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Course Name : Introduction to Civil Engineering & Research

Methodology and Technical Writing


Year : 2012

Branches of Civil Engineering


Session – 2 & 3
Structural Engineering
Structural engineering is a field of engineering 
that deals with the design of a structural design
(s)with the purpose of supporting and resisting
various loads.
That concerned with the structural design and
structural analysis of buildings, bridges, and other
structures. This involves calculating the stresses and
forces that act upon or arise within a structure, and
designing the structure to successfully resist those
forces and stresses. Resistance to wind and seismic
loadings, especially performance near resonant
frequencies , which affect the overall stability of a
structure, are major design concerns. Other factors
such as durability and cost are also considered.
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Scope of Work

• Architectural Structures
• Civil Structures

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Architectural Structures

•Building Engineering
•Demolish Engineering
•Façade Engineering
•Fire Protection Engineering
•Roof Engineering
•Tower Engineering
•Wind Engineering

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Architectural Structures

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Civil Structures
• Bridge and Viaduct Engineering
• Earthquake Engineering
• Foundation Engineering
• Offshore Engineering
• Retaining Structures and Wall Engineering
• Pipeline Engineering

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Civil Structures

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Subjects

• Dynamics & Earthquake


Engineering
Learn about :
– Response Spectra
– Earthquake Engineering

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Subjects

• Theory & Design for Concrete


/Steel
Learn about :
– Material ( Concrete / Steel )
– Design Structure

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Subjects

• Computer Application in Structural


& Geotechnical Engineering 
Learn and Practice about :
– Structural Engineering’s Software (
SAP, MIDAS )

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Projects

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Projects

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Failure Construction

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Failure Construction

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Geotechnical Engineering

Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil


engineering 
concerned with the engineering behavior of earth
materials , includes investigating existing subsurface
conditions and materials; assessing risks posed by
site conditions; designing earthworks and structure
foundations; and monitoring site conditions,
earthwork and foundation construction.

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Scope of Work

• Geotechnical Investigation
• Foundation
• Retaining Earth Structure
• Earth works
• Geosynthetics

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Geotechnical Investigation
• Geotechnical Investigation
• Foundation
• Retaining Earth Structure
• Earth works
• Slope Stability
• Geosynthetics
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Geotechnical Investigation

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Foundation
Classification :
1. Deep Foundation
2. Shallow
Foundation

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Foundation
1. Deep Foundation 
Deep foundations are used for
structures or heavy loads when shallow
foundations can not provide adequate
capacity, due to size and structural
limitations
Type 
– Pile
– Bored Pile
– Caissons
– Piers.

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Foundation
2. Shallow Foundation 
Shallow foundations are used for simple
structures
Type 
– Footing
– Slab Foundations
– Raft Foundations

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Retaining Earth Structure
Classification :

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Earth works

Slope Stability

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Geosynthetics
 Synthetics material that used for
soil improvement , retaining structure
etc.

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Subjects

• Soil Mechanics
• Soil Mechanics Laboratory
Learn about :
– Soil Classification
– Soil Properties
– Soil Testing ( laboratory & site )
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– Permeability
Subjects

• Foundation Engineering 
Learn about :
– Classification of Foundation
– Function & Specification
– Design for soil Improvement
– Material that used for Soil
Improvement
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Subjects

• Soil Improvement 
Learn about :
– Soil Characteristics
– Design for soil Improvement
– Material that used for Soil
Improvement

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Subjects

• Geosynthetics Application in CE 
Learn about :
– Geosynthetic Classification
– Geosynthetics Material Testing
– Appication Geosynthetics material for
CE Projects
– Design with geosynthetics
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Projects

Retaining Earth Structure

Boston's Big Dig presented


geotechnical
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environment.
Failure Construction

LANDSLIDE IN VAGNHÄRAD, SOUTHERN SWEDEN

The Learning Tower of Pisa leans


due to a faulty foundation.

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Highway Engineering

Highway engineering is the branch of civil engineering


concerned with design of pavement


geometric alingment for
structure, design of
safe highways and road.

Highway engineering became popular after the World


War in 20th Century
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Scope of Work

• Pavement Engineering Design


• Asphalt Testing Material
• Geometric for Alignment Design
• Road Construction

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Pavement Engineering

Classification :
1.Flexible Pavement
2.Rigid Pavement
3.Composite
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Flexible Pavement
• Flexible pavements. Those which are surfaced with
bituminous / asphalt materials.
These types of pavements are called "flexible" since the
total pavement structure bends or deflects due
to traffic loads. A flexible pavement structure is
generally composed of several layers of materials which
can accommodate this "flexing".

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Flexible Pavement
P ( Load )

Surface

Base

Subbase

Subgrade

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Rigid Pavement
• Rigid pavements. Those which are surfaced with

portland cement concrete


(PCC). These types of pavements are called
"rigid" because they are substantially stiffer than
flexible pavements due to PCC's high stiffness.

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Rigid Pavement
P ( Load )

Surface

Subbase or base

Subgrade

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Rigid Pavement

JOINT

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Composite

• Composite. Those which are surfaced with portland


cement concrete (PCC) and bituminous / asphalt
materials as overlay construction

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Asphalt Testing material

Using for Testing asphalt material

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Geometric Design

Vertical and Horizontal Alignment


basic geometric elements of road design, including:
chainage, profile grades, vertical curves, circular and
spiral curves, and superelevation.

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Road Construction – flexible pavement

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Road Construction – rigid pavement

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Subjects

• Highway Engineering
Learn about :
– Pavement design
– Geometric Design
– Material design & testing (for Lab.
activities )

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Projects

Brazil

USA

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Failure Construction

Cracking Distress-USA

Norwegia
West Sumatra
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Transportation Planning

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Scope of Work

• Mass Transport
• Sustainable transport
• Transportation facilities
• Modeling/design

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Mass Transport

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Sustainable Transportation

The concept of sustainable transport is a


reaction to some of the things that have gone radically
and visibly wrong with transportation policy ,
practice and performance over the last half of the
twentieth century in particular (unsustainable resource
take, energy profligacy, pollution, declining service levels
despite increasing investments, poor service for specific
social and economic groups).

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Parking lot

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Transportation facilities

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Modeling/design

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Subjects

• Traffic Engineering
Learn about :
– Traffic
– Traffic light
– Velocity
– Parking

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Subjects

• Transportation Modeling
Learn about :
– Calculus
– Modeling

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Subjects

• Mass Transport
Learn about :
– Public Transport
– Transportation facility
– Policy

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Subjects

• Evaluation & Transportation


Infrastructure Maintenance
Learn about :
– Transportation maintenance
– Sustainable Transportation

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Projects

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Water Resources

Water Resources engineering is the profession 


that is responsible for the planning, development and
management of water resources..
To ensure access to clean safe drinking water, civil
engineers design, build and manage the water
intakes, the water treatment plants and the network
of pipes that convey water to your tap. Civil engineers
also devise physical (dams, dikes) and non-physical
(flood forecasting) solutions to minimize the threat to
lives and property due to flooding.
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Scope of Work

• Dam / Irrigation Structure


• Water Resources
• Environmental Engineering
• Drainage
• Port

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Dam / Irrigation Structure

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Water Resources

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Environmental Engineering

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Drainage

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Port

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Subjects

• Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics


Learn about :
– Fluid Mechanics
– Hydraulics
– Calculus

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Subjects

• Hydrology
Learn about :
– Water Resources
• Urban Drainage , Port
Learn about :
– Drainage
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Subjects

• Hydroinformatics
Learn about :
– ICT in hydrology

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Projects

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Failure Construction/Disaster

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Construction Management

Construction Management is a field of engineering



to study and practice of the managerial and
technological aspects of the construction industry
(including construction, construction science,
construction management, and construction
technology), or to a business model where one party
to a construction contract serves as a construction
consultant, providing both design and construction
advice.

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Scope of Work

• Project Management Planning


• Cost Management
• Time Management
• Quality Management
• Contract Administration
• Safety Management
• CM Professional

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Project management

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Cost management

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Subjects

• Construction Management
Learn about :
– Project Schedule
– Bid
– Microsoft Project ( Practice )

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Subjects

• Estimating Cost
Learn about :
– Budget
– Estimating Cost
– Unit Price

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Subjects

• Project management Evaluation


Learn about :
– Evaluation
– Management Evaluation

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Projects
• Project Managers are responsible for the safe, timely
and cost effective delivery of a broad range of
projects in industries such as:
– Oil & Gas
– Construction
– Pharmaceutical
– Engineering
– Design
– R&D Projects
– Automotive
– New Product Development
– Manufacturing
– IS/ IT
– Telecomm
– Exploration
– Corporate Management
– Aerospace

– Entrepreneurship
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