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PROJECT ON

AN ACCOUNT OF WATER CONSUMPTION IN A


CENTRAL AC SYSTEM
PRESENTED BY:- SWAGATA DE (10200716002)
SUJAN KUNDU (10200716003)
GAURAB GHOSH (10200716014)

UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF:- Dr. SANCHAYAN MUKHERJEE


ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

KALYANI GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE


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Contents

 Air Conditioning.
 Different types of ACs.
 Central AC System.
 Requirement of water in Central AC.
 Cooling method in Condenser, Chiller, Colling Tower.
 Water Consumption in Condenser.
 Comparison of Refrigerants.
 Discussions.
 Future Scope.
 References.
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What is Air Conditioning

Air conditioning can refer to any form of technology that modifies the condition of air.

It controls the following parameters:-


 Temperature
 Humidity
 Circulation Rate
 Quality
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Different types of ACs

 Central Air Conditioning System


 Split or Ductless Air Conditioner
 Portable Air Conditioner
 Packaged Air Conditioner
 Window Air Conditioner
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Central AC System

 A method of structural cooling in which


a centralized unit cools and
dehumidifies air before circulating it
throughout the building.
 The main unit is located outdoors or in
isolated area of a building.
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Schematic diagram of central AC
system
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01 02 03
Condenser Chiller Cooling
Tower
To cool the To cool the air To supply the
Requirement of refrigerant via cooling coil makeup water

water in central Air


Conditioning
System
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The water is
The cold water
used to absorb
from cooling
heat from the
tower flows
hot
back to
compressed
condenser
refrigerant gas
Cooling
method in
Condenser
By absorbing
The hot water heat from the
flows to refrigerant, the
cooling tower water
becomes hot
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The water gets


Cooling coil
cooled by
cools the air
rejecting heat
and the water
Water Circuit gets heated
to the cold
refrigerant

in Chiller

The cold water flows


to the cooling coil
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Water flow in Cooling Tower

Hot water from


condenser comes to
cooling tower

Cold water from


This water is sprayed
cooling tower flows
and air cooled
back to condenser

This cold water is


collected in the
sump at the bottom
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Calculation of Water Consumption in
Condenser

 Different capacity of central AC plant are taken.

 The increase of temperature of condenser water is also varied.

 The temperature of chiller and condenser are varied.

 Different graphs are obtained for different Refrigerants.


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Water Consumption in Condenser

Condition:- Condenser Temperature 44°C & Chiller Temperature 24°C

Refrigerant R410A Refrigerant R32


2000
2500

1500 2000
10 TR 10 TR

1000 20 TR 1500 20 TR
50 TR 50 TR
1000
500 100 TR 100 TR
200 TR 500 200 TR

0
0 5 10 15 20 0
0 5 10 15 20
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Water Consumption in Condenser

REFRIGERANT R134a REFRIGERANT R22 REFRIGERANT R12


500
500 500

MASS FLOW OF WATER


MASS FLOW OF WATER

MASS FLOW OF WATER


400 400 400
10 Ton

(Kg/Min)→
10 Ton
(Kg/Min)

300 300 300 10 Ton

(Kg/Min)→
20 Ton
20 Ton 20 Ton
200 200 200
50 Ton 50 Ton

100 50 Ton 100


100

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0
0 5 10 15 20
Temperature rise in Temperature rise in
Temperature rise in
condenser(◦C)→ condenser(◦C)→
condenser(◦C)→
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Water Consumption in Condenser

Condition:- Condenser Temperature 35°C & Chiller Temperature -20°C

2500 REFRIGERANT R32 2500 REFRIGERANT R410A

2000
2000

10 TR 10 TR
1500
20 TR 1500 20 TR
50TR 50 TR
1000
100TR 1000 100 TR
200 TR 200 TR
500
500

0
0 5 10 15 20 0
0 5 10 15 20
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Water Consumption in Condenser

1200
REFRIGERANT R134a REFRIGERANT R12 Refrigerant R22
1200

Mass flow rate of water (kg/min)→


Mass flow rate of water(kg/min)→

1200 10
Mass flow rate of water (kg/min)→
1000 1000 Ton
10 TR 10 TR
1000
800 800 20
20 TR 800 Ton
20 TR
600 600
600
50
50 TR 50 TR 400 Ton
400 400

100 200 100


200 100 200
TR ton
TR
0 0
0 0 10 20
0 10 20 0 5 10 15 20
Temperature rise in condenser(◦C)→
Temperature rise in condenser(◦C)→ Temperature rise in condenser(◦C)→
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Comparing Water Consumption for
Different Refrigerants

Condenser Temp.: 35°C & Chiller Temp.: -


Condenser temperature 24°C & Compressor
20°C temperature 44°C
120 Capacity: 10TR 120 Capacity 10 TR

Mass flow rate of


water(kg/min)→
100 R134a
Mass flow rate of
water(kg/min)→

100 R134a

80
R12 80 R22

60 60
R12
R22
40 40
R410a
R410a
20 20
R32

0 R32 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

Temperature Difference in Condenser temperature difference(°C)→


condenser(°C)→
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Discussions

1. Use of different environment friendly refrigerants like R32 , R410a can be used without much
effect on the water consumption.

2. As the temperature difference in condenser has a great effect on the water consumption, the
design of condenser must be given more importance.

3. With the progress of our Project, we hope to get more ideas to minimise the water
consumption in central AC system.
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Future Scope

 Finding out remedies for over-usage of water in an AC plant.


 Preparation of a consolidated chart for selection of refrigerants.
 Case study.
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References

1. https://hvacrschool.com/design-temperature-difference-for-chillers-2/ (Accessed on 30/7/18,


2/8/18, 7/8/18).
2. www.eng-tips.com/viewthread.cfm?qid=129176. (Accessed on 2/8/18, 12/8/18, 30/8/18).
3. https://inspectapedia.com/aircond/air-conditioner_Temperatures.php (Accessed on 18/8/18,
30/8/18)
4. https://en.m.Wikipedia.org/wiki/condenser_(heat_transfer). (Accessed on 30/8/18, 15/9/18).
5. Ballaney PL- Refrigeration & Air Conditioning, 16th Edition, Khanna Publishers.
6. https://www.chemours.com/Refrigerants/en_US/assets/downloads/h64423_Suva410A_thermo_prop
_si.pdf (Accessed on 27/9/2018, 6/10/18)
7. https://www.gas-servei.com/images/Technical_data_sheet_R32_ENGLISH.pdf ( Accessed on
10/10/18, 25/11/18)
8. Ananthanarayanan – Basic Refrigeration and Air Conditioning , 4th Edition, McGraw Hill Publication.
9. O. Abdelaziz, PhD Oak Ridge National Laboratory - The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings , July
2016.
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