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PHRASE VS CLAUSE

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1. Aland hasbi (4115010009)
2. Inas novikasari (4115010028)
3. Listiawati (4115010016)
4. M. farhan satrio (4115010018)

4-teknik perancangan jalan dan jembatan


Politeknik negeri jakarta
2018
Definition of a phrase
Phrase is a small group of words standing together as a
conceptual unit, typically forming a component af a clause.
(Oxford Dictionary)
The function of a phrase
The function of a phrase depends upon its construction and place
in a sentence. There are 5 function:

1. Verb
2. Subject
3. Object
4. Adjunct
5. Complement

Source : https://www.sltinfo.com/the-function-of-phrases-
within-clauses/
The function of a phrase
As a verb
The verb describes actions that are instigated by someone or
some animate being, events that happen, or the state people or
things are in.

Example :
The small child had cuddled the little frightened kitten.
The function of a phrase
As a subject
According to some descriptive systems, every verb in a clause
must have a subject and, in fact, the most common type of clause
does appear to contain both a subject and a verb. If the verb
expresses an action, then the subject is the thing or person
performing the action

Example :
The small child had cuddled the little frightened kitten.
The function of a phrase
As an object
An object is the somebody or something that is acted upon by
verb.

Example :
The small child had cuddled the little frightened kitten.
The function of a phrase
As an adjunct
The adjunct provides additional circumstantial information
about such things as the time, location, manner, or cause of an
action , event or state. Adjuncts are usually optional elements, as
theis removal does not typically render a clause ungrammatical.

Example :
The small child had cuddled the little frightened kitten yesterday.
The function of a phrase
As a complement
A complement fills the same position as an object in a clause and
refers to the same thing as the subject.

Example :
The small child had cuddled the little frightened kitten yesterday.
The types of a phrase
Phrases are divided into various types depending upon its
function in a sentence. These are the types of a phrases:

1. Noun Phrase
2. Prepositional Phrase
3. Adjective Phrase
4. Adverb Phrase
5. Verb Phrase
6. Gerund Phrase
7. Infinitive Phrase
8. Participle phrase
9. Absolute Phrase
Source : http://www.studyandexam.com/types-of-phrase.html
Noun phrase
A noun phrase contains a noun and other associated words
(usually determiners and modifiers) which modify the noun.

Noun + modifiers (or determiners)

Example :
A women in the window shouted for help.
One of our close relatives bought a beautiful red car.
prepositional phrase
A phrase comprising a prepositional and object of preposition
(noun of pronoun) is called prepositional phrase. It may also
contain other modifiers.

Noun or Pronoun which called the object of


preposition

Example :
The kids were laughing at the joker.
He drives the car in a high speed.
He is sleeping on the carpet.
adjective phrase
Like an adjective it modifies a noun or a pronoun. It comprises of
adjective, modifiers and other words modifying the noun or
pronoun.

Example :
A kid on the roof is looking at the sky. (modifies noun: kid)
She bought a beautiful brown chair. (modifies noun: chair)
He gave me a cup full of tea. (modifies noun: cup)
adverb phrase
Like an adverb, it modifies a verb or other adverb in the sentence.
It contains an adverb and other words (noun, preposition,
modifiers) which, as a whole, act as an adverb phrase.

Example :
He drives a car in very high speed. (modifies noun: drive)
She always speaks in a respectful way. (modifies noun: speak)
He stayed at college for a few hours. (modifies noun: stay)
verb phrase
A verb phrase is the group of main verbs and helping-verbs
(auxiliaries) within a sentence.

Example :
He has taken his annual exam.
She is writing a letter.
infinitive phrase
An infinitive phrase contains an infinitive (to + base form of verb) and
modifiers or other related word linked to thr infinitive. An infinitive
phrase will always acts as a noun, an adjective or verb in the sentence.

Example :
I enjoy to drive a car. (as noun)
She sang a song to please the audience. (as adj modifying verb: sing)
gerund phrase
A gerund phrase is a group of gerund (verb + ing), modifiers and other
related word linked to the gerund. A gerund phrase functions as a noun
in the sentence.

Example :
I enjoy listening to the music. (as noun/as object)
Crying of a baby disturbed me a lot. (as noun/ as subject)
participle phrase
A participle phrase is a group of a present-participle (verb +ing) or
past-participle verb, modifiers and other linked words. Punctuated
with a comma or commas. It always acts as an adj (modifying a noun)
in a sentence.

Example :
The student, raising their hands, need extra page. (modifies
noun: student)
The chair, made of plastic, looks very beautiful. (modifies
noun: chair)
Absoulute phrase
Absoulute phrase is also called a nominative phrase. It consist of a noun
or pronoun, a participle and linked modifiers. It modifies (tells more
about) the sentence. It looks like a clause but lacks true finite verb. It is
seperated by a comma in a sentence.

Example :
She is looking very much happy, her face expressing a shine of
happiness.
Definition of a CLAUSE
• Based on Cambridge Dictionary

A clause is the basic unit of grammar. Typically a main clause is


made up of a subject (s) (a noun phrase) and a verb phrase (v).
Sometimes the verb phrase is followed by other element, e.g
object (o), complements (c), adjuncts (ad).

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/about-words-
clauses-and-sentences/clauses
• A clause may stand as a simple sentence or may join another
clause to make a sentence. Therefore, a sentence consists of
one, two or more clauses.

• Example:
- He is sleeping (one clause)
- I am happy , because I won a prize (two clause)
- I like Mathematics but my brother like Biology, because he
wants to become a doctor (three clause)
TYPES OF
CLAUSES

Main or Independent Subordinate or


Clause Dependent Clause
MAIN OR INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
Main or independent clause is a clause that expresses a complete
thought and can stand as a sentence.

• A main clause contains a subject performing a verb


• Every sentence contains at least one main clause

Example :
- The boys kicked the football
- Jane talks slowly at the library
SUBORDINATE OR DEPENDENT CLAUSE
Subordinate or dependent clause is a clause which doesn’t
express complete thought and depends on another clause (main
clause) to complete thought.

• Subordinate clause contains a subject and a verb but can’t


stand alone as a sentence
• A subordinate clause gives extra information about the man
clause
• It can come before or after the main clause but doesn’t make
sense on its own
SUBORDINATE OR DEPENDENT CLAUSE
For example
This is the main clause...
It contains a subject (Harriet) performing a verb
(caught) and makes sense on its own

Although she was clumsy, Harriet caught the netball


SUBORDINATE OR DEPENDENT CLAUSE
For example
This is the main clause...
It contains a subject (Harriet) performing a verb
(caught) and makes sense on its own

Although she was clumsy, Harriet caught the netball

This is a subordinate clause... It is not a


complete idea and doesn’t make sense
without being attached to the main clause.
Main or Subordinate Clause?
Decide whether the underlined section is a main
clause or a subordinate clause
Example MC SC

Emery arrived after the school bell had rung. 


Although I was terrified, I crept up the creaking
staircase.

It was raining so we cancelled our picnic. 
Despite it being -2°C outside, Frank still didn’t bring his
jumper to school!

On Fridays we normally go swimming but today I forgot
my kit.

The fox slinked through the dense undergrowth and
pounced on the unsuspecting mouse.

KEY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PHRASE AND
CLAUSE
1. A phrase is described as a group of two or more than two
words related to one another, that constitute a single unit. On
the other extreme, the clause is a part of a sentence, that
comprises of a subject (noun phrase) that actively performs
an action (finite verb form).
2. A phrase is a part of a clause or a sentence. As against, a clause
is a sentence fragment.
3. A clause has a subject and verb, whereas a phrase doesn’t have
it
4. A phrase can’t stand alone, as it does not convey a meaning.
In contrast, a clause is a stand-alone statement, which
conveys a thought or idea.
Thanks!

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