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Speech before
the US
Congress on
18, 1986
•Senior Editor, Business Week Magazine
•Assistant Managing Editor, Bloomberg
Markets Magazine

Michael S. Serrill
•To inform people about the message on the
He was known to be a freelance writer,
Corazon Aquino’s Speech
editor and content consultant. Serrill was
a graduate of journalism and a master of
Science in Columbia University
She is fast and experienced writer, novelist,
editor and former journalist.

She has specialized most recently in women's
rights, reproductive health, population,
development economics, environmental and
Joanne Omang energy issues, human rights and global health.

Purpose: To show how the Aquino family and

the Filipinos had their hard times during
presidency of Ferdinand Marcos

Jonas Rodrigo

Juan Andres Donato Bautista

Definition of Terms:
Joint Session of the United Congress –a gathering members of the two chambers of the bicameral
legislature of the federal government of the United States; the Senate and the House of
Dictator – a ruler with total power over a country, typically one who has obtained control by force.
Dictatorship – a government or a social situation where one person makes all the rules and
decisions without input from anyone else.
Democracy – a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of state ,
typically through elected representatives
Bill of Rights – a declaration and enumeration of a persons right and privileges which the
Constitution is designed to protect against violation by the government, or individual or groups of
Definition of Terms
Martial Law – ‘’Batas Militar” is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian
functions by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or
major disaster, or in an occupied territory.

Conviction – a formal declaration that someone is guilty of a criminal offense, made by the
verdict of a jury or the decision of a judge in a court of law.

Commissions on elections – one of three constitutional commissions of the Philippines. Its

principal role is to enforce all laws and regulations relative to conduct of elections in the
Definition of Terms
Parliament – a legislative body of government. Generally, a
modern parliament has three functions: representing the
electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government
via hearings and inquiries .

Communist Insurgency – may refer to HUKBALAHAP

Rebellion And NPA rebellion
Corazon Aquino
Maria Corazon Cojuangco Aquino
Born: January 25, 1933 in Tarlac
Province, Philippines
Death: August 1, 2009
Spouse: Benigno S. Aquino Jr.
Parents: Jose Cojuangco
Demetria Sumulong

Eleventh President of the Philippines

Corazon Aquino
Maria Elena Aquino Cruz
Aurora Corazon Aquino Abellada
President Benigno S. Aquino III
Victoria Elisa Aquino Dee
Kristina Bernadette Aquino
• assumed position due to the EDSA Revolution
•Philippine political leader who served
as president (1986–1992) of the Philippines,
restoring democratic rule in that country after
the long dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos
Why Marcos declared Martial Law?
Proclamation of Martial Law: On September
21, 1972, President Ferdinand E.
Marcos placed the Philippines under Martial
Law. The declaration issued under
Proclamation 1081 suspended the civil rights
and imposed military authority in the country.
Marcos defended the declaration stressing
the need for extra powers to quell the rising
wave of violence allegedly caused by
communists. The emergency rule was also
intended to eradicate the roots of rebellion
and promote a rapid trend for national
development. The autocrat assured the
country of the legality of Martial Law
emphasizing the need for control over civil
disobedience that displays lawlessness.
Why Marcos declared Martial Law?
. Marcos explained citing the provisions from the Philippine
Constitution that Martial Law is a strategic approach to
legally defend the Constitution and protect the welfare of
the Filipino people from the dangerous threats posed by
Muslim rebel groups and Christian vigilantes that places
national security at risk during the time
Why Marcos declared Martial Law?
Marcos explained that martial law was not a military
takeover but was then the only option to resolve the
country’s dilemma on rebellion that stages national chaos
threatening the peace and order of the country. The
emergency rule, according to Marcos’s plan, was to lead the
country into what he calls a “New Society”.
Brief History: Exile for the Aquinos
In 1978, Ferdinand Marcos decided to hold Corazon did not approve of Ninoy's decision to
parliamentary elections, the first since his campaign for parliament from prison, but she
imposition of martial law, in order to add a dutifully delivered campaign speeches for him.
veneer of democracy to his rule. He fully This was a key turning point in her life, moving
expected to win, but the public the shy housewife into the political spotlight
overwhelmingly supported the opposition, led for the first time. Marcos rigged the election
in absentia by the jailed Ninoy Aquino. results, however, claiming more than 70
percent of the parliamentary seats in a clearly
fraudulent result.
Brief History:Exile for the Aquinos
Meanwhile, Ninoy's health was suffering from
his long imprisonment. U.S. President Jimmy
carter personally intervened, asking Marcos to
allow the Aquino family to go into medical
exile in the States. In 1980, the regime allowed
the family to move to Boston.
Corazon spent some of the best years of her
life there, reunited with Ninoy, surrounded by
her family, and out of the scrum of politics.
Ninoy, on the other hand, felt obligated to
renew his challenge to the Marcos dictatorship
once he had recovered his health. He began to
plan a return to the Philippines.
Brief History:Exile for the Aquinos
Corazon and the children stayed in America
while Ninoy took a circuitous route back to
Manila. Marcos knew he was coming, though,
and had Ninoy assassinated as he got off the
plane on August 21, 1983. Corazon Aquino was
a widow at the age of 50.
Content of the Speech of Corazon Aquino
before the US Congress on eptember 1986
Millions of Filipinos poured into the streets of
Manila for Ninoy's funeral. Corazon led the
procession with quiet grief and dignity and
went on to lead protests and political
demonstrations as well. Her calm strength
under horrific conditions made her the center
of anti-Marcos politics in the Philippines—a
movement known as "People Power."

‘’Three years ago, I left America in grief to bury my

husband, Ninoy Aquino. I thought I had left it also to lay to
rest his restless dream of Philippine freedom’’
In burying Ninoy, a whole nation honored him.
By that brave and selfless act of giving honor, a
nation in shame recovered its own. A country
that had lost faith in its future found it in a
faithless and brazen act of murder. So in
giving, we receive, in losing we find, and out of
defeat, we snatched our victory.
President-turned-dictator, and traitor to his
oath, suspended the Constitution and shut
down the Congress .He detained my husband
along with thousands of others – senators,
publishers and anyone who had spoken up for
the democracy. The task had fallen on my
shoulders to continue offering the democratic
alternative to our people.
Archibald Macleish had said that democracy
must be defended by arms when it is attacked
by arms and by truth when it is attacked by
lies. He failed to say how it shall be won.
I held out for participation in the 1984 election the
dictatorship called, even if I knew it would be
rigged. I was warned by the lawyers of the
opposition that I ran the grave risk of legitimizing
the foregone results of elections that were clearly
going to be fraudulent. But I was not fighting for
lawyers but for the people in whose intelligence I
had implicit faith.
Aging and ill, Marcos did not
take the challenge from
Corazon Aquino very
seriously. He noted that she
was "just a woman," and
said that her proper place
was in the bedroom.
Despite massive turnout by
Corazon's "People Power"
supporters, the Marcos-
allied parliament declared
him the winner. Protestors
poured into the Manila
streets once more and top
military leaders defected to
Corazon's camp.
On February 25, 1986, as a
result of the "People Power
Revolution," Corazon Aquino
became the first female
president of the Philippines.
She restored democracy to
the country, promulgated a
new constitution, and served
until 1992.
President Aquino's tenure was not entirely smooth, however. She pledged agrarian
reform and land redistribution, but her background as a member of the landed classes
made this a difficult promise to keep. Corazon Aquino also convinced the U.S. to
withdraw its military from remaining bases in the Philippines.

Finally, may I turn to that other slavery: our $26 billion foreign debt. I have said that we shall
honor it. Yet must the means by which we shall be able to do so be kept from us? Many
conditions imposed on the previous government that stole this debt continue to be imposed on
us who never benefited from it. And no assistance or liberality commensurate with the calamity
that was visited on us has been extended. Yet ours must have been the cheapest revolution
ever. With little help from others, we Filipinos fulfilled the first and most difficult conditions of
the debt negotiation the full restoration of democracy and responsible government.
“Like Lincoln, I
understand that force
may be necessary before
mercy. Like Lincoln, I
don’t relish it. Yet, I will
do whatever it takes to
defend the integrity and
freedom of my country.”
“Three years ago, I said thank you, America, for the haven
from oppression, and the home you gave Ninoy, myself
and our children, and for the three happiest years of our
lives together. Today, I say, join us, America, as we build a
new home for democracy, another haven for the
oppressed, so it may stand as a shining testament of our
two nation’s commitment to freedom”.
Highlights of the Speech
Highlights of the Speech
“ The task had fallen
on my shoulders to
continue offering the
democratic alternative
to our people”.
“Still, we faught
for honor, and if
only for honor
we shall pay”.
Corazon Aquino had a tremendous impact on
her nation and on the world's perception of
women in power. She has been described as
both the "mother of Philippine democracy"
and as the "housewife who led a revolution."
Aquino has been honored, both during and
after her lifetime, with major international
awards including the United Nations Silver
Medal, the Eleanor Roosevelt Human Rights
Award, and the Women's International Center
International Leadership Living Legacy Award.
“ without the right values in the people a
democracy is only a confederacy of fools”