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Review Time

Talkie Time: Research worth Sharing

Lesson 2, Objectives : The learner

4. differentiates quantitative from qualitative


5. provide examples of research in areas of interest

(arts, humanities, sports, science,
business, agriculture and fisheries, information and
communication technology, and social
Tell whether the following is an IP topic or not:

1. Effects of Typhoon
2. Digestion process due to exercise
3. sleeping patterns of birds
4. skipping rope
5. perception of Mandaya tribe
6. pin pricking effects
7. ticking of the clock
8. flying kites
9. wild berries ink
10. behavioral patterns
11. breast walking with music
12. breast walking in park
13. moon and behavior
14. bread and butter
15. grades and teaching
Let the students identify whether the following is a quantitative
or qualitative research:

1.Metacognitive skills 6. Stress level

2. love and hate relationship 7. Stressors
3.emotional quotient 8. Aggression-reaction
4.intelligent quotient 9. Technical skills
5. factors affecting drop out 10. Behavior pattern
What is qualitative research?

Qualitative research is a type of scientific research. In general terms, scientific

research consists of an investigation that:

• seeks answers to a question

• systematically uses a predefined set of procedures to answer the question

• collects evidence

• produces findings that were not determined in advance

• produces findings that are applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the

Qualitative research is especially effective in obtaining culturally specific

information about the values, opinions, behaviors, and social contexts of particular
Qualitative Research

• McMillan and Schumacher (2003) defined qualitative research as,

“primarily an inductive process of organizing data into categories and
identifying patterns (relationships) among categories.” This definition
implies that data and meaning emerge “organically” from the research

Also called : interpretive research,

naturalistic research, phenomenological

• ‘Qualitative Research…involves finding out

what people think, and how they feel - or at
any rate, what they say they think and how
they say they feel. This kind of information is
subjective. It involves feelings and
impressions, rather than numbers’
• Bellenger, Bernhardt and Goldstucker, Qualitative Research in
Marketing, American Marketing Association
Comparing Quantitative and Qualitative Research

What are the basic differences between quantitative and

qualitative research methods?
Quantitative and qualitative research methods differ primarily
• their analytical objectives

• the types of questions they pose

• the types of data collection instruments they use

• the forms of data they produce

• the degree of flexibility built into study design

Quantitative Qualitative
General framework Seek to confirm hypotheses Seek to explore phenomena
about phenomena
Instruments use more rigid style Instruments use more flexible,
of eliciting and categorizing iterative style of eliciting and
responses to questions categorizing responses to
Use highly structured methods Use semi-structured methods
such as questionnaires, surveys, as in-depth interviews, focus
and structured observation groups, and participant
Analytical objectives
To quantify variation To describe variation
To predict causal relationships To describe and explain
To describe characteristics of a To describe individual
To describe group norms
Question format
Closed-ended Open-ended
Data format Numerical (obtained by assigning Textual (obtained from
numerical values to responses) audiotapes, videotapes, and field
Flexibility in study design Study design is stable from Some aspects of the study are
beginning to end flexible (for example, the
exclusion, or wording of
interview questions)
Participant responses do not Participant responses affect how
influence or determine how and and which questions researchers
which questions researchers ask ask next
Study design is subject to Study design is iterative, that is,
statistical assumptions and data collection and research
conditions questions are adjusted according
to what is learned

Qualitative Quantitative
Research Research
Type of questions Probing Limited probing
Sample Size small large
Info. Per much varies
Admin Requires skilled Fewer specialist
researcher skills required
Type of Analysis Subjective, Statistical
Type of research Exploratory Descriptive or
How do you apply The Research Thrusts of 21st century

Conservation and
Health and Welfare
Environment Safety

Food Production and Culture and Arts


Technology and
Social Awareness