
organizational goals. It is very important and
necessary function of management.

 Management has to undertake various


activities like, guide people, inspired and lead
them as well as supervision of their activity is
required in order to achieve desired results.
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
Meaning and Definition
 Direction consists of the process and
techniques utilized in issuing instructions and
making certain that operations are carried as
originally planned.

 “Directing involves determining the course,


giving order and instruction and providing
dynamic leadership” – Marshall

 “Activating means and moving into action-


supplying simulative power to the group”- G.R
Terry
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
Directing involves…..
 Telling people what is to be done and
explaining how to do it.
 Issuing instructions and orders to
subordinates.
 Inspiring them to contribute towards the
achievement of objectives,
 Supervising their activities;
 Providing leadership and motivation

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


ELEMENTS OF DIRECTION

 Communication
 Leading
 Motivation
 Supervision
 Coordination

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


LEADERSHIP

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Leadership Is…

- Art of getting someone else to do something


that you want done because he wants to do it
(Dwight D. Eisenhower)

- Process of directing the behaviour of others


toward the accomplishments of objectives.

- Is one of the important parts of direction.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


“Leadership is the ability to secure
desirable action from a group of followers
voluntarily, without the use of coercion”-
Alford and Beatly

“Leadership refers to the quality of the


behaviour of the individual whereby they
guide people on their activities in organized
efforts”- Chester Barnard
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
LEADERSHIP STYLES

 Autocratic Leadership

Under the autocratic leadership style, all decision-


making powers are centralized in the leader, as with
dictators.

Leaders do not entertain any suggestions or


initiatives from subordinates. The autocratic management
has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the
manager. It permits quick decision-making, as only one
person decides for the whole group and keeps each
decision to him/herself until he/she feels it needs to be
shared with the rest of the group.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Participative Leadership

consists of the leader sharing the


decision-making abilities with group members
by promoting the interests of the group
members and by practicing social equality.

Consultative Leaders
Consensus Leaders
Democratic Leaders
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
 Free- rein Leadership /Laissez-faire

A person may be in a leadership


position without providing leadership,
leaving the group to fend for itself.
Subordinates are given a free hand in
deciding their own policies and methods.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Narcissistic leadership

The narcissism may be healthy or


destructive although there is a continuum
between the two. To critics, "narcissistic
leadership (preferably destructive) is driven
by unyielding arrogance, self-absorption, and
a personal egotistic need for power and
admiration.
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
 Toxic leadership

A toxic leader is someone who has


responsibility over a group of people or an
organization, and who abuses the leader-
follower relationship by leaving the group
or organization in a worse-off condition
than when he/she first found them.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


LEADING IN TIMES OF
CRISIS

 Stay calm
 Be visible
 Put people before business
 Tell the truth
 Know when to get back to business

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


MOTIVATION

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


- set of forces that energize worker to do their job and
to sustain their behaviour.

Introduction & Definition to motivate means to provide


motive, to impel people to action, and to create
incentives to work.

“Motivation is the work a manager performs to


inspired, encourage, and impel people to take required
action” – Lewis Allen

“The act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a


desired course of action”- Michael J

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Nature and Characteristics
Motivation

 Is an internal feeling
 Motivation is related to needs
 Motivation lead to goal oriented
behaviour
 Motivation can be positive or negative

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Importance of Motivation

1.Puts human resources into action

Every concern requires physical, financial


and human resources to accomplish the goals.
It is through motivation that the human
resources can be utilized by making full use of
it. This can be done by building willingness in
employees to work. This will help the
enterprise in securing best possible utilization
of resources.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


2. Improves level of efficiency of employees

The level of a subordinate or an employee


does not only depend upon his qualifications and
abilities. For getting best of his work performance,
the gap between ability and willingness has to be
filled which helps in improving the level of
performance of subordinates. This will result into-
a. Increase in productivity,
b. Reducing cost of operations, and
c. Improving overall efficiency.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


3. Leads to achievement of organizational goals

The goals of an enterprise can be achieved only


when the following factors take place :-

4. Builds friendly relationship

Motivation is an important factor which brings


employees satisfaction. This can be done by keeping into
mind and framing an incentive plan for the benefit of the
employees. This could initiate the following things:

a. Monetary and non-monetary incentives,


b. Promotion opportunities for employees,
c. Disincentives for inefficient employees.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

a. Physiological
b. Safety and security
c. Social
d. Esteem
e. Self-actualization

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


2. Herzberg’s Two-Factor
Theory
a. Establishing basic needs at work
1. Salary and benefits
2. Working conditions
3. Company Policy
4. Status
5. Job security
6. Supervision and autonomy
7. Office Life
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
b. Heightening workplace motivation
1. Achievement
2. Recognition
3. Job Interest
4. Responsibility
5. Advancement

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


3. Need Achievement Theory
4. Acquired needs Theory

a. Need for achievement


b. Need for power
c. Need for Affiliation

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


5. Goal setting Theory

a. Specific goals lead to higher performance


than do generalize do goals

b. Performance generally increases in direct


proportion to go difficulty

c. For goals to improve performance, the


employee must accept them

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


d. Goals are more effective when they are
use to evaluate performance

e. Goals should be linked to feedback and


reward

f. Goals setting is as important as individual


goal setting

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


6. Expectancy Theory of
Motivation
1. The individual believes effort (E) will
lead to favourable performance (P)

2. The individual believes performance


will lead to favourable outcome (O)

3. Outcome or reward satisfies an


important need

4. Needs dissatisfaction is intense enough


to make efforts seem worthwhile

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


7.Theory I

TYPES OF MOTIVATION

1. Fear motivation

2. Incentive motivation

3. Change or growth motivation

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


SUPERVISION

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


COMMUNICATION

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Communication Is…

 - Complex and multifaceted


phenomenon. It is the process by which
verbal and non-verbal symbols are sent,
received and given meaning.

 “Communication” word has been derived


from Latin word “Communis” which
means common, thus communication
stands for sharing of an idea in common.
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
 “Communication is an exchange of facts,
ideas, opinions or emotions by two or
more persons” – Newman and Summer

 “It is a sum of all the things one person


does when he wants to create
understanding in the minds of another. It
is a bridge of meaning, it involve
systematic telling, listening, and
understanding” – Haimann
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
Most Common Way to
Communicate

Speaking Writing

Body Visual
language images

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


ELEMENTS OF
COMMUNICATION
People - minimum is 2; one will act as the
sender and the other the receiver

Message – the content or the substance of


what is being communicated, could be an
idea, feeling, instruction, fact or opinion

Channel – the medium and the manner by


which the message is conveyed ; could be
verbal or non-verbal
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
Feedback – the reaction of the receiver to
the message as conveyed through a
particular channel; measures the
effectiveness of the communication

Noise – anything that distorts the message


conveyed

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


The Communication Process

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


FOUR BASIC DIRECTIONS

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Downward Communication

Travels from superior to subordinates.


Katz and Kahn have identified five general
purposes of superior-subordinate
communication.

 To give specific task directives about job


instruction

 To give information about organization


procedures and practices
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
 To provide information about the
rationale of the job

 To tell subordinates about their


performance

 To provide ideological-type information to


facilitate the indoctrination of goals

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Upward Communication

Travels from subordinate to superior.


The most common purpose of this
communication is to provide feedback on
how well things are going. It provides also
the middle level managers the opportunity
to represent their subordinates to the
upper level managers.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Examples:
a. Open-Door Policy
a communication policy in which a
manager, CEO, president or supervisor
leaves their office door "open" in order to
encourage openness and transparency with
the employees of that company.

c. Complaint program
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
Lateral Communication

Takes place between people in the


same level of the management hierarchy.
The most common reason for this
communication flow is to provide
coordination and teamwork

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Diagonal Communication

Occurs between people who are


neither in the same department nor in the
same level of management hierarchy. In this
case, someone communicate either
downward or upward with someone in
another functional area. In utilizing this flow
of communication, protocol must be
observed so as not to bypass the authority
of the person concerned

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Effective Methods of Communication

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Electronics
These are highly effective means of
quickly reaching those with whom you
are communicating

Interaction and participation are possible


and often simple – for all involved
parties

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Their ease of use means that they pose a
possible risk of communications overload

The seemingly endless possible


combinations of words, images and colour
are very powerful

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Meetings
If used properly; meetings can build relationships
and mutual trust

Meetings enable instant feedback

Meetings facilitate mutual understanding

Reponses can often be gauged through eye contact

Preparation, planning and openness are required

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Journalism
In-house publications enable a wide range
of messages and editorial techniques

It is possible to facilitate some interaction


through reader’ letters and contributions.

The content of most organizations’ journals


tends to be bland, resulting in low
leadership
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
Internal Marketing
This is a powerful method of “selling”
change to the organization’s own staff

Detailed written documents and colourful


posters help to explain and simplify
complex messages

These techniques are able to elicit very


strong, immediate motivational responses
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
Noticeboards
Can be either official information givers, or
for general use by employees

Provide a central location in which to make


information accessible to all employees.

There is no real possibility of interactive


response, and employees may feel
uninvolved.
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
Telephone
The telephone is not suitable for lengthy or
complicated discussions

The lack of physical presence may lessen


the speakers’ understanding of each other

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Too much information – people suffers
from what we call sensory overload

 The message is poorly organized –


communicating also involves planning

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Inaudible voice – when talking in front of
a crowd be sure that you have loud and
clear voice so that everybody will be able
to hear what you are saying

 Mannerisms – distract attention

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Lack of understanding

 Inconsistent verbal and non-verbal


communication

 Noise – any factors that disturbs,


confuses or interferes with
communication

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Differing perceptions – people who have
different backgrounds of knowledge and
experience often perceive the same
phenomenon from different perspective

 Language differences – the words used


must mean the same thing to sender and
receiver

 Too many links in the communication


process
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO
COMMUNICATION

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Use feedback to facilitate understanding
and increase the potential for appropriate
action

 Repeat message in order to provide


assurance that they are properly received

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Use multiple channels so that the
accuracy of the information may be
enhanced

 Use simplified language that are easily


understandable and which eliminates the
possibility of people getting mixed-up
with meanings

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


TO ATTAIN EFFECTIVE
MANAGERIAL
COMMUNICATION

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Humanize – understand, appreciate and
elevate the importance of humans above
other concerns

 Harmonize – establish a climate of


cooperation, trust, helpfulness, confidence,
belongingness and openness

 Habitualize – put into a habit such


positive practices
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
 Institutionalize – put into practice good
communication habits at the individual level until
these practices are introduced to the company or
organization as standard operating procedure

 Acclimatize – adjust, be flexible and extra tolerant

 Modernize – learn the modern ways of


communicating

 Symbolize – if words will not do, use symbols

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Empathize – to understand intimately the
other people’s feelings ,thoughts, motives
and aspirations

 Dualize – make your communication dual

 Minimize – Keep It short!!!!

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


INFORMAL
COMMUNICATION IN THE
ORGANIZATION

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


The Grapevine is an informal channel
of business communication. It is called so
because it stretches throughout the
organization in all directions irrespective of
the authority levels.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


a. Grapevine Networks

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Gossip chain – happens when one person
passes informal communication to all
others in the informal organization

Single strand – each person receives


information from one individual and
passes it to another

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Probability chain – people randomly pass
information to the other members of the
organization

Cluster chain – people pass information to


other members of the informal
organization selectively

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


b. Grapevine Activity.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


People tend to engage in grapevine when:

When people lack information

When there is insecurity in a situation

When people have personal interest in


the situation

When they have new information


14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
Importance of Leadership

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Initiates action- Leader is a person who
starts the work by communicating the
policies and plans to the subordinates
from where the work actually starts.

 Motivation- He motivates the


employees with economic and non-
economic rewards and thereby gets the
work from the subordinates.
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
 Providing guidance- A leader has to not only
supervise but also play a guiding role for the
subordinates. Guidance here means instructing
the subordinates the way they have to perform
their work effectively and efficiently.

 Creating confidence- Confidence is an


important factor which can be achieved through
expressing the work efforts to the subordinates,
explaining them clearly their role and giving them
guidelines to achieve the goals effectively. It is also
important to hear the employees with regards to
their complaints and problems.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Building morale- Morale denotes willing co-
operation of the employees towards their work
and getting them into confidence and winning
their trust. A leader can be a morale booster by
achieving full co-operation so that they perform
with best of their abilities as they work to achieve
goals.

 Builds work environment- Management is


getting things done from people. An efficient work
environment helps in sound and stable growth.
Therefore, human relations should be kept into
mind by a leader. He should have personal
contacts with employees and should listen to
their problems and solve them. He should treat
employees on humanitarian terms.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Co-ordination- Co-ordination can be
achieved through reconciling personal
interests with organizational goals. This
synchronization can be achieved through
proper and effective co-ordination which
should be primary motive of a leader.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


a. Fielder’s Contingency Theory

- it hypothesizes that, in any given leadership


situation success is determined primarily by;

1. The degree to which the task being performed by


the followers is structured

2. The degree of position power possess by the leader

3. The type of relationship that exists between the


leader and the followers.

b. Theory X and Y Assumptions

c. Theory Z
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
MANAGEMENT STYLES

1. Management by crisis

The process by which an organization deals with a


major event that threatens to harm the
organization, its stakeholders, or the general public.

2. Management by exception

Is a "policy by which management devotes its time


to investigating only those situations in which actual
results differ significantly from planned results.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


3. Management by objectives

A process of defining objectives within an


organization so that management and employees
agree to the objectives and understand what they
need to do in the organization

4. Management by coaching and development

Best described as the process from which managers


learn and improve their skills not only to benefit
themselves but also their employing organizations.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


5. Management by competitive edge

defined as the strategic advantage one business entity has over


its rival entities within its competitive industry. Achieving
competitive advantage strengthens and positions a business
better within the business environment.

6. Management by consensus

Consensus management means that when a decision is reached


by the group, there is total commitment to it by all members. It
does not necessarily mean the decision was reached easily or
that there were not widely differing views shared and debated
during the group's discussion. But once consensus is formally
achieved, division of opinion, so far as that decision is
concerned, should cease.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


7. Management by styles
8. Management by walking around
9. Words simplifications

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


FILIPINOS AS MANAGERS

a. Managers who are content-oriented;


interested on what to do and why; most
planners and thinkers

1.Manager by Libro

2.Manager by Oydo

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


b. Managers who are process oriented;
interested in how to do the job; most
implementers and doers

1.Manager by Kayod

2.Manager by Lusot

c. Combination of content and process

1.Management by Ognayan
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
MOTIVATION

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


- set of forces that energize worker to do their job and
to sustain their behaviour.

Introduction & Definition to motivate means to provide


motive, to impel people to action, and to create
incentives to work.

“Motivation is the work a manager performs to


inspired, encourage, and impel people to take required
action” – Lewis Allen

“The act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a


desired course of action”- Michael J

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Nature and Characteristics
Motivation

 Is an internal feeling
 Motivation is related to needs
 Motivation lead to goal oriented
behaviour
 Motivation can be positive or negative

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Importance of Motivation

1.Puts human resources into action

Every concern requires physical, financial


and human resources to accomplish the goals.
It is through motivation that the human
resources can be utilized by making full use of
it. This can be done by building willingness in
employees to work. This will help the
enterprise in securing best possible utilization
of resources.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


2. Improves level of efficiency of employees

The level of a subordinate or an employee


does not only depend upon his qualifications and
abilities. For getting best of his work performance,
the gap between ability and willingness has to be
filled which helps in improving the level of
performance of subordinates. This will result into-
a. Increase in productivity,
b. Reducing cost of operations, and
c. Improving overall efficiency.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


3. Leads to achievement of organizational goals

The goals of an enterprise can be achieved only


when the following factors take place :-

4. Builds friendly relationship

Motivation is an important factor which brings


employees satisfaction. This can be done by keeping into
mind and framing an incentive plan for the benefit of the
employees. This could initiate the following things:

a. Monetary and non-monetary incentives,


b. Promotion opportunities for employees,
c. Disincentives for inefficient employees.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

a. Physiological
b. Safety and security
c. Social
d. Esteem
e. Self-actualization

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


2. Herzberg’s Two-Factor
Theory
a. Establishing basic needs at work
1. Salary and benefits
2. Working conditions
3. Company Policy
4. Status
5. Job security
6. Supervision and autonomy
7. Office Life
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
b. Heightening workplace motivation
1. Achievement
2. Recognition
3. Job Interest
4. Responsibility
5. Advancement

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


3. Need Achievement Theory
4. Acquired needs Theory

a. Need for achievement


b. Need for power
c. Need for Affiliation

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


5. Goal setting Theory

a. Specific goals lead to higher performance


than do generalize do goals

b. Performance generally increases in direct


proportion to go difficulty

c. For goals to improve performance, the


employee must accept them

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


d. Goals are more effective when they are
use to evaluate performance

e. Goals should be linked to feedback and


reward

f. Goals setting is as important as individual


goal setting

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


6. Expectancy Theory of
Motivation
1. The individual believes effort (E) will
lead to favourable performance (P)

2. The individual believes performance


will lead to favourable outcome (O)

3. Outcome or reward satisfies an


important need

4. Needs dissatisfaction is intense enough


to make efforts seem worthwhile

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


7.Theory I

TYPES OF MOTIVATION

1. Fear motivation

2. Incentive motivation

3. Change or growth motivation

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


SUPERVISION

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


Supervision implies expert overseeing of
subordinates -at work in order to guide and
regulate their efforts. Every manager has to
supervise the work of his subordinates to see that
they do their work as desired. But supervision is
particularly important at the operating level of
management or at the low-level management.

The supervisor is in direct personal contact


with the workers and he acts as the link between
workers and management. He communicates the
policies, plans and orders of management to the
workers. He also brings workers' grievances,
suggestions and appeals to the notice of
management. Effective supervision is essential for
the accomplishment of desired goals.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


The direction of people at work is the
most difficult of all production related tasks.
Supervision means constantly functioning in a
state of flux and ambiguity and few people feel
satisfaction from being a supervisor. The
reason this is worth mentioning is because
many new supervisors feel that something is
"wrong" when they are constantly faced with
problems relating to their workforce. This
state of flux and ambiguity is normal to
supervision and success is measured in
percentages rather than absolutes.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


All work requires the coordination of effort. We
accomplish this by giving workers assigned tasks and assigned
time in which they are to accomplish these tasks. But just giving
instructions is not enough.You must give clear, specific
instructions on what is to be done, monitor the worker in
the course of their efforts and hold them accountable for
specific results. These three elements; specific instructions on
what is to be done, monitoring them periodically to make sure
it is being done, and making the employee accountable for the
results are the core of the supervisory process. It is the
responsibility of the supervisor to do this. Workers who do not
receive good instruction and direction; who are allowed to do
work incorrectly without correction and who do not have a
review of their performance have not had proper supervision
and hence have not been allowed to perform properly.

The purpose of supervision is to ensure that


subordinates perform their tasks according to prescribed
procedures and as efficiently as possible.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


In Supervising

1. Set realistic expectations. The expectations that


are often left unstated need to be openly discussed.

2. Establish clear goals. Goal setting gives purpose


and direction to the work of the individual subordinates
as well as to the manager. It ensures alignment to
corporate strategy.

3. Communicate. Successful communication is a


learned process that must accommodate individual
needs. As the boss, you establish the norms. Solicit
feedback, encourage discussion (especially alternate
points of view), and be accessible.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


4. Support. A manager is not made by title
alone. Anyone new to a supervisory
position needs to develop certain
professional skills.Your mentoring will be
the key to success.

5. Be the Model Manager . Lead the way!


Have others do as you say and do.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


COORDINATION

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


What's Coordination?
 Co-ordination is the unification, integration,
synchronization of the efforts of group members
so as to provide unity of action in the pursuit of
common goals. It is a hidden force which binds all
the other functions of management.
 According to Mooney and Reelay, “Co-ordination
is orderly arrangement of group efforts to
provide unity of action in the pursuit of common
goals”.
 According to Charles Worth, “Coordination is
the integration of several parts into an orderly
hole to achieve the purpose of understanding”.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


 Management seeks to achieve co-ordination
through its basic functions of planning, organizing,
staffing, directing and controlling. That is why, co-
ordination is not a separate function of
management because achieving of harmony
between individuals efforts towards achievement
of group goals is a key to success of management.
Co-ordination is the essence of management and
is implicit and inherent in all functions of
management.
 A manager can be compared to an orchestra
conductor since both of them have to create
rhythm and unity in the activities of group
members.
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M
Co-ordination through
Directing

- The purpose of giving orders, instructions


& guidance to the subordinates is served
only when there is a harmony between
superiors & subordinates.

14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M


END
14/06/2019 PROF BASAVARAJ S M