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Vocational Training Report

PRESENTED BY:-

Anurag Singh
nd
B.TECH– 2 Year { CIVIL ENGG. }
Reg. No. : TTC/DLW/18/4278

College: NATIONAL INSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGY, PATNA

College Roll No. : 1603007


CONTENTS

1) Introduction to DLW

1) Introduction to Technical Training Center

2) Permanent way workshop

3) IOW CENTRAL

4) IOW EAST

5) Sewage Treatment Plant


PREFACE
The objectives of the practical training are to learn something about industries
practically and to be familiar with the working style of a technical person to
adjust simplyaccordingto the industrial environment.

It is rightly said practical life is far away from theoretical one welearn in class room.
The practical exposer real life experience no doubt they help in improving the
personality of the student, but the practical exposure in the field will help the
student in longrunoflife and will be able to implement the theoretical knowledge.

As a part of academic syllabus of four year degree course in CIVIL Engineering,


every student is required to undergo a practical training. I am student of third year
CIVILand this report is written onthe basis of practical knowledgeacquired byme
during the period of practical training taken at Diesel Locomotive Works,
Varanasi.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would sincerely like to thank the employees and the officers of DLW, VARANASI for their
help and support during the vocational training. Despite their busy schedules, they took time out
forusandexplainedtousthevariousaspectsofthedutiesandworkingandofthe workshops.

I would sincerely like to thank Mr. Ashok kumar( CWI/TTC), Mr. S. P. Singh(SSE. P-Way)
and Mr. Arvind Kumar(SSE. IOW EST) who was instrumental in arranging the vocational
training at DLW Varanasi, and without whose help and guidance the training could not have
materialize.

I expressmydeepsenseofgratitudetoMr.RAM JANAM CHAUBEY(Principal,TTC)


for givenmesuchagreat opportunity.
INTRODUCTION TO DLW
Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) is a production unit under the ministry of railways. This was
setupin collaborationwithAmericanLocomotiveCompany(ALCO),USAin1961andthe first
locomotivewasrolledoutin1964.Thisunitproducesdieselelectroniclocomotivesand DGsets
forIndianrailwaysandothercustomersinIndia andAbroad.

Subsequentlyacontractfortransferoftechnologyof4000HPMicroprocessorControlled AC/AC
Freight (GT46MAC)/ passenger (GT46PAC)locomotivesandfamily of 710engines hasbeen
signedwithelectromotivedivisionofGENERLMOTORSofUSAformanufacture inDLW.The
production of these locomotives has now started and thus DLW is the only manufacturers of
DieselElectric LocomotiveswithbothALCOandGeneralMotors technologiesinthe world

.
BRIEF HISTORY:
• Set up in 1961 as a green-field project in technical collaboration with ALCO/USA to
ManufactureDieselElectric Locomotives.
• First locomotiverolled out anddedicated to nation in January, 1964.
• Transfer-of-Technology agreement signed with General Motors/ USA in October, 95 to
manufacturestate-of-the-arthightractionAC-ACdiesel locomotives.
• Aflagship company of Indian Railways offering complete range of flanking products in its area
of operation.
• State-of-the art Design and Manufacturing facility to manufacture more than 150 locomotives
perannumwithwiderangeofrelatedproductsviz.componentsandsub-assemblies.
• Unbeatable trail-blazing track record in providing cost-effective, ecofriendly and reliable
solutions to ever-increasing transportation needs for over three decades.
• Fully geared to meet specific transportation needs by putting Price-Value Technology equation
perfectlyright.
• Alarge base of delighted customers among many countries viz. Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Vietnam,
Bangladesh,Tanzaniatonameafew,bearingtestimonytoproductleadership inits category.

SALIENT FEATURES:
• Annualproductioncapacity: 125Locomotives
• Annualturn-over (Rs): 5000million
• Totalnumberofstaff : 7223
• Workshopland: 89 Hectares
• Townshiparea: 211 Hectares
• Coveredareainshops: 86300m2
• Coveredareaofotherservicebuildings : 73700m2
• Electricalpowerrequirement: 3468 KVA
• (Averagemaximum demand)
• Electricalenergyconsumption(units/year) : 19.8 million
• Standbypowergeneration capacity: 3000KW
PRODUCTS OF DLW:
DLWis an integrated plant and its manufacturing facilities are flexible in nature. These can be
utilized for manufacture of different design of locomotives of various gauges suiting customer
requirementsandotherproducts.Theproductrangeavailableis as under:
• WDG4: 4000HPAC/ACFreightTrafficLocomotive.
• WDP4: 4000 HPAC/AC Broad Gauge High Speed Locomotive .
• WDM3C: 3300HPAC/DCBroadGaugeMixedTrafficLocomotive.
• WDG3D: 3400HPAC/ACBroadGaugeMixedTrafficMicro-Processor
Controlled Locomotive.
• WDM3A: 3100HPAC/DCBroadGaugeMixedTrafficLocomotive.
• WDP3A: 3100 HPAC/DC Broad Gauge High Speed Passenger Locomotive.
• WDG3A: 3100HPAC/DCBroadGaugeFreightLocomotive.
• WDM2: 2600HPAC/DC BroadGauge MixedTrafficLocomotive.
• WDP1: 2300 HPAC/DC Broad Gauge Intercity Express Locomotive.
• WDM7: 2150HPDC/DCBroadGaugeMixedTrafficLocomotive.
• WDM6: 1350HPDC/DC BroadGauge MixedTrafficLocomotive.
• YDM4: 1350HPAC/DC&DC/DCBroadGaugeMixedtrafficLocomotive.
• EXPORT LOCO : 2300HPAC/DCMeter Gauge/Capegauge MixedTraffic
Locomotive.
• DieselGenerating Sets : 800KWto2500KW
• SparePartsforengines, locomotivesandgenerating sets.
YDM4LOCOMOTIVE

DESIGN OFFICE:
Prepare diag. of each part and sent to Material Control &inform timely in any change in any
partstorelative department.

MATERIAL CONTROL OFFICE:


Prepared material list (ml) which consists diag. &qty. of each part and sent to store
departmentsfor purchase.
STORE DEPARTMENT:
After receiving of ML, Store Departments scrutiny the ML, take Funds &vetting from Account
department & then issue tenders, Open Tenders & Purchase Order issued. After Receiving of
MaterialinspectionhasdonebyInspection Department.

INSPECTION DEPARTMENT:
After Receiving of Material inspection has done by Inspection Deptt. If material is OKthen
Receipt Note issued by Store Deptt and sent to Acct. Department for payment to firm. If
materialis notOKTheninformtofirmtocollecttherejectedmaterial.

ACCOUNT DEPARTMENT:
Check all the purchase, given concurrence for purchase, vett the ML/Requisition &payment to
firms.

PLANNING OFFICE:
Prepare JPO, Monthly Production Program, Scheduling, Processing, Rate Fixing, Issue Work
Orders, Schedule Orders, Issue Job card & other production Documents. Preparing DLW
Budget &SenttoRlyBoard.

PROGRESS OFFICE:
After opening of work orders collect the prod. Documents from PCO and hand over to user
shop draw the material from depot &given to shop &hand over the ready material of shop to
usershop/store.After completionofwork,closetheworkorder.

PRODUCTION SHOPS:
Productionshopsaredividedinthree divisions-
1. BlockDivisions
2. EngineDivisions
3. LocoDivisions

PERSONNAL DEPARTMENT:
Prepare payment of Staff, Leave Record, Personal Record of every employee, Housing
allotment,welfareofstaff etc.

CIVIL DEPARTMENT:
Maintenanceofcolonyquarters, upgradation offacilitiesinquarters, sanitation etc.

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT:
MaintenanceofLightinginquartersandinworkshop,electrical worksinlocomotive etc.

TECHNICAL TRANING CENTER:


Providetraining to all employeesat time to time to refresh update their knowledge.

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT:


1.R&D- a Customer centricActivity Committed to Innovation and ContinuousImprovement.
2.HighlyskilledManpowercapableofhandlingcompleteR&Dactivities.
3.A sophisticated design center with modern CAD/ CAE workstations equipped with
UnigraphicsandAnsys.
4.Back-upsupportfromRDSO,acentralizedR&Dorganization at corporate level.
5. Several milestones in the past - an enviable pedigreeviz.
a.originalALCOdesign made7%more fuel efficient.
b.manydesign improvements leading to better performance, incorporated in the original ALCO
design.
c.manynewdesigns for locomotives such as WDP1,WDG2,WDP2to nameafew.
RECENT MILESTONES & FUTURE PLAN:

MILESTONES ACHIEVED:
Transfer of technology (TOT) -- Anadded feather in the cap:-
• Agreement with General Motors of USAfor technology transfer to manufacture high
horse-power GT46MAC4000HPAC/AClocomotive inIndia.
• Only country outside North-America to have this bleeding edge technology Many
export/repeat orders complied successfully in recent past and many more in the pipeline;
Supplied more than 400 locomotives to various nonrailway customers; Emerging as a
leading manufacturer ofALCO/GMlocomotives for developingcountries.

FUTURE PLANS:
• Assimilation of GMtechnology to manufacture their latest 710 series of diesel electric
locomotives.
• Toemerge as a globally competitive locomotive manufacturer.
• Todevelop as an export hub for ALCO/GMlocos for Asian market.
• Tofollow an export led growth strategy through continuous improvement.
TECHNICAL TRAINING CENTRE, DLW,
VARANASI

ABOUT T.T.C. :
Technical Training Centre (TTC) has been inaugurated by Shri V. V. Giri, Governor of Uttar
Pradesh on 2ndFeb. 1959. It provides the training in different categories like Induction Training
for newly recruited / promoted staff and supervisors, Refresher, General Management,
Professional, Quality & Industrial Related Safety Courses and Skill Upgradation Courses for
DLWstaff.
Apart from above TTCalso organize internship courses for Degree and Diploma Engineering &
Managementstudents anddifferent training forotherZonalRailwaysstaff and supervisors.
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS LAB :
TTChave and Electrical &Electronics Lab having facility of different types of trainers
(Electrical &Electronics) like Single Phase &Three Phase motor trainer, alternator trainer &
DCmachine trainer, Star delta transformer (R.L.C. loaded) and different electronic circuit
trainers to trained ActApprentices (Electrical, Electronics and Wireman Trade) &Trainee
Artisan.

MACHINE & FITTING SHOP :


In Machine shop, facilities for various machining process such as turning, taper turning, facing,
chamfering, grooving, drilling, boring, milling, grinding, shaping, slotting has been provided for
training ofActApprentices and TraineeArtisans.
In fitting shop, training for Carpenter, Painter, Sheet metal worker, Mechanic motor vehicle,
Crane operator is being provided to trained ActApprentices &TraineeArtisan. Facilities like
BenchVice, BendSawMachine Piller TypeDrill Machine Leg vice are available in Fitting
Shop.

CLASSROOM
TTChave state of art modern air conditioned class rooms with facilities of Visual presenter,
Interactive touch screen board, LCDprojector andcomputer.
PERMANENAT-WAY WORKSHOP
The permanent way is the elements of railway lines: generally the pairs of rails typically laid on
the sleepers ("ties" inAmerican parlance) embeddedin ballast, intended to carry the ordinary
trains of a railway. It is described as permanent waybecause in the earlier days of railway
construction, contractors often laid a temporary track to transport spoil and materials about the
site; when this work was substantially completed, the temporary track was taken up and the
permanent way installed.

The earliest tracks consisted of wooden rails on transverse wooden sleepers, which helped
maintain the spacing of the rails. Various developments followed, with cast iron plates laid on top
of the wooden rails and later wrought iron plates or wrought iron angle plates (angle iron as L-
shaped plate rails). Rails were also individually fixed to rows of stone blocks, without any cross
ties to maintain correct separation. This system also led to problems, as the blocks could
individually move. The first version of Isambard KingdomBrunel's 7 ft (2,134 mm)broad gauge
system used rails laid on longitudinal sleepers whose rail gauge and elevation were pinned down
by being tied to piles (conceptually akin to a pile bridge), but this arrangement was expensive
and Brunel soon replaced it with what becamethe classic broad gauge track, in which the piles
were forgone and transoms, similar to sleepers, maintained the rail gauge.
Today, most rail track uses the standard system of rail and sleepers; ladder track is used in a
fewapplications.
Developments in manufacturing technologies has led to changes to the design, manufacture and
installation of rails, sleepers and the means of attachments. Cast iron rails, 4 feet (1.22 m) long,
began to be used in the 1790s and by 1820, 15 feet (4.57 m) long wrought iron rails were in use.
The first steel rails were made in 1857 and standard rail lengths increased over time from 30 to 60
feet (9.14 to 18.29 m). Rails were typically specified by units of weight per linear length and
these also increased. Railway sleepers were traditionally madeof Creosote-
treated hardwoods and this continued through to modern times. Continuous welded rail was
introduced into Britain in the mid 1960s and this was followed by the introduction of concrete
sleepers.
SLEEPER :
Timbersleepers, that are transverse beamssupporting the two rails that form the track,
replaced the individual stone blocks formerly used. This system has the major advantage that
maintenance adjustmentsto the track geometrydid not disrupt the all-important track gauge.
The alignment of the track could be adjusted by sluing it bodily, without loss of gauge.
Softwood was widely used, but its life was limited if it was not treated with preservative, and
some railways set up creosoting plants for the purpose. Creosote-treated hardwoodis now
widely used in NorthAmerica andelsewhere.
Bynowrelatively long (perhaps 20 ft.) wrought iron rails supported in chairs on timber cross-
sleepers, were in use –a track form recognizable today in older track.
Steel sleepers were tried as an alternative to timber;Acworth writing in 1889 describes the
production of steel sleepers on the London &North Western Railway, and there is an illustration
showing rolled channel section (shallow upturned "U" shapes) with no shaped ends, and with
three-part forged chairs riveted direct. Howeversteel sleepers seem not to have enjoyed
widespread adoption until about 1995. Their dominant usage nowis for life extension of existing
track on secondaryroutes.
RAIL FASTENINGS :
The early cast iron rails of the 18th century and before used integral fixings for nailing or bolting
to the railroad ties. Strap rails introduced in the late 18th century, of cast and later rolled iron
were nailed to wooden supports via countersunk holes in the metal. The introduction of rolled rail
profiles in the 1820s such as the single flanged Tparallel rail and later double flanged Tparallel
rail required the use of chairs, keys to hold the rail, and bolts or spikes to fix the chair. The flat
bottomed rail invented by Robert L. Stevens in 1830 was initially spiked directly to wooden
sleepers, later tie plates were used to spread the load and also keep the rail in gauge with inbuilt
shoulders in the plate. Outside NorthAmerica a wide variety of spring based fastening systems
were later introduced in combination with baseplates and flat bottomed rail, these are now
ubiquitous on main line high speedrailways.

BALLAST :
The track was originally laid direct on the ground, but this quickly proved unsatisfactory and
some form of ballast was essential, to spread the load and to retain the track in its proper
position. The natural ground is rarely strong enough to accept the loading from locomotives
without excessive settlement, and a layer of ballast under the sleeper reduces the bearing
pressure on the ground. The ballast surrounding the sleepers also tends to keep them in place
and resists displacement.
The ballast was usually some locally available mineral product, such as gravel or reject material
from coal and iron mining activities. The Great North of Scotland Railway used river gravel –
round pebbles. In later years the ash from steam engines was used and slag (a by-product of steel
making)
GAUGES :
Early Track Gauges :
The early railways were almost exclusively local concerns involved with conveying minerals to
some waterway; for them the gauge of the track was adopted to suit the wagons intended to be
used, and it was typically in the range 4 ft. to 4 ft. 8½in, and at first there was no idea of the need
for any conformity with the gauge of other lines. Whenthe first public railways developed,
George Stephenson's skillful innovation meant that his railways were dominantand
the 4 ft. 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)gauge he used was therefore the most widespread.As early notions of
linking up different railway systems evolved, this gauge secured general adoption. It is more or
less an accident of history that this gauge –which suited the wagons already in use at the colliery
where George Stephenson had been an engine man–becamethe British standard gauge: it was
exported to most of Europe and NorthAmerica.
Reference is sometimes madeto the "gauge" of ruts in stone roadways at ancient sites such as
Pompeii, and these are often asserted to be about the same as Stephenson's gauge. Of course the
ruts were made by the wheels of carts, and the carts were of a sensible size for horse-drawn carts
prior to the industrial era, pretty muchthe same as the size of the pre-railway carts at the
colliery where Stephenson worked: that is the only connection.

Broad Gauge Track :


WhenIsambard KingdomBrunel conceived the Great Western Railway (GWR),he sought an
improved design for his railway track and accepted none of the previous received wisdom
without challenge. The 4 ft 8½ingauge had been fine for small mineral trucks on a horse-drawn
tramway, but he wanted something more stable for his high speed railway. The large diameter
wheels used in stage coaches gave better ride quality over rough ground, and Brunel originally
intended to have his passenger carriages carried in the same way–on large diameter wheels
placed outside the bodies of the carriages. Toachieve this he needed a wider track gauge and he
settled on the famous 7 feet (2.1 m) broad gauge. (It was later eased to 7 ft 0¼in). Whenthe time
came to build the passenger carriages, they were designed conventionally with smaller wheels
under the bodies after all, but with a seven-foot track gauge the bodies could be much wider than
on the standard gauge. His original intention to have the wheels outside the width of the bodies
was abandoned.
Brunel also looked at novel track forms, and decided to use a continuously supported rail.
Using longitudinal timbers under each rail, he achieved a smoother profile while not requiring
such a strong rail section, and he used a shallow bridge rail for the purpose. The wider, flat foot
also meant that the chair needed by the bullhead section could be dispensed with. The
longitudinal timbers needed to be kept at the proper spacing to retain the gauge correctly, and
Brunel achieved this by using timber transoms –transverse spacers –and iron tie-bars. The
whole assembly was referred to as the baulk road –railway menusually call their track aroad.
Initially, Brunel had the track tied down to timber piles to prevent lateral movement and bounce,
but he had overlooked the fact that the madeground, on which his track wassupported
between piles, would settle. The piles remained stable and the ground between them settled so
that his track soon had an unpleasant undulation, and he had to have the piles severed, so that
the track could settle more or less uniformly.

The existing broad gauge routes could continue, but as they had no development potential it was
only a matter of time before they were eventually converted to standard. In the meantime, an
extensive mileage of mixed gauge track was installed, where each line had three rails to
accommodate trains of either gauge. There were some instances of mixed gauge trains being
run, where wagons of each gauge were run in a single train. The legacy of the broad gauge can
still be seen where there seems to be an unnecessarily wide space betweenstation platforms.

SWITCHES AND CROSSINGS :


Terminology is difficult for "switches and crossings" (S&C)previously "points and crossings",
or "fittings".
Early S&Callowed only a very slow speed on the subsidiary route (the "turnout"), so geometrical
design was not too important. Manyolder s&c units had a loose joint at the heel so that the switch
rail could turn to close to the stock rail or open from it. Whenthe switch rail was closed, a
reasonable alignment was secured; whenit was open, no wheel could run on it so it did not
matter.
TURNOUT

As speeds rose, this was no longer feasible and the switch rails were fixed at the heel end, and
their flexibility enabled the toe end to open and close. Manufacture of the switch rails was a
complex process, and that of the crossings even more so. Speeds on the subsidiary route were
rarely higher than 20 mphexcept in very special designs, and great ingenuity was employed to
give a good ride to vehicles passing through at speed on the main line. Adifficulty was the
common crossing where continuous support to wheels passing was difficult, and the point rail
was planed to protect it from direct impact in the facing direction, so that a designed irregularity
in support was introduced.

As faster speeds were required, more configurations of s&cwere designed, and a very large
number of components, each specific to only one type of s&c, was required.At faster speeds on
the turnout road, the divergence from the main route is much more gradual, and therefore a very
considerable length of planningof the switch rail is required.

About 1971, this trend was reversed with the so-called vertical s&c, in which the rails were held
vertical, rather than at the customary 1 in 20 inclination. With other simplifications, this
considerably reduced the stockholding required for a wide range of s&cspeeds, although the
vertical rail imposes a loss of the steering effect and the ride through new vertical s&cis often
irregular.

Manual Rail RoadSwitch


SEWAGE / SLUDGE TREATMENT
PLANT
Sewagetreatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, including
household sewage and runoff (effluents). It includes physical, chemical, and biological
processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to
produce an environmentally safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste
(or treated sludge) Suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer).
DLW SPT Plant WasteWaterStorage Capacity :- 12MLD

MODEL OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT OF DLW

Sewagetreatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from


household sewage. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove these
contaminants and produce environmentally safer treated wastewater (or treated effluent).Aby-
product of sewage treatment is usually a semi-solid waste or slurry, called sewage sludge, that
has to undergo further treatment before being suitable for disposal or land application.
Sewagetreatment mayalso be referred to as wastewater treatment, although the latter is a
broader term which can also be applied to purely industrial wastewater. For most cities,
the sewer systemwill also carry a proportion of industrial effluent to the sewage treatment plant
which has usually received pretreatment at the factories themselves to reduce the pollutant load.
If the sewer system is a combined sewer then it will also carry urban runoff (storm water) to the
sewage treatment plant. Sewagewater can travel towards treatment plants via piping and in a
flow aided by gravity and pumps. The first part of filtration of sewage typically includes a bar
screen to filter solids and large objects which are then collected in dumpsters and disposed of in
landfills. Fat and grease will also be removedbefore the primary treatment of sewage.

The term "sewage treatment plant" (or "sewage treatment works" in some countries) is
nowadays often replaced with the term "wastewater treatmentplant".[1]

Sewagecan be treated close to where the sewage is created, which may be called a
"decentralized" system or even an "on-site" system (in septic tanks, bio filters or aerobic
treatment systems). Alternatively, sewage can be collected and transported by a network of
pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant. This is called a "centralized" system
(see also sewerage and pipes and infrastructure).

ORIGIN OF SEWAGE WATER :


Sewageis generated by residential, institutional, commercial and industrial establishments. It
includes household waste liquid from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, and sinks draining into
sewers. In many areas, sewage also includes liquid waste from industry and commerce. The
separation and draining of household waste into grey water and black water is becoming more
common in the developed world, with treated grey water being permitted to be used for
watering plants or recycled for flushing toilets.

SEWAGE MIXING WITH RAINWATER


Sewagemayinclude storm water runoff or urban runoff. Sewerage systems capable of handling
storm water are known as combined sewer systems. This design was common when urban
sewerage systems were first developed, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. combined
sewers require much larger and more expensive treatment facilities than sanitary sewers. Heavy
volumes of storm runoff may overwhelm the sewage treatment system, causing a spill or
overflow. Sanitary sewers are typically much smaller than combined sewers, and they are not
designed to transport storm water. Backups of raw sewage can occur if
excessive infiltration/inflow (dilution by storm water and/or groundwater) is allowed into a
sanitary sewer system. Communities that have urbanized in the mid-20th century or later
generally have built separate systems for sewage (sanitary sewers) and storm water, because
precipitation causes widely varying flows, reducing sewage treatment plant efficiency.

As rainfall travels over roofs and the ground, it maypick up various contaminants
including soil particles and other sediment, heavy metals, organic compounds, animal waste, and
oil and grease. Some jurisdictions require storm water to receive some level of treatment before
being discharged directly into waterways. Examples of treatment processes used for storm water
include retention basins, wetlands, buried vaults with various kinds of media filters,
and vortex separators (to remove coarse solids).

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT
In highly regulated developed countries, industrial effluent usually receives at least pretreatment
if not full treatment at the factories themselves to reduce the pollutant load, before discharge to
the sewer. This process is called industrial wastewater treatment. The same does not apply to
many developing countries where industrial effluent is more likely to enter the sewer if it exists,
or eventhe receiving waterbody, withoutpretreatment.
Industrial wastewater may contain pollutants which cannot be removed by conventional sewage
treatment. Also, variable flow of industrial waste associated with production cycles may upset
the population dynamicsof biological treatment units, such as the activatedsludge process.
PROCESS STEP :

OVERVIEW
Sewagecollection and treatment is typically subject to local, state and federal regulations and
standards.
Treating wastewater has the aim to produce an effluent that will do as little harm as possible
whendischarged to the surrounding environment, thereby preventing pollution compared to
releasing untreated wastewater into the environment.[5]
Sewagetreatment generally involves three stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary
treatment.
 Primarytreatmentconsists of temporarily holding the sewagein a quiescent basin where
heavysolidscansettle tothe bottomwhileoil, grease andlighter solidsfloat tothe surface.
Thesettled andfloating materialsare removedandtheremaining liquidmaybe discharged
or subjected to secondary treatment. Somesewage treatment plants that are connected to a
combined sewer system have a bypass arrangement after the primary treatment unit. This
meansthat during very heavy rainfall events, the secondary and tertiary treatment systems
canbebypassedtoprotectthemfromhydraulicoverloading, andthemixtureofsewageand
stormwateronlyreceivesprimary treatment.

PRIMARYCLARIFIER
 Secondary treatment removes dissolved and suspended biological matter. Secondary
treatment is typically performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a
managed habitat. Secondary treatment may require a separation process to remove the
micro-organismsfromthetreatedwaterpriortodischargeortertiary treatment.
 Tertiary treatment is sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary
treatment in order to allow ejection into a highly sensitive or fragile ecosystem (estuaries,
low-flow rivers, coral reefs,...). Treated water is sometimes disinfected chemically or
physically (for example, by lagoons and microfiltration) prior to discharge into a stream,
river, bay, lagoon or wetland, or it can be used for the irrigation of a golf course, green
way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can also be used for groundwater recharge or
agricultural purposes.
INSPECTOR OF WORKS { EAST & CENTRAL }

JE Works is a supervisor in Civil Engineering department of Railways. Traditionally JE/Works


was called Inspector of Works. JE/Works will normally be posted in major or junction stations.
Hewill be in charge of the construction and maintenance of Railway buildings including staff
quarters, water supply to these buildings, prevention of encroachmenton Railway land
etc. Normally he will have a small section consisting of few stations under his charge, which
means he has to travel to these stations and do routine inspections and attending to repairs,
failures. Hewill have a large team of workers including carpenter, mason, plumber etc.

WATERSUPPLYTANKOF
I.O.W. EASTOFD.L.W.

This department of D.L.W. has the responsibility of supplying pure and clean drinkable water
and to take care and maintenance of 695 D.L.W. staff quarters, the construction and
maintenance work of new building of east zone of D.L.W. comesunder thisdepartment.