Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18





Many chemicals are slightly soluble in water, and their solubility can be
represented with an equilibrium expression. Note that solids drop out
of the expression since the M of the solid within it’s phase does not
change. The equilibrium constant is sometimes called the Solubility
Product or Ksp.


1CaC2O4 (s) 1Ca2+(aq) + 1C2O42-(aq)

Ksp = 2.3x10-9 = [Ca2+]1[C2O42-]1

Solubility (s)

 Solubility is a physical property referring to the ability for a given

substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. It is measured in terms
of the maximum amount of solute dissolved in a solvent at equilibrium.
The resulting solution is called a saturated solution. Solubility is
commonly expressed as a concentration, either mass concentration (g
of solute per kg of solvent, g per 100 ml of solvent), molarity, molality,
mole fraction or other similar descriptions of concentration.
 An oversaturated solution becomes a saturated solution by forming a
solid to reduce the dissolved material. The crystals formed are called a
precipitate. Often, however, a precipitate is formed when two clear
solutions are mixed.
Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)

The Solubility Product Constant, Ksp is the equilibrium constant for a

solid substance dissolving in an aqueous solution. It represents the level
at which a solute dissolves in solution. A more a substance dissolves,
the higher the Ksp value it has. For example:
aA(s) cC (aq) + dD (aq)
To solve for the Ksp it is necessary to take the molarities or
concentrations of the products and multiply them. If there are
coefficients in front of any of the products, it is necessary to raise the
product to that coefficient power(and also multiply the concentration by
that coefficient), Ksp=[cC]c[dD]d
Precipitate Formation

For slightly soluble ionic compound AxBy in water will dissociated into
AxBy (s) x Ay+ (aq) + y Bx- (aq)

If values of [Ay+]x [Bx-]y in water we called Qsp so when

Qsp < Ksp, the solution is unsaturated, there are no precipitate

Qsp = Ksp, the solution is saturated, precipitate will be formed
Qsp > Ksp, the solution is supersaturated, precipitate is formed
Factor affect the solubility

 The common ions effect

 The pH of solution
 The complex ion formation
Application in environmental process

 Formation of kidney stone

 Fluoridation of tooth enamel
 The use of barium sulfate to improve X-ray photograph
 Formation of stalactites and stalagmites
Values of Ksp

 Effendy’s book (2009:104)

Different Values of Ksp

Murat’s book (2009:91)

Different Values of Ksp

 Endang’s book (2009:327)

Different Values of Ksp

 Sunardi’s book (2009:355;364)

Less Information

Effendy’s book (2009:112)

pH of solution affect the solubility
Less Information

Effendy’s book (2009:113)

Formation of complex ion affect the solubility
Less Information

Effendy’s book (2009:115-117)

Application in environmental process

From this paper we can conclude that there are no common

misconception about solubility and solubility product constant in
several high school book, there are only different values of Ksp and
less information about factors that affect solubility and application
of solubility in environmental process.