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# Presentation

Electromagnetic Train
Purpose

## To build an “ electric train “ utilizing uninsulated copper

wire, a battery, and powerful magnets. The result is a
fascinating and cheap experiment that displays the basic
principles of electromagnetism and engineering. This
experiment is guided towards STEM education and
outreach, particularly for underfunded schools. The end
product is a train made of a battery and magnets that
propels itself through a coil of wire using electromagnetic
force
Principles Of Operation

## We will put two basic principles of

electromagnetics and magnetism to work to created
an electric train. First is the magnetic field created by
a solenoid. A solenoid is simple a coil of wire wrapped
in a tightly packed helix shape.
When the solenoid is connected
To a voltage source a current (I) is
provided along the wire. The current
which is going through this circular
loop wire, result in a constant, ( ideally ) uniform magnetic
field (B) through the center of the coil of wire. The resultant
magnetic field lines. Thus, an electromagnet is created.
The strength of the magnetic field(B= unl) is proportional to
both the number of turns of the wire per unit length
(n=N/L)and the strength of the current passing through.
Ampere’s right hand rule, illustrate that a current carrying
wire generates a magnetic field around the wire. Point the
thumb of your right hand in the direction of current along a
wire then curl your finger inward. The direction of your
curled finger gives the direction of the magnetic field.
The magnetic field radiates outward in a circle, with the
magnetic field strength decreasing as you go farther from
the current carrying wire. This information can be used to
confirm the magnetic field lines for a solenoid depicted.
Simply, follow along the curve of the solenoid with your
thumb and confirm that the direction of the magnetic field
will always be through the center of the solenoid.
To build this train you will need

##  Copper wire ( we use 18 gauge copper wire)

 A battery ( we use AAA battery )
 Neodymium magnets ( other magnets are not strong
enough)
 Wire cutter.

## We put four magnets on each end of a AAA battery.

One or two will work fine, but we had plenty so we used
four. The magnets need to be placed on the battery with
the pole facing opposite directions. Otherwise the train will
not work. ( just hold the magnets so that they push each
other away, than stick the battery in between )

## The coils need to be wrapped pretty closed around the

train. I found that wrapping the copper wire around the
AA battery made nice even coils that were just the right
size for AAA battery plus the magnets. Once you cut the
wire it’s kind of challenge to attach the other section with
it. So I took 25 foot long wire to make a long track.
How its work

## If you run a current through a coil it generates a magnetic

field inside the coil. If the field line are exactly parallel a bar
magnet will feel no net force. However at the end of the coil,
where the field lines diverge, a bar magnet will be either pulled
into the coil or pushed out of the coil depending which way
round you insert it.
The magnet are made up of conducting material and they
connect the battery terminal to the copper wire, so the battery,
magnet and the copper wire make a circuit that generates the
magnetic field just in the vicinity of the battery.
The geometry means the two magnets are automatically
at the end of the generated magnetic field, where the
field is divergent, so a force is exerted on a magnets.
The magnets have been carefully aliened so the force on
the both magnets point in the same direction, and the
result is that the magnet and the battery move. But as they
move, the magnetic field moves with them and you get a
constant motion.
If you flip around the two magnets at the end of the
battery and magnets would move in the reverse direction.
If you flipped only one magnet the two magnets would
then be pulling/pushing in opposite directions and the
battery would not move .