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The Internet of Things (IoT): the Use Cases

Pethuru Raj PhD

Chief Architect and Vice President
Site Reliability Engineering (SRE) Division
Reliance Jio Infocomm, Ltd. (RJIL)


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The Destination and Derivatives of the Brewing ICT Trends

• The Internet of Computers

• The Internet of Devices
• The Internet of Services
• The Internet of Things (IoT) / the Internet of Energy / the Internet of People,
• Ubiquitous / Pervasive / Context-Aware / Sentient Computing
• Ambient Intelligence (AmI)
• Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS)
• Smarter Environments

• Mainframe (One to many)

• PC (One to one)
• Connected Devices (Many
to one)

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The Growth Patterns of the Internet

Web 1.0 – The Simple Web

Web 2.0 – The Social Web

Web 3.0 - The Semantic Web

Web 4.0 – The Smart Web / the Internet of

Things (IoT) / the Industrial Internet of Things
(IIoT)/ the Internet of Everything (IoE) / the
Industry Internet / the Internet of Important
Things (IoIT)

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What the Future Looks Like?
 Instrumented • Service-Oriented
Ambient Services (Every thing is a service,
services are ubiquitous, etc.)
 Interconnected
• Smartness-Ingrained
Smarter retail, smarter home, smarter
 Intelligent commerce, smarter cities, smarter grid, etc.
(everything is becoming smarter through
sophisticated instrumentation, extreme
 Every thing becomes connectivity and deeper integration)
smart • Sustainability-Guaranteed
Green IT (everything is energy-aware to be
 Every device becomes

 Every human becomes

the Smartest

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The Era of Smart Sensors, Actuators, Robots, and devices
- Programmable devices
- Off-the-shelf gadgets/tools

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Everyday Things are digitized to join in the mainstream computing

Home/daily-life devices
Business and
Public infrastructures

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Many devices cooperating for People Empowerment

ECG sensor


Motion sensor

Motion sensor
Motion sensor

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The Forthcoming Integration Scenarios

• Device to Device (D2D) Integration – With the device ecosystem is on the rise, the D2D integration
is important.

• Device to Enterprise (D2E) Integration - In order to have remote and real-time monitoring,
management, repair, and maintenance, and for enabling decision-support and expert systems,
ground-level heterogeneous devices have to be synchronized with control-level enterprise packages
such as ERP, SCM, CRM, KM etc.

• Device to Cloud (D2C) Integration - As most of the enterprise systems are moving to clouds,
device to cloud (D2C) connectivity is gaining importance.

• Cloud to Cloud (C2C) Integration – Disparate, distributed and decentralised clouds are getting
connected to provide better prospects

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The IoT Technologies
• The Realization technologies are maturing (Miniaturization, Instrumentation, Connectivity, remote programmability
/ service-enablement / APIs, sensing, vision, perception, analysis, knowledge-engineering, Decision-enablement,
• A flurry of edge technologies (sensors, stickers, specks, smart dust, codes, chips, controllers, LEDs, tags, actuators,
• Ultra-high bandwidth communication technologies (wired as well as wireless (4G, 5G, etc.))
• Low-cost, power and range communication standards: LoRa, LoRaWAN, NB-IoT, 802.11x Wi-Fi, Bluetooth Smart,
ZigBee, Thread, NFC, 6LowPAN, Sigfox, Neul, etc.
• Powerful network topologies, Internet gateways, integration and orchestration frameworks, and transport
protocols (MQTT, UPnP, CoAP, XMPP, REST, OPC, etc.) for communicating data and event messages
• A variety of IoT application enablement platforms (AEPs) with application building, deployment and delivery, data
and process integration, application performance management, security, orchestration, and messaging capabilities
• A bevy of IoT data analytics platforms for extracting timely and actionable insights out of IoT data
• Edge / Fog Analytics through Edge Clouds
• Software-defined Federated Clouds

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The Internet of Things (IoT) Flavours

• It is now clear that there are at least two kinds of IoT, Consumer IoT (CIoT)
and Industrial IoT (IIoT)
• The CIoT and IIoT follow the [Collect | Store | Analyse | Share] architecture,
yet they have some key differences

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Consumer Internet of Things (CIoT)
• Devices are consumer devices, such as smart appliances, e.g.
refrigerator, washer, dryer, personal gadgets such as, fitness sensors,
google glasses, etc.
• Data volumes and rates are relatively low
• Applications are not mission or safety critical, e.g., the failure of
fitness gadget will make you, at worse, upset, but won’t cause any
• CIoT applications tend to be “consumer centric”

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Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) represents industry-oriented

applications where:
• Devices are machines operating in industrial, transportation, energy or
medical environment
• Data volumes and rates tend to be from sustained to relatively high
• Applications are mission and or safety critical, e.g. the failure of a smart
grid has severe impact on our life and economy, the misbehaving of a
smart traffic system can threaten drivers
• IIoT applications tend to be “system centric”

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IIoT vs CIoT

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IIoT Use Cases
Manufacturing & Supply Chain - These companies are using connected objects to enhance data collection in
manufacturing and in the supply chain. These companies include CargoSense‘s connected black boxes for
detecting the movement of containers as they are shipped.

Extraction & Heavy Industry - This encompasses sensor platforms designed for use in environments like the
oil and gas, mining, and construction industries. Groundsensing (locating wells), Tachyus (extracting oil and
gas), and Aptomar (spill safety) make sensor networks for oil and gas production. And Skycatch employs
UAVs to capture data for the rendering of construction sites in 3D.

Network Infrastructure & Sensor Developers - Companies are building out the networks and developing the
physical sensors that will undergird the IIoT as a whole. Samsara and DorsaVi develop industrial-grade
sensors for a variety of applications including fleet management, machines, energy, and industrial
wearables. Others like SigFox have built out the wireless networking for the IIoT.

Utilities & Smart Grid – This is for enabling more efficient distribution of electricity, gas and water, and often
market to utility companies. Trilliant, Tendril, and BluePillar are smart-meter enabled solutions for utilities
and large enterprises to manage usage and reporting.

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IIoT Use Cases

Predictive Maintenance – This allows companies to find insights and derive predictive analytics such as when
machines will need maintenance.

Transportation & Fleet – Connected vehicles is the main use case. Telogis and Greenroad develop fleet-tracking
platforms using telematics data from large trucks. Others like Metromile are changing fleet insurance by using
connected hardware to prorate insurance by mileage, a technology that is already being deployed to insure Uber

Security Insights - This is about focusing on the large task of securing connected industrial IoT applications from

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The Noteworthy IoT Outcomes

 For Smarter Homes, home integration services platform will go to clouds that in
turn support self-servicing, provisioning, workload and user load management, job
scheduling, multi-tenancy features.

 For Smarter Cars, the in-vehicle infotainment can connect cloud-based car
services for safe driving, travel, entertainment and edutainment,

 For Smarter Phones, there are centralized and remote clouds such as Apple iCloud
for hosting a wider variety of services, content, and resources

 Smarter Cities will emerge with smarter homes, buildings, traffic systems, smarter
grids, etc.

 Smarter Healthcare solutions can remotely monitor patients suffering from

various disorders like diabetes, cardiac arrhythmia, dementia, alzheimera etc. and
put life-saving data, such as CT scans, test results and patient records, into the
hands of medical team, almost anytime and on multiple devices.

 Smarter Retail, Energy Grid, Logistics, governments, Utilities, etc.

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Tending towards the Smarter Planet

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Source: http://blog.trentonsystems.com/internet-of-things-crosses-business-personal-boundaries/
The Interconnectivity of Devices

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IoT Use Cases and Application Domains

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The Technology Cluster: the Key Application Domains

Service Sectors Application Groups Locations Devices

Security & Public Safety Surveillance, Tracking, Equipment, Public Radar / satellite / fire stations, Radar / Satellites, weapons, vehicles,
Infrastructure, Emergency Services Human, Animals, water treatment, Tankers, Tanks, Jeeps, cars,
Building, camps, ambulances,

Healthcare & Life science Care, In Vivo / Home & Research Hospitals, clinics, surgery rooms, PDAs, Smart phones, tablets,
patient wards, Implants / Home containers, instruments, medicines,
monitoring, Drug Discovery, pipets, motors, etc.
Diagnostic Labs

Transportation Non-Vehicular, Vehicles, and Transits Air, waterways, rail, roads, Tolls, Cars, lorries, buses, trains, aircrafts,
expressways, bridges, tunnels, marines, trucks, vehicles, etc.

Energy Supply / Demand, Oil & Gas Meters, controllers, handsets, Turbines, windmills, UPS, Batteries,
monitors, displays, generators, fuel cells,

Buildings Homes, offices, commercial, etc. Campus, camps, colleges, Transport, fire & Safety, lighting,


Public Sectors

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Smart metering

A smart meter is an internet-capable device that measures energy, water or natural gas consumption of a building
or home. Traditional meters only measure total consumption, whereas smart meters record when and how much of
a resource is consumed. Power companies are deploying smart meters to monitor consumer usage and adjust
prices according to the time of day and season. Smart metering benefits utilities by improving customer satisfaction
with faster interaction, giving consumers more control of their energy usage to save money and reduce carbon
emissions. Smart meters also give visibility of power consumption all the way to the meter so utilities can optimize
energy distribution and take action to shift demand loads. Smart metering helps utilities to:

1. Reduce operating expenses by managing manual operations remotely;

2. Improve forecasting and streamline power-consumption;
3. Improve customer service through profiling and segmentation;
4. Reduce energy theft; and
5. Simplify micro-generation monitoring and track renewable power.

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Asset tracking

Companies have launched a testbed with the main goal of collecting asset information efficiently and accurately in
real-time and running analytics to allow the firms to make the best decisions. The goal of asset tracking is to allow an
enterprise to easily locate and monitor key assets (e.g. raw materials, final products and containers) and to optimize
logistics, maintain inventory levels, prevent quality issues and detect theft.

One industry that heavily relies on asset tracking is maritime shipping. On a large scale, sensors help track the location
of a ship at sea, and on a smaller scale they are able to provide the status and temperature of individual cargo
containers. One benefit is real-time metrics on refrigerated containers. These containers must be stored at constant
temperatures so that perishable goods remain fresh. Each refrigerated container needs to be equipped with
temperature sensors, a processing unit and a mobile transmitter. When temperatures differ from the optimal mark,
crew can be notified and begin needed repairs.

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Automated vehicles

An automated vehicle is a computer-controlled car that drives itself. Current systems scan painted lines as one of several
detection methods, future systems are envisioned that will be guided by magnetic rails and other forms of enhanced
highways. There are several advantages of driverless cars. Accident avoidance is a major incentive because the car can
respond faster than a human. The ultimate manifestation is the overall reduction of vehicles.

Driverless taxis can replace a family’s second car that sits idle all day. More vehicles can travel closer on the road at the
same time and the computer can operate the vehicle more economically than most people.

Among the sensors feeding information into the differential GPS are cameras, radar and lasers. Cameras let the car’s
computers see what’s around it while radar allows vehicles to see up to 100 meters away in the dark, rain, or snow. Lasers,
which look like a spinning siren light, continuously scan the world around the car and provide the vehicle with a
continuous, 3-D omnidirectional view of its surroundings.

“These sensors are providing you with raw information of the world. You need very sophisticated algorithms to process all
that information, just like a human would”

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Fleet management

Fleet management allows companies that rely on transportation in their business to remove or minimize the risks
associated with vehicle investment; improving efficiency, productivity and reducing overall transportation and staff

Asset tracking is becoming used more and more by cities for waste management purposes by giving trash
collectors the most efficient routes to collect the build-up of trash in urban environments.

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Connected oil and gas production
Connected renewables
Connected mines
Connected vessels
Connected data centers Connected paper mills

Advanced services based on data analysis by analyzing usage data across customers to propose
operational improvements

Dashboards for customer self-service - Web portal dashboards to present asset status, operational
reports and other measured data

Integration of 3rd party service providers - Partners that can offer services based on measured data,
e.g. sub-suppliers, OEMs, channel partners

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1. Connected Machines delivers a complete solution to securely connect devices, transform machine
data into real-time insight and grow recurring business when working with machine builders and

2. The Connected Factory, enhanced with new IoT connectivity and security products, delivers a
complete industrial zone solution for customers to scale security, simplify network management and
extend the scope of IoT.

3. Connected assets (asset tracking and asset management)

4. Logistics (supply-chain management, consignment tracking)
5. Smart cities (smart parking, street lighting, waste management, etc.)
6. Intelligent buildings
7. Utilities (water and gas metering)
8. Agriculture (soil, irrigation management)

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1. Cost-effective hybrid wireless communications systems to improve park management and visitor and staff safety: A
combination of inexpensive radio, private 4G and other technologies to enable voice, text and data communications
which, working with GPS, can resolve these issues and enable connected devices to be deployed effectively.
2. Drone cameras and sensor based ecological monitoring: The task is today highly time consuming and produces
inadequate and sporadic results. Drones with powerful cameras, connected cameras and acoustic sensors, and other
tools combined with advanced analytical software, can deliver faster and better results for less effort, freeing up
valuable resources for more mission critical work.
3. IoT as a decisive solution to poaching, logging and herding threats: Park patrolling is inadequately resourced and
unable to effectively identify and respond to threats. A combination of security cameras and acoustic sensors
strategically positioned and supplemented by day and night automated drone surveillance using infrared can detect
the threats readily, and send alerts to the rangers in real-time, enabling a rapid response. These solutions release
rangers from time-consuming random patrolling to focus on addressing real threats.
4. Cloud-based platform and big data analysis for improved information-sharing: Improves park governance and
collaboration between stakeholders, from park staff, to NGOs, universities, local communities and businesses is very
poor today. Combined with appropriate data storage and analytics creates the foundation for effective collaboration
and knowledge-sharing.
5. IoT provides communication infrastructure to support conservation via citizen science and an improved visitor
experience: Only a handful of the wealthiest parks can afford any communication infrastructure – and even then, it’s
focused on giving simple cellular / internet access rather than utilising visitors’ data to improve park management and
wildlife monitoring.

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IoT Business and Monetization Models
The IoT Opportunities for Service Integrators (SIs)

Fresh Opportunities for

conceptualizing and
concretizing Newer Services,
Solutions & Products across
Industry Segments.

These are several avenues Extreme Business

opening up for fresh Process Integration and
revenues Innovation

Deeper Integration Opportunities

across IT services, platforms,
machines, mobiles, consumer
electronics, networks,
infrastructures, etc.
IoT Value Creation is being Led by Makers and Operators

makers operators
The creation of smarter, The operation of old and new
connected products will redefine systems, now integrated with
every industry with new intelligent things, can become
capabilities that improve interactive, reactive, and adaptive;
functionality, reduce costs, and to each other, people and places
deliver new value

changes the
the way
way we
design, secure,
secure, and
and operate

by Cloud

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The Business Cases for Smarter Organizations
• Real-time Analytics for Deeper Visibility, Tighter Controllability & Micro Management that in turn

• Speed and streamline the productization, process improvisation, better planning and execution activities

• Lower TCO and Higher RoI

• Enhanced Customer Loyalty and delight for Repeat Business

• Synchronized and Single Customer Views and Voices

• Visualizing, Planning and Implementing People-centric and Instantly Integrated and Insightful Products and Services

• The Realization of Smart, Sophisticated and Situation-Aware Applications

• Facilitating Personal and preferred service delivery and Consumption

• The Neat and nice reality of Anytime, Anywhere, Any Device, Any Network, Any Media, Any Service, etc.
The Technical Cases for Smarter Organizations
• Process Excellence - There is a lot of thinking around adaptive customer-driven processes i.e. where the process adapts to the
channel and device automatically. Intelligent Processes through Process Integration and Innovation (For example, Analytics-
attached Business Process (AABP), communication-enabled BP, Event-driven processes, etc. )

• The Deeper and Decisive Visibility and Controllability for better tuning and profiling

• The Micro and high-resolution Management of Business Operations

• Dynamic Capacity Planning, High Performance & Throughput

• Real-time Analytics for Business and Customer Insights

• Shorter Time-to-Market for people-centric Services and Products

• Higher RoI and Lower TCO through Infrastructure Optimization

The IoT Data Analytics

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Data  Big & Fast Data
• The data volume gets bigger (in the range of petabytes and exabytes)

• The data generation, transmission and crunching frequency have gone up significantly (the
velocity varies from batch to real-time)

• The data structure too has got diversified (poly-structured data, the variety)

• The correctness, / accuracy, timeliness, and trustworthiness of data (veracity)

• The intriguing and interesting relationships between data items (viscosity)

The convergence of technologies for big, fast, streaming and IoT Data

Cloud Computing

Social Media

Internet of Things

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The Data Explosion: the Opportunities and Possibilities

1. Novel Analytical Capabilities and Competencies

2. To have and sustain a service repository comprising

• Insights-driven and Innovation-filled services

• Real-time and Real-world services
• People-centric Physical services
• Cognitive & Context-aware services

3. To craft Smarter Applications out of these services by dynamic service integration and orchestration

In short, it is all about fulfilling the Smarter Planet vision smartly leveraging versatile and resilient technologies
and tools
The Pragmatic Platforms & Infrastructures
1. For IoT applications and services building,

IoT Application Enablement Platforms (AEPs)

2. For smarter systems, networks, and environments,

IoT Data Analytics Platforms

The IoT Analytics Platforms can run on

1. On-premise as well as Off-premise Clouds

2. Edge Clouds

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The Distinct Capabilities of IoT Data Analytics
1. Scalability
2. Faster Data Ingestion
3. Better Read and Write Performance
4. Faster Query Processing
5. Flexibility and Portability (to run in edge, private and public clouds)
6. Distributed Processing through automated Sharding
7. Better Data Compression
8. Integrated and End-to-end Platform for all kinds of data and analytics
9. Machine and Deep Learning Capabilities
10. RESTful Interfaces
11. In-Memory & In-Database Analytics

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IoT Analytics for Smarter Cities
City governance, health, and policing can all benefit from smart cities initiatives. For example, simply converting a
community garbage bin into a smart bin can reap major benefits for the community such as automatically notifying the
municipal department when it’s full. If it’s not been emptied in 15 days or at any time, city executives can review the actual
situation of cleanliness across the city via smart intelligence.

If we convert hospital beds into smart beds, powered via IoT devices, we not only get a real time status of diseases under
treatment and bed occupancy statistics, this information can also prove invaluable during national crisis. We can embrace
improvements like predictive maintenance, occupancy trends and can proactively align resources, all powered via machine

Deep insights can also help investigate current and future crimes. Through real time images, video, sentiment and
behavioral analytics, IoT can really empower safe city projects leveraging machine learning capabilities.

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IoT Analytics for Smarter Cities

Wearable technology can also play a key role in controlling crime, connecting people, and getting personalized
services. For example, a band on your wrist can monitor heart rate, temperature, and blood pressure. Your
health records, eating habits, sleep pattern, and workout details can be tracked, centrally stored and be made
available on a single click of the mouse to your doctor. Imagine a clinic of the future, where you won’t need to
carry your medical record with you nor will your doctor need to sort out your details from stacks of paper
records. Imagine such a band on the arm of a newborn baby. Hospital staff and parents can monitor in real time
child’s location. This can prove to be an excellent security measure to avoid scenarios like kidnapping of
newborns. As soon as the band is removed from the wrist, a security alert can be generated, relevant
stakeholders notified and actions like locking the doors of the ward taken. The same theory can also be applied
to smart watches, socks, lockets and other wearable technology which can be assigned to teenagers and can aid
in providing situational awareness.

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IoT Analytics for Smarter Cities

Data from the meteorological department can be utilized to share insights and predictions with farmers in an agricultural country
like Pakistan.

Making job data available across industries and mapping it to degree programs and taught courses, allowing students to make
informed decisions about their future. Such datasets may include demographics of buyers, patients, students, taxpayers,
travellers, environmental information such as weather reports, traffic feeds, airline schedules and power outages etc.

An emerging trend is use of smart machine technologies to harness data in order to adapt to new situations and solve new
problems. This trend directly refers to technologies like machine learning, digital assistants, smart data discovery, natural
language processing, smart bots, taxonomy and ontology management and context brokering, etc. This trend illustrates that
organizations that make this technology an integral part of the experiences of their employees, partners and customers will be
able to connect their ecosystems to platforms in new and dynamic ways.

The world’s first self-driving taxi service is now live in Singapore. The Songdo smart city is completely connected. Every inch of the
city is wired with fiber optic broadband. The Songdo residents can video-conference with their neighbours, attend classes
remotely, control lighting, heating and air conditioning with a push of a button on a control panel.

Radio frequency identification (RFID) monitors the traffic in the city and allows citizens to check the exact status of public
transportation using smartphone apps. They can track their children’s location via wearable technology and recycle their garbage
to generate power for the city.
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The IoT Analytics Platform: what it can deliver?
1. Establishes a variety of smarter environments (smarter homes, hotels, hospitals, etc.)
2. Uncovers timely and actionable insights for machines and men
3. Enables the realization of smart objects, devices, networks and environments,
4. Leads to the production of pioneering and people-centric applications and services
5. Helps to come out with precise predictions and prescriptions,
6. Facilitates process excellence and people productivity
7. Guarantees preventive maintenance of infrastructures
8. Ensures the optimized utilization of distributed assets through monitoring,
measurement, and management for perfect inventory replenishment
9. Safeguards the safety and security of people and properties
10.Monitors complex environments to guarantee business performance, productivity and

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Big and Fast Data IT Infrastructures

• Hybrid Cloud Infrastructures (Bare metal and virtual servers)

• Integrated, Converged Systems

 IBM PureSystem for Analytics

 Vblock Converged Systems from VCE (VMware, Cisco and EMC)
 HP ConvergedSystem
 NetApp FlexPod
 Oracle Exadata, & Exalogic

• Supercomputers

• Big Data Appliances

 Oracle Cloudera Appliance
 Teradata
 Exasol
 Hitachi Big Data Appliance
 EMC Pivotal Data Computing Appliance (DCA)
Cloud-based IoT Reference Architecture

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Why IoT Analytics on Clouds?
• Agility & Affordability - No capital investment of large-size infrastructures for analytical workloads. Just use and pay.
Quickly provisioned and decommissioned once the need goes down.
• Data Analytics Platforms in Clouds – Therefore leveraging cloud-enabled and ready platforms (generic or specific, open or
commercial-grade, etc.) are fast and easy
• NoSQL & NewSQL Databases and Data Warehouses in Clouds – All kinds of database management systems and data
warehouses in cloud speed up the process of next-generation data analytics. Database as a service (DaaS), data warehouse
as a service (DWaaS), business process as a service (BPaaS) and other advancements lead to the rapid realization of
analytics as a service (AaaS).
• WAN Optimization Technologies - There are WAN optimization products for quickly transmitting large quantities of data
over the Internet infrastructure
• Social and professional networking sites are running in public cloud environments
• Enterprise-class Applications in Clouds – All kinds of customer-facing applications are cloud-enabled and deployed in highly
optimized and organized cloud environments
• Anytime, anywhere, any network and any device information and service access is being activated through cloud-based
deployment and delivery
• Cloud Integrators, Brokers & Orchestrators – There are products and platforms for seamless interoperability among
geographically distributed cloud environments. There are collaborative efforts towards federated clouds and the Intercloud.
• Sensor/Device-to-Cloud Integration Frameworks are available to transmit ground-level data to cloud storages and

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The Industrial IoT Case Studies

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adjusted people flow
improving user experience through
better control in busy environments
Internet of Things

Lafarge uses advanced asset management to control maintenance

operations and reduce costs

emergency maintenance in favor of condition-
based preventive operations

inventory expenses through planned, rather than ad
hoc, materials purchases
Business Challenge: Manufacturers in the cement, aggregate and concrete sector must proactively maintain their
facilities at optimum levels to realize profits. Lafarge needed to standardize, consolidate and scale its successful
preventive maintenance methods to bring all of its global facilities into a centralized system for operational efficiency.
5% Target The Smarter Solution: The company embarked on a path to develop a preventive maintenance business model that
Reduction in Maintenance costs across the helps it stay well ahead of maintenance challenges to keep its facilities and associated assets in optimal operating
company’s worldwide manufacturing plants condition. The business implemented a solution that empowers it to systematically coordinate activities and practices
for optimal and sustainable management of its assets and asset systems.

The solution enables the company to achieve greater efficiency in its asset management, reducing costs and increasing
margins throughout its operations.

Solution Components
• IBM® Maximo® Asset Management
• IBM Global Business Services® – Business Consulting Services
Internet of Things

QUNDIS GmbH – Anticipates a significant sales boost with smart metering

solutions hosted in a SoftLayer cloud environment

Delivers smart metering

capabilities to help customers retrieve and manage data
more efficiently

Protects customer data

and provides security-rich access at virtually any
time Business challenge: QUNDIS GmbH was primarily focused on designing, manufacturing and distributing
measurement systems. To thrive in a highly competitive market, the company wanted to transform its
business and offer integrated smart metering solutions. QUNDIS sought a reliable IT partner to provide
Increases market share architecture supporting a new cloud-based delivery model.
and sharpens competitive edge with new offerings
Solution: QUNDIS deployed SoftLayer® cloud infrastructure in the SoftLayer Frankfurt data center to host
new, efficient smart metering solutions. These offerings report on consumption data collected from
customer smart meters in the field, greatly simplifying data retrieval processes. IBM worked closely with
QUNDIS to analyze requirements, review use cases for cloud-based delivery models and design a smart
metering architecture with the required levels of performance, reliability
Solution component and availability.
• SoftLayer®

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Internet of Things

Taiwan-based Advantech uses an intelligent asset management solution to

make new buildings more energy-efficient

15% lower costs

for energy in the first of two
new buildings

Boosts performance
and reliability of equipment with proactive cleaning
and service
Business challenge: Advantech was preparing to construct two new buildings and wanted to avoid some of the
problems that plagued its existing facilities. High on the list was energy efficiency, not only because wasteful
Maximizes energy operations and reactive maintenance procedures are costly but also because Taiwan’s government requires new
efficiency by adjusting facility operations in buildings to meet strict standards.
near-real time
The smarter solution: The company built an advanced asset management solution that collects data from sensors
throughout the buildings, monitoring equipment performance and analyzing the data to identify potential issues.
The solution helps Advantech’s maintenance personnel be proactive about servicing machines and adjusts
equipment usage in near-real time, redirecting energy dynamically by identifying and shutting off idle machines.
Solution components
• IBM® Maximo® Asset Management Improving the interactions between buildings, environment and users is not merely about introducing new
• IBM TRIRIGA® technologies or adopting environmentally friendly materials in construction, but rather creating a design that is
• IBM Global Technology Services® – Technical Support
Internet of Things

Kiwi Wearables reduces its proof of concept time from months to days, speeds time to delivery to
new and existing customers with IBM Bluemix running on SoftLayer

Benefit :
75% decrease
in proof of concept development and release

Scalability and choice with IBM,

open source and third-party tools available
through the IBM Bluemix catalog

Saves licensing expenses “Kiwi Wearables sought to design and deliver its motion-sensing technology solutions faster and with
with pay-as-you-use applications, expanded capabilities.
application programming interfaces and
software development kits With the IBM Bluemix, running on SoftLayer, and enhanced capabilities, Kiwi reduced its proof of concept
(POC) times and can now connect large numbers of disparate devices.”

“Bluemix allowed us to get a basic prototype running in just a few days versus
—Ali Nawab, chief executive officer, Kiwi Wearables
Solution components
● IBM® Bluemix™
● Cloudant™
● Node.js
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Internet of Things

Shaspa – Enabling the Internet of Things for smarter

Intelligence at the edge enables fast
insight from potentially billions of devices

Innovative architecture supports both

high-performance automation and in-depth
The transformation: Billions of devices capture data on our lives and our environment, but this
precious source of insight is largely untapped. Working closely with IBM, Shaspa has built a solution
>30 percent savings to collect, consolidate, store and analyze correlate environmental data from just about any source,
on storage space with IBM Informix TimeSeries
using it to drive smart automation and decision making.

Solution components
"IBM Informix is helping us tap into the huge potential of all of these devices and
• IBM® Informix® Advanced Edition sensors."
• IBM Cognos® Business Intelligence —Oliver Goh, CEO, Shaspa
• IBM Global Technology Services®
• SoftLayer®, an IBM company
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Internet of Things

Hildebrand – Harnessing data captured from the Internet of Things to deliver

revolutionary new services

One tenth the cost

of a traditional relational database for computing
power and storage to process massive data

Captures 300,000
data points per second for real-time
The transformation: Hildebrand recognized the vast potential in harnessing data captured by
billions of sensors. With an advanced big data and analytics platform based on Informix software,
Offers companies Hildebrand creates revolutionary solutions, covering everything from domestic energy generation
across industries growth opportunities for data- and use to smarter transportation, and enables other businesses to harness their own sensor data.
intensive applications

“Working with IBM, we have stress-tested our Informix-based solution to 300,000 data
points per second. There aren’t many systems that could cope with those data volumes and
Solution components
perform real-time analysis."
• IBM® Informix® —Josh Cooper, CEO, Hildebrand
• IBM Information Management Software Lab Services

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Internet of Things

Honda R&D Co., Ltd. uses predictive analytics to improve the performance and safety of
its electric vehicle batteries

50% reduction
in CO2 emissions by commercializing EV

Boosts confidence
and customer satisfaction with EVs by improving
Business Challenge: Because all-electric vehicles (EVs) do not use gasoline like traditional or hybrid cars, they rely
entirely on their batteries for power. Honda R&D Co., Ltd., a division of Honda Motor Co., Ltd., wanted to better
Improves design understand what factors had the greatest impact on battery performance and longevity.
by analyzing massive amounts
of operating data The Smarter Solution: Honda R&D can now gather and analyze near-real-time battery data from FIT EV on the road in
Japan and the United States. Analysis can identify which operating factors, such as road conditions, charging patterns
and trip length, have the greatest impact on battery life. Further analysis can help the automaker predict when
batteries need replacing, so it can alert owners in advance.

“Data gathered from the real-world operation of our vehicles is critical to predict the longevity of current batteries and
Solution Components greatly influences future product design.”
• IBM® Cognos® Business Intelligence V10 —Senior Chief Engineer, Automobile R&D Center,
• IBM SPSS® Modeler
• IBM Global Services – Global Business Services®

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Internet of Things

Palava by Lodha Group uses Big Data & Analytics insights to centrally
manage services

20 - 25% increase
expected in service-provision efficiency
compared to other large cities

7 - 10% lower
operating costs through better resource and
asset use
Business challenge: The visionary real estate development company Lodha Group in India decided to create a Smarter
Reduces IT costs City from the ground up, using technology to centralize public safety and emergency services and connect residents
with cloud-based hosting and outsourced with services and with each other.
application management services
The smarter solution: A centralized control center will provide city managers with 360-degree visibility into multiple
operational domains including energy, water, safety and emergency services. This near-real-time insight can help city
managers reduce emergency response time, improve service-delivery efficiency and deliver an enhanced quality of life
Solution components for residents. Big Data & Analytics technology will allow the city to predict and prevent issues, such as traffic
• IBM® Intelligent Operations Center on IBM SmartCloud®
congestion or power outages, to minimize their impact on residents and businesses.
• IBM Power® Systems
• IBM Storwize® V7000
• IBM System Storage® TS3200 Tape Library “Palava will provide a holistic urban environment that sets the benchmark for 21st century living in India.”
• IBM Global Business Services® – Business Consulting —Shaishav Dharia, development director for Palava
• IBM Global Business Services – Application Innovation
• IBM Global Business Services – Application Management

The Research Opportunities in the IoT Landscape
The Sample Innovations for IoT Platforms
 Timely, Trustworthy, and unambiguous Sensor Data Fusion
 Dempster–Shafer theory (DST) for Sensor Data Trustworthiness and Timeliness by
eliminating all kinds of data ambiguities and impurities
 Fuzzy Logic-based Adaptive Capacity Planning
 Job Scheduling, Scalability, and Load balancing Methods
 Resource and Cluster Management Algorithms
 IoT Infrastructure Management
 IoT Service Composition and Delivery Module
 Machine and Deep learning modules
 IoT data security (while in transit, persistence and application usage)
 Domain-specific ontologies for semantic interoperability and analytics

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IoT Data Transmission Protocols

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Wireless Technologies for resource-constrained devices
• IEEE 802.15.4 - a standard for low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks
• It provides low-data-rate, low-cost, low-power and short-range wireless
communication for embedded devices. Data rates are available at 20 kb/s, 40kb/s
and 250 kb/s.
• The standard only defines the physical layer (PHY) and the media access control
layer (MAC).
• 6LoWPAN is used to compress the standard IPv6 header to a smaller size, which
reduces the overhead and thus increases the maximum possible payload

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RESTful APIs and Services
• REST defines a set of constraints with the purpose to minimize latency
and network communication, while at the same time maximizing the
independence and scalability of component implementations.

• Client – Server
• Stateless
• Cacheable
• Uniform interface
• Layered system
• Code-on-demand

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Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)

CoAP is a lightweight application layer

Protocol for IoT. CoAP is based on
HTTP mechanisms to build RESTful web
services. In contrast to HTTP, CoAP was
designed for machine-to-machine (M2M)
communication and uses a binary

This allows efficient transport and processing in resource-constrained networks such as Wireless Sensor
Networks (WSN).

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Constrained RESTful Environment (CoRE) Architecture

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Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT)
• MQTT is a lightweight broker-based publish/subscribe
messaging protocol designed to be open, simple,
lightweight and easy to implement.
• Where the network is expensive, has low bandwidth or
is unreliable
• When run on an embedded device with limited
processor or memory resources

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Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP)

• XMPP - a set of open technologies for instant messaging, presence,

multi-party chat, voice and video calls, collaboration, lightweight
middleware, content syndication, and generalized routing of XML
data. It enables the near-real-time exchange of structured
yet extensible data between any two or more network entities
• Designed to be extensible, the protocol has also been used
for publish-subscribe systems, signalling for VoIP, file
transfer, gaming, IoT applications such as the smart grid, and social
networking services.

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Messaging Request/Response Publish/Subscribe Request/Response Publish/Subscribe
Request/Response Request/Response
2G, 3G, 4G Suitability Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent
(1000s nodes)
LLN Suitability(1000s Excellent Fair Fair Fair
Compute Resources 10 KBs RAM/Flash 10 KBs RAM/Flash 10 KBs RAM/Flash 10 KBs RAM/Flash

Success Stories Utility Field Area Remote management Smart Energy Profile Extending enterprise
Networks of consumer white 2 (premise energy messaging into loT
goods management/home applications