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Dimas Hari Saputra 2015130089
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Niken Tri Utami 2015130031
Translation goes to the Movie
Micheal Cronin

Translation goes to the Movies demonstrates how translation has been an

abiding concern of film makers dealing with questions of culture, identity, migration,
conflict, representation and globalization. The work not only introduces the reader to a
number of core concerns in translation theory and practice but it also shows how these
issues matter greatly in the wider culture and society as presented on screen.

how translation is presented on the big screen? given the continuing popularity
of cinema, on both the big and the small screen, and the intensely global nature of its
dissemination over a very long period, motion pictures are apotent source of images and
representation of what translation might or might not involve. Demonstrating the
importance of translation to interlingual and intercultural contact and heightening the
visibility of translation and translators, demands that we look more closely at a medium
where translation has long been a matter of visible thematic and representational concern.
Chapter 1, Translation: the screen test

“The picture that moves is a universal language” (David Llewelyn

Wark Griffith the director of The Birth of a Nation (1915) and
Intolerance (1916). He believed that the picture was a universal
symbol and not “flicker” as one of his actresses said.

The supposed immediacy or accessibility of the image, the universal currency of the
symbol, is closely linked to the rise of prestige of the visual and of the importance of
visual evidence in the scientific revolutions of the sixteenth and seventeenth century
(Rorty 1980).

Michael Chanan has observed that ‘the film business was international from the very
beginning’ (Chanan 1990: 187) and Tom Gunning claims that in the early period of the
silent movie ‘film has an international distribution that is unparalleled in later history’
(Gunning 1990b: 89).

in German market before 1994, the German share

of movie distributed on market was around 15%
and the rest were sourced from France 30%,
United States 25%, Italy 20%. Only a third of the
movie produced in United States, the rest came
from Europe and half of these were produced by
one company, Pathè (Musser 1990s:364,412).

Companies that dominated the movie business up until the outbreak of war in 1914
including Pathè and Gaumont in France, Edison, Biograph and Vitagraph in the United
States, and Messter in Germany.
The Sound Of Silence
According to Gaudreult :

 Silent films is not that they were silent,

but this could take the form of live
music, sound effects, sychronized
dialogue spoken by actor behind the
screen or a comentary provided by
lecturer filling out or explaining what
was going on in the images.
 The film maker could not be everywhere at
once. So, The Film Maker make a choice to edit
their film is called editing.

 The methods (written dan oral form) involve

the use of languages.

 The relation between sound of silence and the

movie translation is to help the audience to
understand the meaning and what was going
on in the film
 The two form of screen translation, dubbing,
and subtitling, complement the distancing
mechanism of language alterity.

It is a sense because Hollywood cinema needs

to be translated that it can continue to
function as a site of intense projection and
multiple interpretations
 The language of Hollywood is a language that
was actually spoken by real people and going
behind the screen, crossing over from
celluloid fantasy to local reality, meant an
engagement with this linguistic reality in all its
 The success or the reach of US popular
cinema would be inconceivable without the
intervention of dubbers and subtitlers

 yet in mainstream film studies, even when

considering questions of audience reception,
their efforts are almost invariably ignored.
 For this reason, the research carried out by
translation studies scholars on the history of
subtitling and dubbing practies is vital for a
fuller understanding of how cinema has been
mediated in different languages and contexts.