Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 100


Crude oil is a naturally occurring substance derived from

the decomposition over thousands of years of plant and
animal organic matter under elevated temperature and
It is a complex combination of hydrocarbons consisting
predominantly of paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic
hydrocarbon, with some wax and asphaltenes .
The composition of crude oils from different producing
regions, and even from within a particular geological
formation, can vary widely.
Petroleum Classification According To Chemical Composition

Composition of 250–300 °C fraction,

wt. %
Class of petroleum
Paraffinic Napthenic Aromatic Wax Asphaltene

Paraffinic 46—61 22–32 12–25 1.5–10 0–6

Paraffinic-naphthenic 42–45 38–39 16–20 1–6 0–6

Naphthenic 15–26 61–76 8–13 Trace 0–6

27–35 36–47 26–33 0.5–1 0–10

Aromatic 0–8 57–78 20–25 0–0.5 0–20

• In 1954, Shell Oil developed the average freight rate
assessment (AFRA) system, which classifies tankers of different sizes.
To make it an independent instrument, Shell consulted the London
Tanker Brokers’ Panel (LTBP).

At first, they divided the groups as:

• General Purpose for tankers under 25,000 MT (DWT);
• Medium Range for ships between 25,000 and 45,000 DWT and
• Large Range for the then-enormous ships that were larger than
45,000 DWT.

The ships became larger during the 1970s, and the list was extended:
• 10,000–24,999 DWT: Small tanker
• 25,000–34,999 DWT: Intermediate tanker
• 35,000–44,999 DWT: Medium Range 1 (MR1)
• 45,000–54,999 DWT: Medium Range 2 (MR2)
• 55,000–79,999 DWT: Large Range 1 (LR1)
• 80,000–159,999 DWT: Large Range 2 (LR2)
• 160,000–319,999 DWT: Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC)
• 320,000–549,999 DWT: Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC)
Oil Tankers
Class Length Beam Draft Deadweight Tonnage

Product tanker 10,000–60,000 [SMALL, INTERMEDIATE ,MR1 &2]

Panamax 205 m 29 m 16 m 60,000–80,000 DWT [LR1 – LARGE RANGE 1]

Aframax 245 m 34 m 20 m 80,000–120,000 DWT [LR2 – LARGE RANGE 2]

Suezmax 285 m 45 m 23 m 125,000 – 200,000 DWT (Suez Canal max capacity)

320,000 DWT (Suez Canal can accommodate some in

VLCC 330 m 55 m 28 m
its expanded dimensions)
Aframax is a medium-sized crude tanker with a dead weight tonnage (DWT) ranging
between 80,000 and 120,000. The tanker derives its name from AFRA which stands
for Average Freight Rate Assessment.

Suezmax are medium to large-sized ships with a deadweight tonnage (DWT)

between 120,000 to 200,000. They are the largest marine vessels that meet the restrictions
of the Suez, and are capable of transiting the canal in a laden condition. Earlier the size
of suezmax vessels was restricted to 80,000 DWT, but the maximum was increased to
150,000 DWT in 1975. After further deepening of the Suez Canal from 18 m (60 ft) to
20.1 m (66 ft) in 2009, max was increased to 200,000 DWT .

VLCC or Very Large Crude Carriers and ULCC or Ultra Large Crude Carriers are the
largest operating cargo vessels in the world. With a size in excess of 250,000 Dead
Weight Tonnage (DWT), these giant ships are capable of carrying huge amount of crude
oil in a single trip. They are known as Supertankers.

Q-Max or the Qatar Max is the largest liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier class in the
world. The name Q-Max refers to the maximum size of tankers capable of docking at
the Ras Laffan terminal in Qatar. A typical Q-Max gas tanker is 345 m (1,132 ft) long, 53.8
m (177 ft) wide, and 34.7 m (114 ft) in height, with a draught of 12 m (39 ft). The Q-
Max has a cargo capacity of 266,000 cubic meters (9,400,000 cu ft), equal to 161,994,000
cubic m of natural gas. According to estimates, this amount of fuel can light up 70,000
U.S. homes for one year. Prior to Q-Max, Q-Flex ships were the largest LNG carriers
with a maximum capacity of 217,000 m3 (7,633,283 cu ft)
GRT 159911 DWT 307284 MT
LOA x BEAM 332.84 m x 58m YEAR BUILT 2006

GRT 260851 DWT 564650 MT

LOA x BEAM 458.45 m x 68.80m YEAR BUILT 1976
• Liquid petroleum that is pumped out of an oil well is called
“crude oil” or “crude.”
• Crude oils range from light coloured oils to thick, black oil
similar to melted tar.
• The petroleum industry often names crude based on the oil's
geographical source; for example “West Texas Intermediate.”
• Crude oils are also classified based on physical
characteristics and chemical composition using terms such as
“sweet” or “sour,” “light” or “heavy.”

• Composed predominantly of carbon, crude oil contains
approximately 84-87 percent carbon and 11-13 percent
• Crude oil also contains varying amounts of oxygen, sulphur,
nitrogen, helium and salts in varying proportions depending
on their source.
Light/Heavy Crude Oils
• Crudes can be classified as “light” or “heavy,” a characteristic which refers to the oil’s
relative density based on the American Petroleum Institute (API) Gravity. This
measurement reflects how light or heavy a crude oil is compared to water.
• If an oil’s API Gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter than water and will float on it.
• Crude oils with lower densities and viscosities, and thus higher API gravities,
usually contain higher levels of naphtha with predominately volatile paraffinic
hydrocarbons, which can be processed readily to produce gasoline and are
considered “light” crude.
• Lighter crudes are easier and less expensive to produce. They generally have a
higher percentage of light hydrocarbons that can be recovered with simple
distillation at a refinery.
• If an oil’s API Gravity is less than 10, it is heavier than water and will sink.
• Heavy crude oils are more viscous, have higher boiling ranges and higher densities,
and thus have lower API gravities.
• Heavy crudes can’t be produced, transported, and refined by conventional methods
because they have high concentrations of sulphur and several metals, particularly
nickel and vanadium.
• Heavy crude oils are usually rich in aromatics and has high bitumen content.
• Heavy crudes require extra refining to produce more valuable and in-demand
• The currently accepted API gravity values that differentiate between light and heavy
crude oils are >33°API for “light” and <28°API for “heavy".
• In March 1989 the tanker
Exxon Valdez, which complied
fully with the then current
MARPOL requirements, ran
aground and discharged 11
million gallons of crude oil into
the pristine waters of Prince
William Sound in Alaska.
• The subsequent public outcry
led to the United States
Congress passing the Oil
Pollution Act 1990 (OPA 90).
• This unilateral action by the
United States Government
made it a requirement that
existing single hull oil tankers
operating in United States
waters were to be phased out
by an early date, after which
all oil tankers were to have a
double hull.
• In 1992 MARPOL was amended to make it mandatory for tankers of
5,000 dwt and more ordered after 6 July 1993 to be fitted with
double hulls, or an alternative design approved by IMO.
• Although the double hull requirement was adopted in 1992,
following the Erika incident off the coast of France in December
1999, IMO Member States discussed proposals for accelerating the
phase-out of single hull tankers.
• As a result, in April 2001, IMO adopted a revised phase-out
schedule for single hull tankers, which entered into force on 1
September 2003 (the 2001 amendments to MARPOL). The revised
requirements set out a stricter timetable for the phasing-out of
single-hull tankers.
Definitions (MARPOL)
• Crude oil tanker means an oil tanker engaged in the trade of
carrying crude oil.
• Product carrier means an oil tanker engaged in the trade of
carrying oil other than crude oil.
• Combination carrier means a ship designed to carry either oil or
solid cargoes in bulk.
• Tank means an enclosed space which is formed by the permanent
structure of a ship and which is designed for the carriage of liquid
in bulk.
• Wing tank means any tank adjacent to the side shell plating.
• Centre tank means any tank inboard of a longitudinal bulkhead.
• Slop tank means a tank specifically designated for the collection of
tank drainings, tank washings and other oily mixtures.
• Segregated ballast means the ballast water introduced into a tank
which is completely separated from the cargo oil and oil fuel
system and which is permanently allocated to the carriage of
ballast or to the carriage of ballast or cargoes other than oil or
noxious liquid substances as variously defined in the Annexes of
the present Convention.
Types of Ballast Tanks As Per Usage On Oil Tankers: The oil
tanker ships have a different set of regulations for the ballast
tanks. The two main types as per the usage are:
• Clean Ballast Tanks (CBT)
• Segregated Ballast Tanks (SBT)
• As per MARPOL Annex 1, Regulation 18 – Every crude oil
tanker of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and above and every
product carrier of 30,000 tonnes deadweight and above
delivered after 1 June 1982, as defined in regulation 1.28.4,
shall be provided with segregated ballast tanks.
Segregated Ballast Tanks : The segregated ballast tanks (SBT) are
dedicated tanks constructed for the sole purpose of carrying
ballast water on oil tanker ships. They are completely separated
from the cargo, and fuel tanks and only ballast pumps are used in
the SBT.
The Segregated ballast tanks avoid any chances of mixing oil and
water which usually happens when cargo holds are used to carry
ballast water.
Clean Ballast Tanks (CBT): The oil tankers may travel without carrying
cargo in its holds which may lead to stability issues. Especially in
bad weather. Hence, the cargo holds which carried oil in the last
voyage are cleaned and then filled with clean ballast water.
During the discharge of ballast water, an oil content monitor
control is used and the only effluent which is <15ppm is
discharged overboard, and rest is transferred to the slop tanks.
Dirty ballast is water which may contain residual fuel and other
constituents as a result of sea water being stored in fuel tanks
Slop tanks are present onboard tanker to store oily water mixture
from cargo tank washing. The number of slop tanks depends on
the Dead weight Tonnage (DWT) of the vessel.
HANDLING OF SLOPS: Slops are either pumped to shore reception facility
(very expensive) OR partially discharged into sea through ODMCS.
Oily water mixture is allowed to settle down in slop tank during passage.
Water being denser settles down and oil floats on top of water.
The water which has settled down is then pumped through the ODMCS, Two
Way valve, spool, a manual valve and finally discharged into the sea.
The ODMCS ensures that the oil concentration in the water being pumped
out is below the Marpol standards.
Procedure: Load on top is the shipboard procedure of collecting and
settling water and oil mixtures, resulting from ballasting and tank
cleaning operations (usually in a special slop tank or tanks), and
subsequently loading cargo on top of and pumping the mixture
ashore at the discharge port.
Objective of Load on Top: The essential purpose of the Load on Top
system is the collection and settling on board of the water and oil
mixtures resulting from ballasting and tank operations-usually in a
special slop tank or tanks-and their subsequent disposal ashore at
the discharge port.
When oil and water arc agitated together droplets of oil can enter
the water and water can enter the oil. When oil droplets enter
water they are generally well dispersed and will settle out, the rate
depending upon the specific gravity of the oil and the size of the
oil droplets. Tank washing and pumping of wash water and oil
residues produce water droplets, which will enter the oil. Most
crude oils contain emulsifying elements, which hinder the
separation of water dispersed in the oil. The oil residues in the slop
tank generally contain this type of water-in-oil emulsion, which is
stable and long-lasting.
ODMCS (Oil discharge monitoring control system), sometimes also
called ODME (Oil discharge monitoring equipment) is an
equipment required under Marpol Annex 1 and is required to
monitor discharge of oily mixture from cargo tanks of oil tankers.
• Oil tankers carry different types of oil cargo in their cargo tanks
and it often happens that after discharging the oil cargo in some
port, the ship sails without any cargo to some other destination. In
order to do so, it has to take ballast from the sea to get better
draught and stability.
• For this reason, ballast water is taken into cargo tanks wherein
generally oil cargo would have been carried. It is to note that the
ballast water carried in cargo tanks has to be discharged out at sea
before the next cargo loading. Therefore, Oil Discharge monitoring
and control system (ODMCS) is used to prevent the pollution of
ocean by oil due to the discharge from ballast and bilge spaces.
• As per MARPOL 73/78 Annex I, all the oil tankers of 150 GT and
above must have an approved Oil Discharge Monitoring System.
The system must have provision to work in manual operating
mode if the auto system is not working.
Main Parts of ODMCS An ODMCS consists essentially of four systems:
1. An Oil content meter: The oil content meter is used to analyze the content
of oil in the water that is to be discharged overboard. This oil is expressed in
parts per million (PPM).
2. A flow meter: The flow rate of the oily water to be discharged is measured
at the discharge pipe.
3. A computing unit: A computing unit calculates the oil discharge in
litres/nautical miles and the total quantity, along with date and time
4. An overboard valve control system: The auto control valve is installed at the
overboard so that it must close and stop the discharge when permissible
limit has been reached.
Working: The oily mixture is pumped out to the sea through ODMCS by
a pump. A sampler probe and a flow meter sensor is connected at the
discharge pipe, before the overboard valve, to sense the oil content and the
flow of mixture.
• The data provided by the two sensors are fed in a control unit wherein it is
analysed and the discharge valve is controlled by the same.
• If the control unit senses a rise in the PPM and flow comparing to the
permissible value, it will shut the overboard valve and open the
recirculation valve which is connected to slop tank of the ship.
Regulatory requirements for oil mixture discharge from cargo space:
Tanker vessel must be enroute
The vessel should not be in special areas.
The tanker must be 50 nautical miles away from land.
The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30 litres
per nautical mile.
The total quantity of discharge must not exceed 1/30000 of the total quantity
of the residue formed cargo.
The tanker must have operational and approved ODMCS.
As per the regulation, the following inputs must be recorded by the system:
Discharge rate of the pump which is discharging the oily water mixture
The location of the ship in latitude and longitude.
Date and time of the discharge.
The total quantity that has been discharge overboard.
Oil content of the discharged mixture in PPM.
All the records of ODMCS must be stored on board ships for not less than 3
What is an Inert Gas or IG System on Ships?: Oil tankers carry oil of different
grades and quality, having property to produce flammable vapors and gases
when loaded for transportation. Even with no cargo on board, there can be
harmful flammable gases present in the hold. When the vapor produced by
an oil cargo is mixed with certain concentration of air primarily containing
oxygen, it can result in explosion which results in damages to the property,
marine pollution and loss of life.
For safety against such explosion, Inert gas system is used on board. It can be
through as a separate inert gas plant or flue gas produced by ship’s boiler.
What is Inert gas and Inert gas system?: Inert gas system is the most important
integrated system for oil tankers for safe operation of the ship.
Inert gas is the gas which contains insufficient oxygen (normally less then 8 %)
to suppress combustion of flammable hydrocarbon gases.
Inert gas system spreads the inert gas over the oil cargo hydrocarbon mixture
which increases the lower explosion limit LEL (lower concentration at which
the vapors can be ignited), simultaneously decreasing the Higher explosion
limit HEL (Higher concentration at which vapor explodes). When the
concentration reaches around 10 %, an atmosphere is created inside tank in
which hydrocarbon vapors cannot burn. The concentration of inert gas is
kept around 5% as a safety limit.
Components and description of IG system:
The following components are used in a typical inert gas system in oil
1. Exhaust gases source: inert gas source is taken from exhaust uptakes of
boiler or main engine as contains flue gases in it.
2. Inert gas isolating valve: It serve as the supply valve from uptake to the
rest of the system isolating both the systems when not in use.
3. Scrubbing tower: Flue gas enters the scrub tower from bottom and passes
through a series of water spray and baffle plates to cool, clean and moist
the gases. The SO2 level decreases up to 90% and gas becomes clear of
4. Demister: Normally made of polypropylene, it is used to absorb moisture
and water from the treated flue gas.
5. Gas Blower: Normally two types of fan blowers are used, a steam driven
turbine blower for I.G operation and an electrically driven blower for
topping up purpose.
6. I.G pressure regulating valve: The pressure within the tanks varies with the
property of oil and atmospheric condition. To control this variation and to
avoid overheating of blower fan, a pressure regulator valve is attached
after blower discharge which re-circulates the excess gas back to
scrubbing tower.
Components and description of IG system:
7. Deck seal: Purpose of the deck seal is to stop the gases to return back
which are coming from the blower to cargo tanks. Normally wet type deck
seals are used. A demister is fitted to absorb the moisture carried away by
the gases.
8. Mechanical non return valve: It is an additional non return mechanical
device inline with deck seal.
9. Deck isolating valve: The engine room system can be isolated fully with the
deck system with the help of this valve.
10. Pressure Vacuum (PV) breaker: The PV breaker helps in controlling the
over or under pressurization of cargo tanks. The PV breaker vent is fitted
with flame trap to avoid fire to ignite when loading or discharging
operation is going on when in port.
11. Cargo tank isolating valves: A vessel has numbers of cargo holds and each
hold is provided with an isolating valve. The valve controls the flow of
inert gas to hold and is operated only by a responsible officer in the
12. Mast riser: Mast riser is used to maintain a positive pressure of inert gas
at the time of loading of cargo and during the loading time it is kept open
to avoid pressurization of cargo tank.
13. Safety and alarm system: The Inert gas plant is provided with various
safety features to safeguard the tank and its own machinery.
Purge pipe
Following are various alarms (with Shutdown) incorporated in the Inert Gas plant on
board ship:
High Level in scrubber leads to alarm and shutdown of blower and scrubber tower
Low pressure sea water supply (approx. 0.7 bar) to scrubber tower leads to alarm
and shutdown of blower
Low pressure sea water supply (approx. 1.5 bar) to deck seal leads to alarm and
shutdown of blower
High inert gas temperature (approx. 70 deg C) leads to alarm and shutdown of
Low pressure in line after blower (approx. 250mm wg) leads to alarm and shutdown
of blower
Oxygen content high (8%) leads to alarm and shutdown of gas delivery to deck
Low level in deck seal leads to alarm and shutdown of gas delivery to deck
Power failure leads to alarm and shutdown of blower and scrubber tower
Emergency stop leads to alarm and shutdown of blower and scrubber tower
Following are various alarms incorporated in the Inert Gas plant:
• Scrubber low level
• Deck seal High level
• Low O2 Content (1%)
• High O2 Content (5%)
• Low lube oil pressure alarm
Working of Inert Gas Plant
• The basis of inert gas production in the IG plant is the flue gas
generated from the ship’s boiler. The high temperature gas
mixture from the boiler uptake is treated in an inert gas plant
which cleans, cools and supplies the inert gas to the
individual tanks via PV valves and breakers to ensure safety of
tank structure and atmosphere.
• The system can be divided into two basic groups:
• a) A production plant to produce inert gas and deliver it under
pressure, by means of blower(s), to the cargo tanks.
• b) A distribution system to control the passage of inert gas
into the appropriate cargo tanks at the required time.

Brief working procedure:

• Boiler uptake gases are drawn to the scrubber unit via flue gas
isolating valve(s) to the scrubber unit.
• In the scrubber unit the gas is cooled, cleaned and dried
before being supplied in to the tanks.
Brief working procedure
• Motor driven inert gas blowers supplies the treated gas from scrubber
tower to the tanks through . They are mounted on rubber vibration
absorbers and isolated from the piping by rubber expansion bellows.
• Regulation of gas quantity delivered to deck is taken care of by the gas
control valves and the deck pressure is managed by pressure controller. If
the deck pressure is lower than the set point the output signal will be raised
to open the valve more, and vice versa if the deck pressure is lower than
the set-point. These valves will then work in cooperation to keep both the
deck pressure / blower pressure at their respective set point without
starving or overfeeding the circuit.
• Before entering the deck line, the gas passes through the deck water seal
which also acts as non-return valve automatically preventing the back-flow
of explosive gases from the cargo tanks.
• After the deck seal the inert gas relief is mounted to balance built-up deck
water seal pressure when the system is shut down. In case of a failure of
both the deck seal and the non-return valve, the relief valve will vent the
gases flowing from the cargo tank into the atmosphere
• The oxygen analyser which is fitted after the blower separates the
“production” and “distribution” components of the plant and analyzes the
oxygen content of the gas and if it is more than 8%, it alarms and shut
downs the plant
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-TVZxZRvQjI
As per MARPOL Annex 1, Regulation 33,
• Every crude oil tanker of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and above
delivered after 1 June 1982, shall be fitted with a cargo tank
cleaning system using crude oil washing.
• The Administration shall ensure that the system fully complies
with the requirements of this regulation within one year after the
tanker was first engaged in the trade of carrying crude oil or by the
end of the third voyage carrying crude oil suitable for crude oil
washing, whichever occurs later.
• Crude oil washing installation and associated equipment and
arrangements shall comply with the requirements established by
the Administration. Such requirements shall contain at least all the
provisions of the Specifications for the Design, Operation and
Control of Crude Oil Washing Systems adopted by the
Organization. When a ship is not required, in accordance with
above paragraph of this regulation, to be, but is equipped with
crude oil washing equipment, it shall comply with the safety
aspects of the above-mentioned Specifications.
• IG system shall be provided in every tanker having
• Only those cargo tanks can be ballasted that have been
• Not following the above is a contravention of the
International rules.
• All ships with COW must have a “Operations and
equipment manual” approved by the Administration
• every existing tanker(before 1st June 1982) above
40,000 DWT shall be fitted with cow system
• Compliance of COW specifications to be shown in IOPP.
Understanding Crude Oil Washing Operation on Oil Tanker Ships:
Crude oil tankers play an important role in the global oil industry.
Tanker ships are the finest means of transport for unrefined crude
oil products in mass quantity.
As tanker ships carry different grades of fuel oil in the same cargo
tanks, it is important that the tanks are always washed before
loading fresh cargo. If you work on a tanker ship or about to join
one, it is important that you know everything about the crude oil
washing operation on tanker ships.
What is Crude Oil Washing or COW?: Previously, oil tanks on crude oil
tanker were cleaned by water, but this method of cleaning
increased marine pollution and required bigger slop tanks to store
leftover residue and oily water mixture. In order to prevent this
problem, a better non pollutant way was introduced where in oil
cargo of the tank itself was used to clean the cargo tanks.
When oil cargo is sprayed with pressure on tank walls and surfaces,
the sediments sticking to the tank dissolves and converts into
useful cargo which can be pumped out to the shore tanks. This
system virtually eliminates the requirement of slop tanks on ships
and almost all cargo can be transferred to the shore. This process
is known as Crude oil Washing or COW.
Procedure for COW: Crude oil washing was made mandatory under MARPOL
Annex 1 regulation 13 which states that every crude oil tanker which is
20000 dwt & above must be fitted with COW system for every cargo hold
To perform Crude oil washing in correct and efficient manner every ship
Have Efficient and approved COW system and equipment manual.
Have Skilled Personnel onboard who are properly trained to perform the
complete operation.

The operation can be divided in to three phases where in following checks

must be performed.
Before starting the operation:
Confirm all pre arrival checks are performed.
The complete COW operation to be discussed with ship and shore staff.
Set a communication channel between ship and shore facility for COW
operation-Ship shore interface.
Signal and Emergency signs to be discussed to stop the operation between
shore and ship staff.
Inert Gas plant to be working and oxygen content must be less than 5 %.
matter unit 5\sample COW check list.docx
Before starting the operation: [continued fm previous page]
Fixed Oxygen analyser to be checked and calibrated for proper
Portable oxygen analyser should be made available and checked for
proper functioning.
Oxygen reading in swash bulkhead tanks must be taken from both
the sides.
All tanks must be checked for positive inert gas pressure.
Assign duties to all responsible ship staff. One person to be assigned
to check the leakage in the pipe line system as soon as the
operation starts.
Check all the equipments under COW system for proper functioning.
Check and Set the line and valves for ship to shore under COW
When the operation is under process:
The inert gas values to be frequently checked- Tank pressure and O2
The crude oil washing must be done in the designated tanks as per
the plan including the washing cycle.
When the operation is under process: [continued fm previous page]
A responsible person to be always present on deck.
All deck lines and valves must be frequently checked for any
Parameters and running condition of all the machineries involved in
operation to be frequently checked.
Ullage gauge floats to be raised for the tanks which are being
Trim should be sufficient to assist the bottom washing of tanks.
The level of holding tanks to be continuously monitored to avoid
When the Operation is finished
Drain tank wash line off crude oil
Shut all the valves in the line used for the operation
Stop and drain all the machines involved in the operation
Drain all the cargo pumps after the operation is finished
Stop the COW operation immediately if you sense any kind of trouble
such as failure of IG system or increase of O2 content and drop in
the pressure of the cargo tank.
ISGOTT 26.3 refers to The Ship/Shore Safety Check-List:
The responsibility and accountability for the safe conduct of
operations while a ship is at a terminal are shared jointly between
the ship’s Master and the Terminal Representative. Before cargo or
ballast operations commence, the Master, or his representative,
and the Terminal Representative should:
● Agree in writing on the transfer procedures, including the
maximum loading or unloading rates.
● Agree in writing on the action to be taken in the event of an
emergency during cargo or ballast handling operations.
● Complete and sign the Ship/Shore Safety Check-List.
Terminals may wish to issue an explanatory letter to the Masters of
visiting ships advising them of the terminal’s expectations
regarding the joint responsibility for the safe conduct of
operations, and inviting the co-operation and understanding of the
tanker’s personnel.
While the Ship/Shore Safety Check-List is based upon cargo handling
operations, it is recommended that the same practice is adopted
when a tanker presents itself at a berth for tank cleaning.
Guidelines for completing the Check-List and to assist in responding to each
individual statement are included in Section 26.4. They have been produced
to assist berth operators and ships’ Masters in their joint use of the
Ship/Shore Safety Check-List.
The Responsible Officer should personally check all considerations lying within
the responsibility of the tanker. Similarly, the Terminal Representative
should personally check all considerations that are the terminal’s
responsibility. In fulfilling these responsibilities, representatives should
assure themselves that the standards of safety on both sides of the
operation are fully acceptable. This can be achieved by means such as:
● Confirming that a competent person has satisfactorily completed the Check-
● Sighting appropriate records.
● Joint inspection, where deemed appropriate.
For mutual safety, before the start of operations, and from time to time
thereafter, a Terminal Representative and, where appropriate, a
Responsible Officer, should conduct an inspection of the ship to ensure that
the ship is effectively managing its obligations, as accepted in the
Ship/Shore Safety Check-List. Similar checks should be conducted ashore.
Where basic safety requirements are found to be insufficient, either party
may require that cargo and ballast operations are stopped until corrective
action is implemented satisfactorily.
Composition of the Check-List:
The Ship/Shore Safety Check-List comprises four parts, the first two
of which (Parts ‘A’ and ‘B’) address the transfer of Bulk Liquids.
These are applicable to all operations. Part ‘A’ identifies the
required physical checks and Part ‘B’ identifies elements that are
verified verbally.
Part ‘C’ contains additional considerations relating to the transfer of
Bulk Liquid Chemicals and Part ‘D’ contains those for Bulk
Liquefied Gases.
The safety of operations requires that all relevant statements are
considered and the associated responsibility and accountability for
compliance are accepted, either jointly or singly. Where either
party is not prepared to accept an assigned accountability, a
comment must be made in the ‘Remarks’ column and due
consideration should be given to assessing whether operations can
Where a particular item is considered not to be applicable to the
ship, the terminal or to the planned operation, a note to this effect
should be entered in the ‘Remarks’ column.
matter unit 5\safety checklist.docx
Cargo oil loading preparations for oil tankers : Prior loading oil cargo in a
tanker vessel require utmost diligence in planning and most careful
consideration will need to be made for a safe operation. Following are the
basic procedure for a quick guidance prior loading oil cargo.
Preparation of the Cargo Plan- The Chief Officer shall prepare a detailed cargo
oil loading plan prior to arrival discharge port. The loading plan shall be
posted in the CCR at a conspicuous location, and distributed to all personnel
directly involved in the discharge operation.
The loading plan should be signed to confirm that personnel have read and
fully understood the plan. The Chief Officer shall also prepare a watch
schedule and Person in-Charge list for oil transfer operations for the
discharge operation.
Prior to commencement of loading operation the Chief Officer shall conduct a
“Pre transfer cargo safety meeting” with all the concerned crew and shall
have a duty officer read aloud such loading plan to all the attending officers
and crew.
Special details, port requirements and special precautions or procedures
should be discussed with all personnel involved in the loading operation.
Preparing of Ballast Pumps: The Ballast Pumps shall be in all readiness prior to
arrival at loading port.
Cargo Oil Transfer Check Lists.: The Chief officer shall complete the following
check lists prior to, during and upon completion of cargo oil transfer
The Chief Officer, after confirmation, shall affix his signature on the related
checklist. The Master, shall then sign on the completed checklist.
Display of warning notices and signs
Hose Connection: The chief Officer or deck duty officer must be in attendance
during connection of cargo oil transfer arms / hoses.
Line Clearance And Hose Draining (ISGOTT 11.1.15): Connection and
disconnection of hoses or chicksans is to be supervised by a responsible
Some ports may provide terminal personnel / third parties to assist the vessel
crew with connecting and disconnecting the transfer hose or chicksan arm.
These personnel remain under the supervision of the responsible officer
and should any actions be taken by them that do not comply with these
procedures the operation shall be stopped and the process reviewed and
re-assessed as necessary.
Line clearance and hose draining shall be subject to risk assessment which shall
include all design considerations such as location of drains, whether cargo is
held within the hose or piping / valve system with height which could result
in a hazard due to gravity, method of operation and control of cargo valves
(hydraulic / manual).
The procedure for draining lines and hoses shall be documented
within the chief Officer’s standing instructions / port specific cargo
plan and shall consider the following:
The procedure for line and hose / chicksan draining shall be discussed
at the safety meeting conducted prior to commencement of
operations. The procedures and hazards shall be communicated to
all involved including STS co-ordinators etc. Draining must also be
carried out according to shore requirements – e.g. air blowing is
not allowed at some terminals, care must be taken that shore
instructions do not result in introduction of the risk of cargo
The tank to which draining is affected shall have sufficient ullage, and
the tank pressure reduced to the minimum positive (around +20
To prevent inadvertent spillage of oil all manifolds and shore lines
must be well drained on the completion of cargo operations and
before disconnecting hoses / chicksans. Vacuum breakers shall be
carefully operated to ensure effective draining. Line draining and
final flexible hose draining should be undertaken as separate
Cargo manifold valves shall not be opened unless hoses /
chicksans are fully connected or the manifold blanked. This is
especially important when a hose is disconnected and
remains un-blanked when hoisted for drainage purposes
during STS operations.
Before disconnection, it must be ensured that all ship and shore
/ STS vessel valves are closed and that drain valves are
carefully controlled. All valves must be operated slowly and
carefully to allow controlled pressure equalization.
Cargo lines and manifolds must only be drained using fixed
stripping pumps and/or pipe-work which allow direct
discharge to a slop tank / cargo tank. Under no circumstances
must cargo lines and manifolds be drained into the manifold
save-all / pump-room bilges. Whenever possible, cargo lines
should be drained by gravity.
Manifolds must be blanked immediately after disconnection. If
necessary, ship lines draining could then be resumed
The use of plastic spill containers for drips during manifold sampling and
connection/disconnection of cargo hoses / arms is prohibited. Static
electrical hazards are created when using plastic containers –even when
there is provision for bonding with the ship hull. Spill containers must be
drained to appropriate tanks with due regard to any toxicity and
compatibility requirements.
Ensure a crew member remains at the vessel’s manifold valve for controlling
pressure. The plan of line clearing must be systematically followed in order
to be effective.
Good communications between all parties involved in the line clearing
operations are of paramount importance.
The appropriate PPE must be worn by all personnel involved in the cleaning
operations; any personnel not involved in the operation must be kept clear
of the area.Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective
clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to
protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed
by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals,
biohazards, and airborne particulate matter.
The choice of clearance medium (air / nitrogen) must be considered carefully
as the choice of the wrong medium may affect both the safety of the vessel
and the cargo quality. Compressed air may contain water/oil vapour /
droplets resulting in static electricity hazards.
The clearing of hoses and loading arms to the ship using compressed air should
not be undertaken due to the risks of:
• Static charge generation.
• Compromising inert gas quality.
• Oil mists emanating from tank vents.
When compressed air or inert gas is used to clear ship’s pipelines, for example,
when evacuating the liquid column above a deep well pump, similar hazards
to those identified above may arise and similar precautions must be
observed. Line clearing operations must be undertaken in accordance with
the operating procedures established for the particular ship.
A strong electrostatic field can be generated by blowing air or inert gas into the
bottom of a tank containing static accumulator oil. If water or particulate
matter is present in the cargo, the effect is made worse, as the rising gas
bubbles will disturb the particulates and water droplets. The settling
contaminants will generate a static charge within the cargo. Therefore, in an
un-inerted tank, a settling period of 30 minutes should be observed after
any blowing of lines has taken place into a tank.
Precautions should be taken to minimise the amount of air or inert gas
entering tanks containing static accumulator oils. However, it is best to
avoid the practice of blowing lines back to tanks containing cargo.
Although the line clearance procedure should, if correctly and methodically
carried out after each cargo operation, remove all liquid from the cargo
lines, the following checks must be carried out -:
• Check the entire cargo lines including the manifold crossovers for possible
contents by tapping with a suitable non-sparking instrument. Similarly
check that all cargo valves are moveable and not “frozen”.
• Check that vent systems are free to operate and are not blocked.
• Ensure that manifolds are free of liquid by opening the drain valves and
loosening the flanges (these must be secured after the checks are
• When dealing with cargoes which freeze at ambient temperatures it is
important to check and prevent the cargo lines and valves from becoming
blocked or “frozen”. Pay particular attention to PV lines also and
continuously monitor vapour pressure in each tank particularly when tanks
are heated. During heavy weather freezing temperatures, it is possible for
PV and IG lines to be filled with solidified cargo blocking these lines.
Cargo Oil Transfer Meetings with Terminal representative: The Master, Chief
Engineer and Chief Officer must attend and carry out a “pre-transfer cargo
safety meeting” with the shore facility representative to ensure full
agreement with the cargo oil discharge plan, and to agree on method of
communication during emergencies.
Liaison With Shore: Prior to commencement of operations, all procedures
must be agreed with the Terminal or shore representative and an ISGOTT
style ship shore checklist completed. During all cargo and associated
operations at a terminal, the Officer-of-the-Watch on deck must maintain a
close liaison with terminal personnel. An agreed system of communication
and control must be established before operations begin, and be
maintained until all operations have been completed. The emergency signal
to be used by the ship and shore must be agreed and clearly understood by
Whilst alongside, all terminal regulations must also be complied with. Where
differences of detail exist between the Company and the Shore regulations,
the more strict set shall apply, unless the safety of the ship will be adversely
Ship’s personnel must maintain awareness of operations and activities ashore
and in the vicinity of the ship and if such activities create a hazard to the
ship, the shore authority must be requested to rectify the situation. If
necessary shipboard cargo operations are to be suspended until a
satisfactory solution has been achieved.
The “Ship/Shore Safety Check List” or relevant “Ship to Ship Transfer Check
List” must be completed and signed for in agreement by both parties after
successful completion of safety checks and confirmation and prior to
starting of operations.
Dry Survey / OBQ survey
• The cargo tanks readiness is to be confirmed by the attending Surveyor /
Loading master. He shall be escorted by a responsible officer. Upon
completion survey, obtain the surveyors certificate / acknowledgement on
ship’s document.
• The vessel is to prepare dry certificate (OBQ Certificate, as required), upon
completion of inspection and the same shall be acknowledged from the
attending official. If available, copy of the surveyor’s document to be
retained onboard.
•Closed method of dipping such cargo tanks shall be followed.

Cargo documents and Information required for Surveyors at Loading ports

> Dry certificate at discharging port(s)
> Vessel Experience Factor
> Cargo Tank History
> Slop certificate, if applicable
> Arrival & Departure / Tank condition of Water Ballast Tanks and Fuel Oil
> Cargo Oil Tank Ullage Table
> In-tank bottom line Capacity Information
> The Vessel Particular
> Pre-loading plan
Cargo discharging operation in oil tankers : Oil cargo discharge
operation involves various safety factors to be taken into
consideration. Following are the most common elements and
check items to be followed. The procedures explained here are
only indicative, not exhaustive in nature and one must always be
guided by the practices of good seamanship.
Supply of I.G to cargo tanks being discharged: Confirm that the
oxygen level in the IG main supply is less that 5% & supplied to
tanks. The date, time, voyage number and description of operation
should be entered on the IGS fixed pressure and oxygen density
Line up of the IGS: Prior to starting of discharge, IGS must be set
appropriately to maintain a Positive Gas pressure in all tanks at all
Cargo tanks IG inlet lines to the designated discharging tanks shall be
re-checked and confirmed in desired position.
The control of the key to the locking arrangements for cargo tank IG
inlet valves shall be with the Chief Officer. For tanks which are
required to be isolated by vapor (as per the Charterer’s
instructions), the individual I.G. pressure shall be monitored Every
4 hrs.
Preventing for Cargo Contamination including Vapor Contamination Standard
Oil Tankers except Product Oil Carriers are provided Single Main Inert Gas
and Common Vent Lines which is connected with all cargo oil tanks.
In such vessels, IG Inlet (Cut-out) valves should be operated, if the charterer
requests to prevent Vapor contamination, which may be restricted to
monitor the main line pressure, so as to require to fit portable pressure
gauges for cargo oil tanks which are isolated.
Also in a Product Oil Carrier, below precautions should be considered to
prevent Cargo contamination.
a) Vapor contamination at the exhaust end in a Slop tank of AUS Vacuum
b) Liquid contamination with leakage of valves of Manifold Vapor Equal Line.
c) Liquid contamination with leakage of Manifold Drain Line.
Safety Confirmations and Clearance: Once the Chief Officer is satisfied that all
preparations have been made in accordance with the cargo oil discharge
plan and the shore facility representative has confirmed that the facility is
ready to receive cargo, he may order the designated manifold valve to be
opened, the IG out put to the discharging cargo tanks and the discharge
operations to commence in accordance with the discharge plan.
Commence discharging at reduced speed. Follow shore instructions & Increase
the discharge rate once it has been confirmed that there are no oil leaks
and shore receiving at their end, until the agreed cargo oil manifold
pressure has been reached.
Deck Watch and Personnel Arrangement The deck watch shall
check for oil leaks in the cargo area throughout the cargo oil
discharge operation. At the beginning of the operations,
confirm that no oil leaks from piping joints and that no oil in
flowing into tanks other than the tank being used.
Keep continuous monitoring of the Oil Level from the
discharging tanks, until settling down of cargo pumps and
flow rate.
It has been occurred in the past that, due to excessive shore
back pressure & height level of shore tanks, causing filling of
ship’s tanks and subsequent overflow, due to poor
After reaching the desired full rate with all the required cargo
pumps and confirmation reports have been received from all
stations at deck / pump room watch, (including the cargo
piping, pumps and sea surface around the vessel) the Chief
Officer may dismiss the off duty crew and revert to the
routine Watch Schedule
During discharging operations, watch manifold pressure all
the time, and monitor portions where oil is likely to leak.
Starting of Discharge Operation pumps and adjusting Internal Pressure of
Starting of Cargo Pumps:
Open manifold valves, and start the first cargo pump at slow speed. : After
confirming normal operation of each part, open delivery valves to start
pumping oil. Then start other pumps.
Only after receiving reports of all safety checks confirmed from all stations of
deck / pump room watch, then follow the instruction of the terminal side
to increase the manifold pressure to the prescribed (agreed) pressure.
Close watch of the manifold pressure shall be maintained, until completion of
setting down of shore side / ship’s cargo pumps.
When starting pumps flows, pressures and flow of cargoes are to be
maintained at minimum. Only on confirmation from the receiving terminal
and completion of results from safety check at each designated (manned
location), should flow / pressure be increased to max agreed.
However, at some discharge ports, this requirement of initial flow rate
may be revised where line clearance / circulation techniques are
Standard Practice for Operating Centrifugal Cargo Pumps: Centrifugal pumps
are to be run at their full nominal RPM during bulk discharge. Reduction of
RPM leads to a rapid decrease of pumping rate and pumping efficiency.
When the tank ullage is nearing low liquid levels, it is preferable to partially
close the discharge valve, rather than reduce pump revolutions, in order to
reduce the flow rate (to prevent cavitations ie pump sucking gas at suction
side due to vortex formation / gasification).
It is worth knowing that a 40% open butterfly valve will allow nearly the same
flow rate as a 100% open butterfly valve. RPM may then be reduced as
necessary .
The use of the Auto Unloading System (AUS), where fitted shall be correctly
and effectively utilized to reduce the overall discharge time.
Cavitations will occur when the pump tries to discharge more cargo than is
able to enter the suction i.e. with high viscosity cargo or where the cargo is
highly volatile (high RVP cargoes). In such cases, the cargo tank IG pressure
could play an important contribution to increase of the cargo pump’s NPSH
(Net Positive Suction Head).
There is a danger of drawing gas or air instead of liquid into the pump, the
pump would then be operating in a partial vacuum instead of liquid.
Evidence of cavitations is increased vibration and reduced output which will
cause damage to the pump. Always watch the suction pressure gauge of the
cargo pump.
Standard Practice for Operating Centrifugal Cargo Pumps: [continued]
During the pump operation an officer must be on station at all times in the
cargo control room to observe the tachometer and discharge pressure and
be prepared to partially close ("throttle") the pump discharge valve if
pressure falls off, or to shut down the pump if it loses suction .
Precaution while operating Multi numbers of Cargo Oil Pumps:
It is important to run all pumps at the similar pumping condition (Speed &
Delivery. Pressure) If one pump runs much slower than others or much
lower delivery pressure, it may stop pumping and heat up, possibly to a
dangerous level. If there is high back pressure it is doubtful whether it is
worth running all pumps. Due to high shore back pressure, a pump running
at reduced RPM may not be discharging at all; therefore, energy is
converted to the heat and could be dangerous.
Shutting Down of Cargo Pumps: The pump discharge valve should be closed
at the same time as the pump RPM's are reduced. When the pump has
stopped, the suction valve should be closed. When pumps are kept on
rolling RPM with the discharge valve shut, a careful watch should be
maintained on the parameters and temperatures. A lower RPM will
generate lesser adverse effects. For prolonged periods, consider shutting
Recording during Discharging in Tanker Cargo Log Book:
Following items shall be recorded in Tanker Cargo Log Book hourly.
Discharged Quantity (Rate) to compare it with that of the terminal side,
The pumping performance record / pumping log shall be maintained
correctly, the times corresponding to those times written in the port Log
Pump Pressure and RPM,
Manifold Pressure / Temperature,
Draft & Trim
Monitor of levels in tanks not being discharged
The Stress and Stability of the vessel
Tank pressure
a) Charterers are not only concerned with a vessel’s sea performance but
also their pumping ability and as a result the duration of port stays,
therefore, an informative and complete record of the discharge operation
is required in order to be able to refute any claims of poor pumping
b) An informative and complete record of RPM, rates, pump discharge
pressures and suction pressures as well as pressures shown on the gauges
at the manifold / ships rail is required in order to be able to refute any
possible claims of poor pumping performance.
Chief Officer’s Standing Order: Cargo plan & instructions from Chief officer should be
Chief officer shall give his written instructions to duty officer in his rest time.
Stress monitoring and print-outs of intermediate conditions shall be recorded
during regular cargo operation. Loading computer shall be updated hourly for
conditions on board.
Where possible, comparison of real & calculated draft & trim shall be carried out to
give proactive warning of any unplanned or unobserved deviation from plan.
Crude Oil Washing: Carry out crude oil washing as per “Procedures for Crude Oil
Operations” when the tank to be washed reaches the planned condition.
Ballasting and De-ballasting : Fill tanks with ballast water according to the ballasting
Consider the precautions decided for heated cargo discharge.
Notify the terminal of the matter before the start of ballasting.
As a company standard, to avoid the possibility of ballast overflow when alongside,
THE TANK’S CAPACITY. Such levels shall be marked near the ballast gauges and shall
be conspicuously displayed in the control room.
Trim and Draft: Checking water depth as the operation progresses, make a stern trim
so that ample trim which is described in the
COW manual may be obtained at the time when tank stripping starts.
Ensure the draft maintained, after allowing for tidal variation, is well within the limits
of the height limitation of manifold / loading arms. The vessel shall always be
maintained well within the operating limits (envelope) of the shore arms.
Stripping cargo: In the last stage of discharging, drop the number and speed of
main cargo pumps and gradually reduce opening of delivery valves to
change over to stripping. Stripping is conducted by the Auto Unloading
System (AUS), Eductors or Stripping pumps.
For further confirmation of effective stripping with remote suction pressure
gauge, closed system of manual sounding (dipping) of cargo tanks shall be
done by the ship’s crew to ascertain the sludge / oil condition of tank
Survey upon completion of discharge from tanks
(Dry certificate / ROB certificate): The cargo tanks are to be gauged in the
presence of the attending surveyor / berth master to confirm free from
pump-able (liquid) cargo.
The vessel is to prepare dry certificate (or ROB certificate, if pump-able liquid),
upon completion and the same shall be acknowledged from the attending
If available, copy of the surveyors document to be retained onboard.
Any remaining Un-pump-able cargo (by vessel’s fixed pumping systems), if
found, shall be documented with suitable remarks on the certificate.
Closed method of dipping such cargo tanks shall be followed.
Completion of Discharge : Close the manifold gate valves after confirming the
completion of transferring oil to the terminal.
Upon completion of a dry survey by the terminal (receiving) side, drain hoses and arms
at the manifold, and disconnect them.
Drain hoses and arms at the manifold. All manifold drain valves are to be operated
under the knowledge of the Chief Officer; the duty deck officer must be stationed
at the manifold and ensure that the correct valves are opened before confirming to
the Chief Officer in the CCR that the valves are opened.
After draining of all oil in pipe lines, close tank valves and vent valves. Ensure
connection is depressurized and isolated from the internal cargo tank IG pressure.
All cargo in deck cargo lines should be dropped by gravity into a designated tank or
tanks. Lines should not be dropped back to the pump room.
In parallel with draining work, measure the temperature and ullage in each tank to
work out the loaded quantity.
On completion of gauging and sampling all ullage ports, vapour locks and any other
tank openings should be confirmed closed.
Care should be taken to ensure that cargo lines do not become over pressurized due to
high ambient temperatures
The IGS recorder shall be switched on to record and monitor the cargo tanks
pressure. It shall be suitably marked for details of Voyage Number, date and time of
turning on and corresponding present pressure. This record shall be in continuous
operation until the final discharge port.
Stopping Inert gas system : Adjust inert gas pressure in tanks, and stop the system
when the pressure reaches the prescribed value (normally 1,000 mmAq).
Procedure for Entering an Enclosed Space on a Ship
• A ship is a complex structure from inside with several small
and enclosed spaces. Many of these enclosed spaces are used
for installing some machinery or for storing machine parts or
workshop equipments. A ship has a matrix of pipelines which
runs through each of its parts, including enclosed spaces.
• But that is not the point of discussion here. An enclosed place
can be used for several reasons; however, the main issue
arises when one has to enter these enclosed places in order
to do some repairing work or for cleaning purposes.
• Because of zero ventilation, these enclosed places generate
and store toxic gases which are either produced from
chemicals stored in the place or leakage from pipelines. If a
person enters such place without taking precaution, he or she
may suffer unconsciousness and sometimes even death.
• In order to prevent such unfortunate circumstances there is a
proper procedure that needs to be followed for safety and
wellness of the person entering the enclosed space.
Procedure for Entering an Enclosed Space: The following are the
points that need to be followed before entering an enclosed
• Risk assessment to be carried out by a competent officer as
enclosed or confined space entry is deficient in oxygen, making it a
potential life hazard.
• ŸA list of work to be done should be made for the ease of
assessment for e.g. if welding to be carried out or some pipe
replacement etc. This helps in carrying out the work quickly and
• ŸRisk assessment also needs to be carried out. Risk assessment
includes what work to be done, rescue operation etc.
• ŸPotential hazards are to be identified such as presence of toxic
• ŸOpening and securing has to be done and precaution should be
taken to check if the opening of enclosed space is pressurized or
• ŸAll fire hazard possibilities should be minimized if hot work is to be
carried out. This can be done by emptying the fuel tank or
chemical tank nearby the hot work place.
Procedure for Entering an Enclosed Space: [continued]
• The confined space has to be well ventilated before
• ŸThe space has to be checked for oxygen content and
other gas content with the help of oxygen analyzer and
gas detector.
• ŸThe oxygen content should read 20% by volume.
Percentage less than that is not acceptable and more
time for ventilation should be given in such
• A proper permit to work has to be filled out and
checklist to be checked so as to prevent any accident
which can endanger life.
• ŸPermit to work is to be valid only for a certain time
period. If time period expires then again new permit is
to be issued and checklist is to be filled out.
Procedure for Entering an Enclosed Space [continued]
• ŸPermit to work has to be checked and permitted by the Master of
the ship in order to work in confined space.
• Proper signs and Men at work sign boards should be provided at
required places so that person should not start any equipment,
machinery or any operation in the confined space endangering life
of the people working.
• Duty officer has to be informed before entering the enclosed
• The checklist has to be signed by the person involved in entry and
also by a competent officer.
• ŸOne person always has to be kept standby to communicate with
the person inside the space.
• ŸThe person may also carry a life line with him inside.
• ŸThe person should carry oxygen analyzer with him inside the
enclosed space and it should be on all the time to monitor the
oxygen content. As soon as level drops, the analyzer should sound
alarm and the space should be evacuated quickly without any
Procedure for Entering an Enclosed Space [continued]
• ŸNo source of ignition has to be taken inside unless the Master
or competent officer is satisfied.
• ŸThe number of persons entering should be constrained to the
adequate number of persons who are actually needed inside
for work.
• ŸThe rescue and resuscitation equipment are to be present
outside the confined space. Rescue equipment includes
breathing air apparatus and spare charge bottles.
• ŸMeans of hoisting an incapacitated person should be
• ŸAfter finishing the work and when the person is out of the
enclosed space, the after work checklist has to be filled.
• ŸThe permit to work has to be closed after this.
The above mentioned procedure is extremely important to
entering an enclosed space. These points are imperative to
risk any crew member’s life while entering a confined space.
• CARGO PUMPS Initially on modern tankers the main cargo
pumps were of the centrifugal type, either geared turbine or
motor driven, and had a very high pumping capacity, those on
the large tankers being capable of discharging say
• Because of their high capacities the centrifugal cargo pumps
are unsuitable for emptying tanks completely, and for this
purpose reciprocating stripping pumps with capacities of, say,
350m3/hour are provided with a separate stripping line.
• More recent developments have seen the use of individual
hydraulically driven submerged cargo pumps in the cargo
tanks with a single discharge line and the conventional pump
room dispensed with.
• Also cargo tanks are being fitted with submerged cargo
pumps driven by explosion proof electric motors. Tanker
cargo discharge systems are now often fully computerized.
Centrifugal pumps:
• An impeller, which is inside
a casing, physically moves
the oil by means of a
throwing movement.
• The oil is sucked into the
casing via a discharge valve.
• The pump provides a
continuous flow of oil and it
is powered by a steam
turbine drive unit which, for
safety reason, is installed in
the engine room.
• Centrifugal pumps move
large volumes of liquid at a
relatively low pressure and
consequently are generally
used as main cargo pumps
Displacement pumps:
• This type of pump
moves a certain amount
of liquid with each
pump cycle.
• A reciprocating positive
displacement pump is
shown diagrammatically
in the figure above to
demonstrate the
operating principle.
• The pump is double acting, that is liquid is admitted to either side of the
piston where it is alternatively drawn in and discharged.
• As the piston moves upwards, suction takes place below the piston and
liquid is drawn in, the valve arrangement ensuring that the discharge valve
cannot open during suction stroke.
• Above the piston, liquid is discharged and the suction valve remains closed.
As the piston travels down, the operations of suction and discharge occur
now on opposite sides.
• Positive displacement pumps move a low volume of oil at relatively high
pressure. Their use on tankers is generally restricted to stripping pumps.
Positive displacement pumps are self priming.
– Deepwell pump is the pump type that is often used on
gas tankers.
– Deepwell pumps are pumps with a long shaft between
the driving motor and the pump. The shaft goes inside
the tank’s discharge pipe from the pump up to the tank
dome. The centrifugal impeller is mounted at the
bottom of the cargo tank and comprises two or three
– The discharge pipe is a solid pipe that goes up through
the tank and out to the flange on the tank dome to the
liquid line.
– The discharge pipe is constructed with several lengths
with pipes, and there is a shaft bearing on each flange.
The bearings are lubricated and cooled down by the
liquid that is pumped from the tank. It is very important
not to run the pump without liquid. This may result in
damage of bearings and then the shaft.
– The motor that drives the pump is either electric or
hydraulic by a motor which is mounted outside the tank.
There is a mechanical sealing device between the motor
and the discharge pipe in the cargo tank.
Submerged pumps
• Submerged pumps are multistage
centrifugal pumps that are often
used as discharge pumps on large
LNG and LPG tankers. The motor and
pump are submerged down in the
tank sump or as close to the tank
bottom as possible. The motor is
connected directly to the pump with
a short shaft on this type of pump.

• The liquid that is pumped lubricates

and cools the pump's bearings. It is
therefore essential that the pump is
used only when there is liquid in the
tank. The liquid is pumped up
through the tank's discharge pipe and
up to the liquid line.

• This type of pump is equipped with

electrical motor. The cables to the
electric motor are either made of
copper or stainless steel. If copper is
used in the cable, the cables must be
sheathed with stainless steel to
prevent damage on the cable from
corrosive cargoes.
• The ejector design is simple and is used for stripping and as bilge pumps.
The ejector has no revolving or reciprocating parts and is thereby especially
easy to maintain.
• This works on Bernoulli’s principle. The propellant, is forced through a
nozzle into a mixer tube. The suction happens due to vacuum created by a
drop in pressure in the chamber after the tip of the nozzle due to the fast
flowing motive fluid which has gained kinetic energy due to the tapered
shape of the nozzle.
• This difference in pressure causes the desired fluid to be sucked into the
eductor and mixed into the flow stream to be guided out of the eductor.
• The flow steam is now slowed down by the diffuser throat thereby
increasing pressure and discharged with pressure higher then inlet pressure
by venturi effect.
Content and chapters of ISGOTT or The International Safety Guide for
Oil Tankers and Terminals
The International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals, or
ISGOTT as it is now widely known, has become the standard
reference work on the safe operation of oil tankers and the
terminals they serve.
It is well known that Safety is critical to the tanker industry. ISGOTT
continues to provide the best technical guidance on tanker and
terminal operations.This is the definitive Guide to the safe carriage
and handling of crude oil and petroleum products on tankers and
at terminals.
The Guide is now divided into four sections:
• General Information;
• Tanker Information;
• Terminal Information and
• The Management of the Tanker and Terminal Interface
The Guide has got 24 Chapters covering the 4 sections above and 9
matter unit 5\ISGOTT.docx
Cargo Calculations – Tanker Work
General : An oil volume can only be measured at its prevailing temperature and it,
therefore, follows that the standard volume must usually be calculated.
Unfortunately, different countries have different standard (reference)
Generally, the reference temperatures are:
• In Eastern Bloc, Brazil 20oC;
• In Western Europe 15oC;
• In the USA 60oF.
The situation is further confused in that there are primarily two volumetric units,
which are:
• In metric countries the cubic meter (m )
• In non-metric countries the barrel (Bbl).
Combining a statement of volume with a statement of the reference temperature
yields the following measurement systems
• In Eastern Bloc, Brazil m3 at 20oC;
• In Western Europe m3 at 15oC;
• In the USA US Bbl at 60oF.
It is customary to refer to volumes at the reference temperature as Standard Volumes
e.g US barrels @ 60oF or cubic meters @ 15oC.
However, confusion may arise in the latter case if the reference temperature is not
stated (Bill of Lading and or Certificate of Quantity and or shore Quantity
Calculations Certificate).
It should be noted that most crude oils are traded in Barrels.
• On Board Quantity (OBQ) : All the oil, water, sludge and sediment in the
cargo tanks and associated lines and pumps on a ship before loading
• Quantity Remaining On Board (ROB) : All the measurable oil, water, sludge
and sediment in the cargo tanks and associated lines & pumps on a ship
after discharging a cargo has been completed, excluding vapour.
• Suspended sediment are non-hydrocarbon solids present in the oil but not
in solution. Bottom sediment are non-hydrocarbon solids present in a tank
as a separate layer at the bottom. Total sediment is the sum of suspended
and the bottom sediment.
• Dissolved water: is the water contained within the oil forming a solution at
the prevailing temperature. Suspended water is the water within the oil
which is finely dispersed as small droplets
• Note: It may over a period of time either collect as free water or become
dissolved water depending on the conditions of the temperature and
pressure prevailing. Free water is the water that exists in a separate layer,
• Note: It typically lies beneath the oil. Total water is the sum of all the
dissolved, suspended and free water in a cargo or parcel of oil.
• Total Observed Volume (TOV) is the volume of oil including total water and
total sediment measured at the oil temperature and pressure prevailing.
• Gross Observed Volume (GOV) is the volume of oil including dissolved
water, suspended water and suspended sediment but excluding free water
and bottom sediment, measured at the oil temperature and pressure
• Gross Standard Volume (GSV) is the volume of oil including dissolved water,
suspended water and suspended sediment but excluding free water and
bottom sediment, calculated at standard condition e.g 15oC or 60oF and
1013.25 hPa.
• Net Observed Volume (NOV) is the volume of oil excluding total water and
total sediment at the oil temperature & pressure prevailing.
• Net Standard Volume (NSV) is the volume of oil excluding total water and
total sediment, calculated at standard conditions e.g 15oC or 60oF and
1013.25 hPa.
• Total Calculated Volume (TCV) is the gross standard volume plus the free
water measured at the temperature & pressure prevailing.
• The Volume Correction Factor (VCF) is the factor depending on the oil type,
density or its equivalent and temperature which corrects oil volumes to the
Standard Reference Temperature (s). (ASTM Tables 54 A, B, C, D or 6 A, B)
Vessel Experience Factor: At the end of a ship loading or discharge operation, it is
customary to compare the quantity loaded or discharged measured on shore with
the quantity measured on board the ship. Both the shore figures & the ship figs will
be subject to the effects of random errors and systematic errors so they are
unlikely to agree exactly. The question is: “How closely should they agree?” In a
perfect world, for any given vessel, a constant ratio between the ship’s figure & the
shore figures should be achievable (even if the ship’s tanks are over or under-
calibrated). In reality, this ratio is not constant but varies about a mean value which
is known as the vessel’s experience factor. Such factors are often used at loading
ports to provide a convenient means of checking the accuracy of B/L and ship’s
figures. There is no reason why similar techniques cannot be used at the discharge
ports, although in practice this is seldom done.
Institute of Petroleum (IP) Terminology:
1) Vessel Experience Factor (Loading) [VEFL] : The adjusted mean value of the Vessel
Loading Ratio (VLR) obtained after several voyages.
2) Vessel Experience Factor (Discharging) [VEFD] : The adjusted mean value of the
Vessel Discharge Ratio (VDR) obtained after several voyages.
The IP stipulates that the following types of voyages should not be used when
calculating a VEF:
First voyage after dry-dock; Lightening operations; Voyages where the B/L has been
based on shipboard measurement; Voyages prior to any structural modifications
which have affected the vessel’s carrying capacity.
There is also a body of opinion which suggests that part cargoes (less than 80% of the
capacity) should not be considered when calculating a VEF.
Units of Measurements
Mass: Mass is a measure of the quantity of material in a body &
constant, regardless of geographical location, altitude,
atmospheric conditions or air buoyancy effects.
Weight: Weight is accepted as being the value secured when an
object is weighed in air. Now often referred to as ‘apparent
mass’, and can be converted to mass by the application of an
air buoyancy correction (Table 56 = weight correction for oils).
Gross Weight In Air: Gross Weight in Air is the weight of oil
including dissolved water, suspended water & suspended
sediment but excluding free water & bottom sediment.
Net Weight In Air: Net Weight in Air is the weight of oil
excluding total water & total sediment.
Density: The density is the ratio of the mass of a substance to its
volume. (typically kg/m3 or sometimes kg/litre Since density
is dependent on temperature & pressure these should be
Units of Measurements
Density @ 15oC (VACUO): Mass / Unit volume @ 15oC (typically
kg/m3 or sometimes kg/litre)
Relative Density @ 60 60oF (Specific Gravity @ 60 60oF): The
Relative Density @ 60 60oF is the density of a substance at
60oF to the density of pure water, also at 60oF = The Density
of a substance @ 60oF ÷ The Density of pure water @
60oF. Specific Gravity is now internationally known as Relative
API Gravity :
API GRAVITY = {141.5/ Relative Density @ 60 60oF } – 131.5
Weight Conversion Factor (WCF): The Weight Conversion Factor
is a factor dependent on the density, for converting volumes
to weight in air. Such factors shall be obtained from the API-
ISO-ASTM-IP Petroleum Measurement Tables (Tab56)
(All terms according to ISO or International Organisation for
Standard Tables: The 1980 / 1982 edition of the API-ASTM-IP Petroleum
Measurement Tables for crude oils, refined products and lubricating oils
(excluding light hydrocarbons, LPG’s and bitumen) are carried onboard
according to the vessel’s trade.
Cargo Calculations in STASCO
Within Shell International Trading & Shipping Co. Ltd. Oil cargo calculations are
based on:
1. Metric System
2. Standard Temperature / Pressure 15oC / 1013.5 hPa
3. Weight in Air.
Explanations are given in the Charterer’s Instructions.
Oil quantity calculations should be made with the ASTM Petroleum
Measurement Tables (ASTM Tables).
The equations are as follows:
• Volumes at 15oC on board a vessel always GROSS = Gross Volume at 15oC =
Gross Standard Volume; Gross Standard Volume = Gross Standard Volume *
Volume Correction Factor;
• Gross Weight In Vacuo (Mass) = Gross Standard Volume * Density @ 15oC
(Vacuo). (Gross Weight in Vacuo = GSV * Density @ 15oC (Vacuo)
Note: Hydrometers used on board are for density @ 15oC (vacuo).
The cargo statement requires weights in air to be
recorded therefore the weight in Vacuo must be
corrected for the buoyancy of air.
Gross Weight In Air = Gross Weight in Vacuo * Weight
Correction Factor.
However, weight in vacuo is not normally calculated on
board & therefore this part is normally omitted.
• Gross Weight In Air = Gross Standard Volume * Density
@ 15oC (Vacuo) * WCF.
Note: Ship’s volume / weight quantities are always
GROSS as vessels are unable to determine the:
1) Dissolved Water;
2) Suspended Water;
3) Suspended Sediment.
To compare ship’s figures loaded / discharged with shore
figures always compare Gross Standard Volumes.
Manner of Calculations On Board
Total obs volume in m3 at a temperature as observed by
vessel Free Water m3

Balance Volume m3

Bottom Sediment m3

Balance Volume m3 Slops m3

Gross Obs Volume in m3 at a temperature as observed

by vessel Volume Correction Factor (ASTM Tables 54A,

B, C, or D)
Gross Standard Volume in m3 at 15oC

ASTM Tables 52 Factor

Gross Standard Volume in Bbls at 60oF.

Note: ASTM Table 52 to be used for conversion of m3 at 15oC to Bbls at

60oF (As 15oC is not equal to 60oF).

Gross Standard Volume in m3 at 15oC

Density @ 15oC (Vacuo) * Weight Correction Factor (ASTM

Table 56).

Gross Weight In Air in Metric Tonnes.

Refer to the SONAR Operating instructions for more information on
Ballast Calculations: Use the density of the water to find the WCF in
ASTM Table 56. matter unit 5\ASTM Tables Usage.docx
Conversions in Weight: Use the ASTM Table Volume XI / XII. Note: Be
aware of the fact that some terminals use weight in vacuum .
Please remember that normally the density or API is provided by the terminal
or surveyor in the load ports and what is used will be dependent on the
region/port of loading. For example in USA / Canada, Persian Gulf, API usage
is prevalent, while entire of Europe and Asia use Density at 15 oC. However
please ascertain, if Density at 15 oC is provided, whether it is in air or in
vacuum. This is very important when finding out from Table 54, since the
density provided there is in Air and hence same must be used. (Density at
15 oC in Air = Density at 15 oC in Vacuum – 0.0011
PROCEDURE OF CALCULATIONS - Working with Density at 15oC in air:
1) Observed Ullage – apply corrections – get Corrected Ullage.
2) Observed Interface – apply corrections – get Corrected Interface.
3) From Corrected Ullage, find Total Observed Volume TOV (in cubic metres).
4) From Corrected Interface, find Volume of Water (in cubic metres)
5) TOV – Water = Gross Observed Volume (GOV) of Cargo (in cubic metres)
6) Use Density at 15oC and Observed Temperature (oC) and find Volume
Correction Factor (VCF) from Table 54.
7) Gross Standard Volume (GSV) = GOV x VCF (cubic metres).
8) Weight Correction Factor (WCF) = Density at 15 oC in vacuum – 0.0011 (or
the Density at 15 oC in air).
9) Weight in Air (Metric Ton) = GSV x WCF(Density at 15 oC in air).
10) Weight in Vaccum (Metric Ton) = GSV x Density at 15 oC in vacuum.
Working with API Gravity at 60oF :
1) Observed Ullage – apply corrections – get Corrected Ullage.
2) Observed Interface – apply corrections – get Corrected
3) From Corrected Ullage, find Gross Observed Volume (in US
4) From Corrected Interface, find Volume of Water (in US
5) GOV – Water = Observed Volume of Cargo (in US Barrels).
6) Use API Gravity at 60F and Observed Temperature (oF) and
find Volume Correction Factor (VCF) from Table 6.
7) Gross Standard Volume (GSV) = Observed Cargo
Volume (Barrels) x VCF (in US Barrels).
8) Find Weight Correction Factor (WCF) from Table 13.
9) Weight in Air (Metric Tons) = GSV x WCF
Working with Relative Density at 60/60oF :
1) Observed Ullage – apply corrections – get Corrected Ullage.
2) Observed Interface – apply corrections – get Corrected
3) From Corrected Ullage, find Gross Observed Volume (in cubic
4) From Corrected Interface, find Volume of Water (in cubic
5) GOV – Water = Observed Volume of Cargo (in cubic metres).
6) Use Relative Density at 60/60F and Observed Temperature
(oF) and find Volume Correction Factor (VCF) from Table 24.
7) Gross Standard Volume (GSV) = Observed Cargo
Volume (m3) x VCF (in m3).
8) Weight in Air (Metric Ton) = GSV x Relative Density at 60/60F
Total observed volume (TOV): The total volume of material
measured in the tank including cargo (oil or chemical), free water
(FW), entrained sediment and water (S&W), sediment and scale as
measured at observed temperature and pressure.
Free water (FW): Water layer existing as a separate phase in the
tanks, normally detected by water-paste or interface detector and
usually settled at the bottom of the cargo tank depending on
relative density of the cargo.
Sediment & Water (S&W or BS&W): Entrained material within the oil
bulk, including solid particles and dispersed water, also sometimes
known as base sediment and water (BS&W). Expressed always as a
percentage of the total cargo quantity, is found out be collecting
average sample of the cargo inline during transfer and calculated
by centrifuge technique in a laboratory.
Gross observed volume (GOV): It is the Total Observed Volume (TOV)
less free water (FW) and bottom sediment, being the measured
volume of product and sediment & water (S&W) at observed
temperature and pressure. Bottom sediment are normally not
present on board a chemical or clean oil product tanker and
therefore not deducted whereas it may be present in a dirty oil
carrier, but be very difficult to ascertain.
Gross standard volume (GSV): It is the measured volume of
product and S&W at standard conditions of 15°C and
atmospheric pressure. In practice is the GSV the GOV
multiplied by the volume correction factor (VCF) obtained
from the appropriate ASTM/IP Petroleum Measurement
Net standard volume (NSV):It is normally applicable only to
Crude Oils. NSV is the GSV minus S&W, being a measurement
of the dry oil quantity at standard conditions. For clean oil
products and chemicals, the S&W is not normally included
within the receiver’s quality specifications.
The term Weight in Air is that weight which a quantity of fluid
appears to have when weighed in air against standard
commercials weights so that each will have a mass (weight in
vacuum) equal to the nominal mass associated with it.
The term Weight in Vacuum refers to the true mass of a fluid.
CALCULATIONS: The Wedge Formula is a mathematical mean being used to
approximate the small quantities of liquid and solid cargo and free water on
board prior to the vessel’s loading and after her discharge, based on the
dimensions of the individual cargo tank and vessel’s trim. The Wedge
Formula is to be used only when the oil liquid does not touch all bulkheads
of the vessel’s cargo tank, that is to say the liquid oil lying in small pools
among the bottom sediment.
In order to standarise the OBQ/ROB calculations on board the Crude Oil
carrying tanker vessels, the following geometric form of the Wedge Formula
shall be used and this form of the formula assumes that the cargo tank is
‘box shaped’ with no internal ‘deadwood’ or pipeline systems, heating coils
etc. that would impact the accuracy of the volume calculated from the
sounding. Furthermore this wedge formula calculation makes the enormous
assumption that any ‘liquid’ found in a cargo tank is in the form of a regular
wedge shape with its base at the aft bulkhead of the cargo tank.
It is obvious that such a series of assumptions normally can invalidate the
absolute accuracy of the calculation immediately given, amongst other
issues, the shape of the wing tanks (the turn of the bilge) and in particular
those wing tanks at the fore and aft parts of the vessel.
The calculation method for the Geometric edition of the Wedge Formula:
Step 1: Correct the position of the sounding position with respect to the aft
bulkhead of the cargo tank due to the trim of the vessel, distance = A = Tank
Reference Height (Observed Height) x Tan X
where X = the Trim angle of the vessel and;
Tan X = (Aft draft – Forward draft) / Length Between Perpendiculars (L.B.P.)
of the vessel.
Step 2: Determine the distance of the apex of the wedge from the aft bulkhead
for obtaining information whether:
(1) should a Wedge Formula be used at all (kindly note that a wedge formula
is not applicable if: (a) the liquid surface covers the total cargo tank
bottom or the calculated apex of the wedge is at or beyond the forward
bulkhead of the cargo tank or: (b) it is sludge ROB volumes only);
(2) whether the wedge is a regular wedge (which can be checked by
comparison with alternative soundings being taken).
F (Distance of the apex of the wedge from the sounding position) = S x Tan X;
Where S – is observed sounding.
E (Distance of the apex of the wedge to the aft bulkhead) = (F – A) + B;
where B is the distance on deck from the point of sounding to the aft
Step 3: Determine the depth of the wedge at the aft bulkhead of the cargo
tank, depth = D; D = E x Tan X
Step 4: Knowing D (sounding depth at the aft bulkhead)
and E (the distance from the aft bulkhead to the apex of the
wedge), then the area of the longitudial cross section of the
wedge may be calculated, thus as the area of a triangle =
(Base x Height) / 2 then; (D x E) / 2 = cross sectional area of
Step 5: Having obtained the cross sectional area of the wedge,
the volume of the wedge is calculated by multiplication by
the breadth of the cargo tank (please note that the breadth of
the cargo tank should be measured at the bottom of the tank
at the aft bulkhead position and not at deck level or
elsewhere within the cargo tank).
Volume of the Wedge = Cross sectional Area x Breadth of Tank
Throughout this calculation it is very important that all distances
are in metres. Do not use centimetres for the observed
Alternatives: Regardless above stated requirement, an I.S.O. standard
method is also available in the event that any Cargo Inspector do
not accept the geometric edition of the wedge formula. This
method depends upon the accuracy of the vessel’s tank ullage
calibration tables for the larger ullages / smaller soundings in the
cargo tank. If the tank calibration tables are accurate for this
region of the cargo tanks, then this method will give added
accuracy to the general method of calculating tank residues after
This method is as follows:
Step 1:
Calculate DA (the Corrected liquid sounding at the aft bulkhead
position); DA = D + {f(Y – (H x f))}
where: D is the observed liquid sounding;
f is the Trim factor ( TS / LS );
TS is the vessel’s trim;
Y is the distance of the sounding point to the aft bulkhead;
H is the reference height of the cargo tank;
LS is the vessel’s Length Between Perpendiculars.
Step 2: Calculate Ct (the Tank constant); Ct = LS / ( 2 x TS x
Lt ) (where Lt is the Length of the Cargo Tank).
Step 3: Calculate the ‘k‘ coefficient; k = DA x Ct
if k > 0.5 wedge is not required to be carried out;
if k = 0.5 wedge must be carried out.
Step 4:if k > 0.5 then calculate the volume of the liquid
contained in the cargo tank from the calibration tables using
the Observed sounding, D, applying the trim corrections.
Step 5: if k = 0.5 then calculate DX (the wedge sounding). DX =
DA / 2
Step 6:Enter the cargo tank calibration tables with DX, without
applying trim corrections to equivalent volume VO.
Step 7: Calculate the liquid wedge volume V1; V1 = VO x 2 x k
• In addition to above methods it should be noted that if the
procedures as specified in the vessel’s COW manual are being
followed for the determination of the ‘Dryness’ of a cargo
tank, namely, the sounding of the residues in four(4) differing
locations within the cargo tank, then the foregoing methods
of calculations can be avoided.
• Assuming the shape of the individual cargo tanks is fairly
regular / constant in a fore and aft direction and,
notwithstanding the fact that the vessel will be significantly
trimmed by the stern, then the four measurements, as
suggested in the COW Manual guidelines, as obtained by
sounding can be used to calculate an average sounding so as
to obtain a single sounding. The single average sounding can
be used directly in order to obtain an equivalent volume from
the vessel’s tank ullage calibration tables
• Such a method will provide a clearer indication as to the type
and nature of the residues on the cargo tank floor as well as
provide much clearer indications as to the profile of the
residues within the cargo tanks.

Похожие интересы