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Transformer

Protection

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Presentation outline
 Introduction
 Faults and abnormal conditions
 Transformer Protection schemes
 Conclusion

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INTRODUCTION

• Transformers play vital role in power systems. It is relatively simple and


reliable equipment when compared to generator.

• The faults generally occurring on power transformers are :


earth faults,
phase to phase faults,
inter turn faults, and
over-heating from overloading or core-heating.

• Of these the most common are earth fault and inter turn faults which
rapidly develop into E/Fs;

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STANDARD PROTECTIONS
USED FOR TRANSFORMERS

• Differential
• Over current
• Earth fault
• Restricted earth fault
• Over fluxing
• Mechanical protection
buchholtz
pressure relief device
• Temperature protection: WTI/OTI
• If the connections on any side is through cable, preferably a
cable differential protection is added.
• FIRE PROTECTION

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Transformer Differential protection

• The relays are connected to current transformers on


the high side and low side of the network transformer.
• The net operating current to the relays is the difference
between input and output currents to the network
transformer zone of protection.
• Differential relaying provides a clearly defined zone of
protection.
• Biased type with adjustable bias setting of 10-50%
• Triple pole
• Harmonic restraint feature
• No of bias wdgs as applicable
• Operating current setting of 15% or less

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Differential protection

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Differential protection
Type of connection employed for the CTs

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Over current protection

– Given on LV side as primary protection


– On HV side as back up protection
– IDMT or def time as applicable
– Need to be co-coordinated ( for time and current)
with down stream protection

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TRANSFORMER PROTECTIONS …

• Back up earth fault protection


– Single pole
– Def time /IDMT As applicable
– Time delay 0.3 – 3 sec for def time relay
– Standard curves for IDMT
– Setting ranges to suit the application

• Over fluxing
– Operate on V/F principle
– Inverse characteristics to suit the transformer o/f withstand
capability
– Shall have alarm and trip stages

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Buchholz Relay

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Buchholz relay will detect:

Gas produced within the


transformer
An oil surge from the tank to
the conservator
A complete loss of oil from
the conservator (very low oil
level)

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THANK YOU

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