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Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Application of Electromagnetic Transient


Studies in industrial applications

Manitoba HVDC Research Centre


Winnipeg, Manitoba
Canada
Outline – ½ Day Workshop Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

• Introduction to electromagnetic transients(EMT) and EMT simulations

• Electromagnetic Transients in industrial systems (AC transients and studies)


– Simulation examples of common applications.

• Power electronics
– Industrial drive example
– FACTS devices
• Arc furnace induced flicker and use of STATCOM.
• Large compressor load induced flicker and use a SVC.

• Control systems
- Simulation example: Wind generation (DFIG example)

• Discussion of other applications


– HVDC , Wind, PV, Electric Vehicles, Protection and control

• Questions
Introduction to electromagnetic
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations : Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Electromagnetic Transients in Power networks are initiated


by disturbances to the network connection or topology.

1. Oscillations in lumped circuit elements.


• Rapid exchange of energy between inductive and Capacitive
elements in the network.

2. Travelling waves on transmission lines, Cables.

3. Travelling waves on short Bus-bars (e.g. during Lightning)


Introduction to electromagnetic
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations : Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Electromagnetic Transients in Power networks are initiated


by disturbances to the network connection or topology.

1. Breaker switching actions (opening and closing of breakers)

2. Faults and fault clearance

3. Lightning strikes to lines and structures


Introduction to electromagnetic
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations : Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Typical Examples of Electromagnetic Transients: Capacitor Switching

RRL
• Transient solution
BRK
– Harmonics
– Non-linear effects
– Frequency dependent
BRK effects
Closing
0.1 [H]

0.1 [H]

• Steady state solution


– RMS Value
1.0 [uF]

1.0 [uF]
Introduction to electromagnetic
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations : Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Typical Examples of Electromagnetic Transients: Capacitor Switching


RRL
BRK

BRK
0.1 [H]

0.1 [H]
1.0 [uF]

1.0 [uF]
Vcap
Capbank : Graphs
• Transient solution
– Harmonics
300

200

– Non-linear effects
100

0
kV

– Frequency dependent
-100

-200

-300

RLIa RLIb RLIc


effects
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
• Steady state solution
kA

-0.50
-1.00
-1.50
-2.00
– RMS Value
0.100 0.150 0.200 0.250 0.300 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 ...
...
...
Introduction to electromagnetic
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations : Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Typical Examples of Electromagnetic Transients: Capacitor Switching

Capbank : Graphs
RRL
Vcap BRK
300

200

BRK
100

0.1 [H]

0.1 [H]
kV

-100

1.0 [uF]

1.0 [uF]
-200

-300

RLIa RLIb RLIc


2.00
1.50
1.00

• Transient
0.50
0.00
kA

-0.50
-1.00
-1.50
– High frequency
-2.00

0.190 0.200 0.210 0.220 0.230 0.240 0.250 0.260 ...


– Damped (short duration)
...
...
Introduction to electromagnetic
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations : Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Typical Examples of Electromagnetic Transients: Breaker Transient recovery (TRV)

#1 #2 T #1 #2
RRL TLine1
BRK1 Ea BRK Eb
0.001 [H]
3

Open
Main : Graphs
Main : Graphs
Eb
Ea 300
300

200
200

100
100

y
0
y

-100
-100

-200
-200

-300
-300
0.170 0.190 0.210 0.230 0.250 0.270 ...
0.170 0.190 0.210 0.230 0.250 0.270 ...
...
... ...
...
Introduction to electromagnetic
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations : Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Typical Examples of Electromagnetic Transients: Breaker Transient recovery (TRV)

A Typical TRV Waveform


TRV Waveform
Etrv
300

Breaker TRV must be studied on electro-


magnetic transient platforms to ensure
200

100
compliance.
0
kV

-100

-200

-300

0.180 0.190 0.200 0.210 0.220 0.230 0.240 0.250 ...


...
...
Introduction to electromagnetic
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations : Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Typical Examples of Electromagnetic Transients: Fast front surges (lightning- strikes)


Lightning
Impulse

R1
Y1 RX IWPP-1
B1

R2
Y2 RX IWPP-2
1082 [ohm]
B2

1 Sky1 1 1 Sky1 1 1
GIS
Sky2 Sky2 R1
1082 [ohm] Station
A A Y1 ABU HADRIYAH-1
B T B B1
C T1_T2 C T
A A T1_G R2
E1
T2_T3 B T1_T2 T1_T2 B T1_G T1_G Y2 ABU HADRIYAH-2
C C B2
E2

Detailed model representation of different elements is necessary to study


the substation insulation coordination.
- Line segments, towers, bushings, bus-bars, transformers etc.
Introduction to electromagnetic
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations : Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Typical Examples of Electromagnetic Transients: Fast front surges (lightning- strikes)

Transient Currents

Lightning Current
10.0
9.0 Note: The time scale is a few micro seconds
8.0
7.0
6.0
(us).
5.0
(kA)

4.0
3.0
2.0  Determine the surge arrester ratings and
1.0
0.0 locations.
Arr Current
14.0
12.0
10.0  BIL of major equipment.
8.0
6.0
(kA)

Impact of shielding failure, back flash-


4.0
2.0
0.0
-2.0
over and tower grounding.
TFR kVolts
500

450

400

350
(kV )

300

250

200

150

0.000 0.002m 0.004m 0.006m 0.008m 0.010m 0.012m 0.014m 0.016m 0.018m ...
...
...
Introduction to electromagnetic
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations : Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Typical Examples of Electromagnetic Transients: Very Fast front surges (GIS)

- Disconnector sparking induced transients in GIS sub-stations.

500 kV system:
Main : Graphs
RMS Phase
Ea
50
350

40
T
OH line segment
OHL_01
GIS Cable Open
Disconnetcot
30
switch
T T 6e-6 [uF] T
GIS_01 GIS_02 GIS_03 20
0.1 [H]

T
Line Trap model
10
5000 [pF]

DS_Closed
Disconnector:
CVT Model Closed
T
GIS_04 y 0

-10
300 [pF]

Open Circuit
Breaker -20

-30

12e-6 [uF]
-40
0.5 [ohm]

Disconnector:
During sparking -50
...
r_arc

0.095m 0.100m 0.105m 0.110m 0.115m 0.120m 0.125m 0.130m 0.135m 0.140m 0.145m
...
+

...
12e-6 [uF]
Introduction to electromagnetic
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations : Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Detailed mathematical representation of the network elements is necessary to


accurately reproduce the current and voltage waveforms during the
electromagnetic transient period.

300
Vcap
Capbank : Graphs
• Transient solution
200

100
– Harmonics
0
– Non-linear effects
kV

-100

-200
– Frequency dependent
effects
-300

RLIa RLIb RLIc


2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50

• Steady state solution


0.00
kA

-0.50
-1.00

– Single RMS Value


-1.50
-2.00

0.100 0.150 0.200 0.250 0.300 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 ...
...
...
Introduction to electromagnetic
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations : Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Basic R-L circuit equation:

I
R=0

V R L

Load Flow / Transient Stability Electro-Magnetic Transients


 Solution based on phasor  Direct time domain solution of
calculations Differential Equations
Introduction to electromagnetic Manitoba HVDC Research Centre
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations :

• Machine Model
» Damper windings, stator flux changes are represented.

Synchronous machine d-q-0 equations

Stator Side Rotor Side


d
Vd  Rs id 
d d
d  q w r Ef  R f  i f  f
dt dt dt
d
d d
Vq  Rs iq  q  d w r o  R kd ikd   kd
dt dt dt
d
d o  R kq ikq   kq
V0  R0 i0  0 dt
dt
d
Dampers – 2 on Q-axis o  R kq2 ikq2   kq2
dt
Introduction to electromagnetic Manitoba HVDC Research Centre
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations :

As a result of detailed models, emt type program applications are not limited to fast
transient studies. Other common applications include:

 Motor starting and fast bust transfer of critical process motors.


 Modeling of power electronic converters for various types of studies
 Detailed modeling of control systems
 Analysis of complex protection and control issues
 Harmonic resonance issues
 Voltage issues including flickers.
 Accurate modeling of non linear loads such as arc furnaces, large motor loads.
 Symmetric as well as asymmetric faults.
 Application of FACTS based solutions to power quality and voltage problems.
 Renewable energy and distributed generation (wind, Solar and others)
Introduction to electromagnetic Manitoba HVDC Research Centre
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations :

Our main product

PSCAD V4.2
Introduction to electromagnetic Manitoba HVDC Research Centre
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations :

The time domain simulation engine, EMTDC,


(originally developed at Manitoba Hydro by
Dennis Woodford) formed the basis of this
vision.

PSCAD (Power Systems Computer Aided


Design) provides the user with control and
visualization technologies to operate EMTDC
and related engines.
Introduction to electromagnetic Manitoba HVDC Research Centre
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations :

Limitless Applications
Introduction to electromagnetic Manitoba HVDC Research Centre
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations :

Some common applications…….

- Accurate modeling of FACTS, HVDC, and Power Electronics applications


- Transient Over-Voltage studies – arrester ratings
- Power System Lightning performance – BIL studies
- Distributed Generation Studies – wind power, solar, fuel cell, diesel…
- Protection Systems - modeling and testing
- Dynamic/Transient Power System response
- Harmonic System response

Limited only by the imagination


Introduction to electromagnetic Manitoba HVDC Research Centre
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations :

Some common applications…….

– AC System Studies
– Fast Front Studies
– Transformer Saturation
– Faults and Protection
– HVDC Systems
– Induction Machines, Synchronous machines
– Wind Power and other renewable energy types
– FACTS Devices
– Sub-Synchronous Resonance
– Power Quality

Limited only by the imagination


Introduction to electromagnetic Manitoba HVDC Research Centre
transients(EMT) and EMT simulations :

Demonstration:

Setting up a simulation to study


 Motor starting
 Transformer inrush
Simulation examples of common Manitoba HVDC Research Centre
applications :

Simulation examples of common applications


AC System Studies Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

11 kV System Bus

Switching Studies 0.003

0.0005 0.07 Eap

Switching Over-Voltages (SOV)

.415 [kV] / 11 [kV]


0.100 [MVA]

#2
Utility Cap banks
for voltage support

#1
BRK
- Due to switching actions

400.0
20.0
- Re-distribution of stored energy in L- C
elements 10.0
Eap

- Insulation failure of equipment


- Switching instant has an impact on the
-10.0

8.0
Eas
600

magnitude
- Damping due to loads and losses
-400
ENERGY(kJ/kV)
0.300

- Use of MOV to suppress stress


0.250
0.200
0.150
0.100
0.050
0.000
Imov
0.050

-0.450

0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 ...


...
...
AC System Studies Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Switching Studies
Transient Recovery Voltages (TRV)
• Voltage across the breaker poles when interrupting a current (opening)
– Unsuccessful breaker operation
– Damage to equipment
– TRV capability is defined in IEC and other standards (IEEE C37.011)
– Stray capacitance on the sub-station reduced the TRV
– Determine if additional grading capacitors are necessary
– High frequency -> small time step (1us typical)
TRV_ENV(+) TRV_ENV(-) Ea
20

10

-10

-20

-30

0.0200 0.0220 0.0240 0.0260 0.0280 0.0300 0.0320 0.0340 ...


...
...
Frequency Response of the Network Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Identify network resonance issues through


harmonic impedance calculations
GEN
8
TL26-29

GEN
10
Bus BUS
37
TL26-28 TL28-29
VBUS37

BUS Bus 30 BUS


Bus 26 BUS28
Bus BUS Bus 29
TRNS TL24--23
VBUS30 VBUS26 load VBUS28 load load VBUS29
8
TRNS
TRNS 9
10 BUS Bus 25 GEN
BUS BUS38
Bus BUS Bus 24 6
VBUS25 load

load

VBUS27
TL25-26 VBUS38 load VBUS24
BUS
TL2-25 Bus
BUS35
TL26-27
VBUS18 GEN TL24-16
BUS 9 VBUS35
Bus 18
TL17-27

Bus 27
BUS Bus 2 BUS Bus 16
load
VBUS2 VBUS16 load 6
TL17-18 TL16-17 TRNS
TL16-21
TL3-18
TL2-3 TL16-15 VBUS22

Bus 17
TL16-19 BUS Bus 21 BUS
Bus 22

VBUS17
VBUS21 load
BUS BUS Bus 15
TL2-1 TL21-22
Bus 3 BUS
load VBUS3 VBUS15 load TL22-23
Bus 19
VBUS19
TL3-4 TL15-14
TL4-14
BUS Bus 23
BUS Bus 4 BUS Bus 14
TRNS TRNS load VBUS23
BUS Bus 12
VBUS4 load VBUS14 4
13
TL4-5 VBUS12 load

BUS Bus 5 TRNS


TRNS TRNS 7
VBUS5 11 12
BUS Bus 1 TL14-13 BUS Bus 20 BUS Bus 33
TL5-6
VBUS1 VBUS11 load VBUS20
BUS BUS BUS VBUS33 BUS
Bus 6 Bus 11 Bus 13 Bus 36
VBUS6 VBUS13 VBUS36
GEN
TL10-11 TL13-10 TRNS 4
5
TL6-11
TL1-39 TL6-7
TL5-8 BUS
BUS Bus 7 Bus 10 7
VBUS10 GEN
load TRNS
BUS
VBUS39 2
BUS
Bus39 Bus 34
TL7-8 VBUS34
TRNS
load 3
BUS Bus 8 GEN
1 BUSBus
Slack Bus 31 5
GEN TL9-39 VBUS8 load
BUS
TL8-9 load VBUS31
Bus 32
VBUS32
BUS Bus 9
GEN GEN
VBUS9 2 3
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

INTER-CONNECTED OFFSHORE POWER SYSTEM ENERGISATION STUDIES

PSCAD-EMTDC has been used by Mott MacDonald to assess harmonic over-voltages


due to transformer energisation in an offshore inter-connected system.
Studies of this type can be used to recommend the generation and load line-up
required to ensure that both the voltage dip and harmonic over-voltages are within
acceptable limits.

11 kV 6 kV
15

0.72 kV 10

Voltage (kV)
35 kV
0
30 MVA Subsea Cable
4.5 MVA
GTG -5

Transformer
-10

-15
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00
Time (sec)

140
1 x GTG 11 kV instantaneous phase to neutral voltages
120 2 x GTGs
3 x GTGs
4 x GTGs
when energising transformer against one GTG
100
Impedance (ohms)

80

60

40 Variation of system impedance with frequency seen at


20 the 11 kV switchboard for different generation line-ups
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Harmonic No.
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Torsional vibration of turbine generator by variable speed drives


Analysis of the potential of the inter-harmonic currents produced by variable speed
Load Commutated Inverter (LCI) drives to excite a torsional resonance mode of the
gas and steam turbine generators in a combined cycle power plant typically used in
remote gas compression facilities.

Key Model Elements:


 A six-phase synchronous motor
 A twelve pulse LCI drive comprising four, six-pulse thyristor bridges, was
implemented using the PSCAD six pulse bridge model. By varying the firing angles,
the power factor at the rectifier and inverter and dc power transfer can be adjusted.
Different dc link inter-harmonic options can be investigated.
 A four winding input transformerThe fourth winding was connected to a
harmonic filter unit comprising a number of high-pass and single tuned filters.
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Torsional vibration of turbine generator by variable speed drives


It has been shown that operating the drive at certain speeds produces inter-harmonic
current levels that will produce a pulsating current component that exceeds the
permissible levels and consequently a shaft torsional resonance will be excited.
PSCAD-EMTDC has been proved to be a very effective tool in assessing the critical
drive output speeds and determining amplitude of torsional oscillations at the design
stage of such projects.
0.37

0.35

0.33
Airgap torque (p.u.)

0.31

0.29

0.27 Shaft torque between the gas turbine and generator


during one of the investigated scenarios.
0.25
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Time (seconds)
Transformer Related Issues Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Ferro Resonance

Many factors can lead to ferro-resonance situations. Transients


simulations are necessary to identify possible problems.

Ferroresonance Case Study


VbusA VbusB VbusC
1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
0.00
y

-0.25
-0.50
-0.75
-1.00
-1.25
VPriB
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
Voltage

1.0
0.0
-1.0
-2.0
-3.0
-4.0

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 ...
...
...
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre
Ferro resonance
Mostly due to abnormal switching conditions.

A A COUPLED A A A
30 [MVA]
LINEA PI
SECTION
B B B B B
#1 #2
LINEB
C C C C 230 [kV] C
LINEC 13.2 [kV]
1.50E-03 [H]

1.50E-03 [H]

1.50E-03 [H]
2.51 [uF]

2.51 [uF]

2.51 [uF]
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

The need for EMT Studies


 Design equipment ratings
 Identify undesirable operating conditions
 Identify operating restrictions
 Propose mitigation methods for persisting issues
 Test and validate new concepts.
Simulation of Power Electronics Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

• Power electronic devices are modeled as On/OFF switches


• Snubber circuits, Turn-ON and Turn-OFF logic modeled
• Advanced Interpolation methods to capture the ‘exact’
switching instant

• Typical applications are:


 HVDC
 Motor drives
 VSC Transmission
 Wind Power and other types of renewable energy
HVDC System Studies Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

HVDC system designers rely on EMT studies for equipment design and
system studies

0.5968 [H] 2.5 [ohm] 2.5 [ohm] 0.5968 [H]

Rbus Ibus
Rectifier_AC

Inverter_AC
26.0 [uF]

A A
V V

Rectifier Inverter
HVDC System Studies Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

HVDC system designers rely on EMT studies for equipment


design and system studies:

• Equipment rating studies


• Control system design and verification.
• Faults and commutation failure
• Restart of HVDC links and fault recovery
• Resonance issues
• Reactive power compensation and filter requirements.
• Relaying and protection issues.
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

PSCAD Demonstration:
Basic power electronic circuits with corresponding control
systems.
 Phase controlled reactor
 PWM based Photo Voltaic (PV) interface.
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Motor drive example with an active filter.

Idc

dcVltg

1 3 5 5 5 3 3 1 1

0.0
gt5 gt3 gt1
Er
Ir Ia_motor BRKM A W

1000 [uF]
Eab A IM
IaS IaL B S
RRL #2 #1 DIST
EaL 0.0005 [H] 0.07 [ohm] Eap Eas Ebc B Motor
C T
C
FLT

0.5
2 6 4 Timed

*
4 6 2 2 6 4 Breaker
gt2 gt6 gt4 BRKM Logic
Ec Eb Ea Open@t0
BRK

cbrk

2X
400 [ohm]

320 [uF]
20 [uF]

W
IaL
2
IaL
3
IaL
1
EaL
2
EaL
3 ACTIVE

EaL
FILTER
Supply Current
IaS
0.03 0.080

0.060

0.040

0.020

0.000

-0.020

-0.040

-0.060

-0.080
0.0 ...
0.750 0.760 0.770 0.780 0.790 0.800 0.810 0.820 0.830 0.840 0.850
...
[1] 0.0212728 ...
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

calculation of instantaneous real power after filtering of real power 'p'


based on alpha, beta quantities only ac component of the
instantaneous real power is left calculation of alpha, beta transformation reference currents which are
transformation of phase of current which become of alpha, beta fed into current control of

p_inst filtered
quantities into the reference current currents into active filter
alpha, beta ones for active filter phase currents
Iaph

p_inst
*
B Vaph
*
Vaph + Pinst B
Iaph + Pinst + N
Ia1 A Alpha N/D
Ibta F Vaph -
* *
ABC Ibta B Vbta * IaRef
Ib1 B Beta F D Alpha A
to + * a2pb2 GR
AlphaBeta Vbta a2pb2
Vaph + Qinst AlphaBeta * IbRef
Ic1 C Beta to B
after filtering of reactive power 'q' Vbta F ABC GR
only ac component of the *
A Alpha Vaph calculation of instantaneous reactive power Vbta C * IcRef
Va1 instantaneous reactive power is left *
based on alpha, beta quantities B GR
ABC Vbta Vbta Pinst + N
Vb1 B to Beta N/D
AlphaBeta GR

q_inst filtered
+
C Vaph F D
Vc1 *
Iaph a2pb2
q_inst

*
B Qinst
Vbta - Qinst
+
Ibta F
*

Vaph

Active filter control implementation

Firing Pulse Controls

* A
TIME * Freq Sin gt1
B Compar-
6.283185307 ator
2*pi

A
D + - Sin
gt1 gt4
B Compar-
gt3
Motor drive IGBT firing pulses (simple implementation)
2.094395102 F ator
gt3 gt6
(2*pi)/3

gt5 gt2 A
D + + Sin gt5
B Compar-
2.094395102 F ator
(2*pi)/3
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

FACTS Devices:
• Discussion of basic operating principles.
• Advantages and drawbacks.

PSCAD Demonstration:
 STATCOM – Voltage dip mitigation during faults
 SVC – Wind turbine start-up example.
Distribution Systems and Power Quality Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Arc furnace example


– Design of an SVC to mitigate voltage flicker
PSCAD simulation studies were
used to design a SVC to address P = -0.9219
NCT
ICP
SVC
Q = -40.3
voltage flicker problems near an CSW 0.0

Arc Furnace location.


A
V
AO Aord
KB
SVC

: Co...
Main : Controls <null>
P Q
110.0

#NaN #NaN
0.0

Vmag
V Ph
80 [MVA] 83 [MVA]
Arc Furnace
110 [kV] / 20 [kV] 20 [kV] / 0.5 [kV]
#1 #2 Icomp #1 #2

Eln Vbus 2.38e-3 [H]


1.0e9 [ohm]

110 [kV], 50.0 [Hz]


80 [MVA] Ia Ib Ic
Z1 = 6.37 [ohm] /_ 80.0 [°] P Iarc Modx
1.0
Ext.
Q Varc Ig
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Bus 1
Bus 2

P = 24.65
#1 #2 Q = -10.58 Compressor
T
V = 118.1 A
T TLine_01 #1 #2 Motors
Ia
A TLine_02
RRL

V
45 km line
100 km line

345 kv
RL

Ea
'Weak system
bus"

This case is used to study flicker problems at BUS 2. Bus 2 and the large
compressor motors are fed by a weak 115 kV line. The 345 kV system behind BUS 1
has a comparatively low fault level, indicating a weak supply at this location.

The compressor torque characteristics are realistic and the variation (T vs rotor
position (mechanical)) is stored in a file and is used in the simulation.

Due to the torque and hence the current variation of the compressor load, a voltage
flicker at a low frequency is observed at BUS 1. (and BUs 2 as well)

Appropriately controlled TCR with necessary harmonic filters is a solution.


Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Vref

Vref1

Vref0 Vref
Exciter_(AC1A)
Main : Graphs
Timed
VT Breaker
Ef0
Ef If
IT 3 BRK1 Logic
Closed@t0
Ea
3 97.50
Ef1

Ef0 Ef If A P = -23.36 23.36 [MW]


V Q = 5.723-5.723 [MVAR]
97.00
V = 14.1
S
Te
A
BRK1
96.50
V
Tm
96.00

y
w Tm
Tm0

pu Tm1
6 - 6000 HP Compressor Motors
327.27273 rpm - 22 Pole machine
95.50
*
Torque1 -1.0
G
95.00
1 Degrees 1 + sT
sT Ia
Clear Torque1.dat 0.30
1

Average Torque = 0.82 pu (approx) 0.20


6 units are pulsating as one

+
0.10
Zero - D
Detector
F The compressor characteristics are 0.00

y
stored in a data file.
-0.10
360.0

-0.20
-0.30

Representation of the compressor load 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00 ...
...
...
Power Quality Issues Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Common power quality issues that can be modeled in PSCAD:


– Modeling of filters, active and passive
– Harmonic distortion problems
– Voltage flicker (cyclic loads, arc furnace etc. )
– Voltage dips and swells
– Resonance issues
– Grounding conditions
– Unbalanced operations
Distribution Systems and Power Quality Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

PSCAD simulations are used to identify power quality issues


and investigate solutions:
– Grounding issues
– Grounding banks (Y-D, Zig-Zag)
– Unbalanced loading
– Transformer performance
– Neutral voltages and currents
– Lightening Strikes
– Representing station equipment for a fast front study
– Modeling the surge
– Placement of the MOV
– Selection of MOV rating (energy capability)
– Power quality issues
– Capacitor bank resonance
Distribution Systems and Power Quality Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Arc furnace example


– Design of an SVC to mitigate voltage flicker
PSCAD simulation studies were
used to design a SVC to address P = -0.9219
NCT
ICP
SVC
Q = -40.3
voltage flicker problems near an CSW 0.0

Arc Furnace location.


A
V
AO Aord
KB
SVC

: Co...
Main : Controls <null>
P Q
110.0

#NaN #NaN
0.0

Vmag
V Ph
80 [MVA] 83 [MVA]
Arc Furnace
110 [kV] / 20 [kV] 20 [kV] / 0.5 [kV]
#1 #2 Icomp #1 #2

Eln Vbus 2.38e-3 [H]


1.0e9 [ohm]

110 [kV], 50.0 [Hz]


80 [MVA] Ia Ib Ic
Z1 = 6.37 [ohm] /_ 80.0 [°] P Iarc Modx
1.0
Ext.
Q Varc Ig
FACTS Devices Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Active filter example – Compensating the harmonic currents of a


non linear load
System Current,Load Current,Main : Graphs
IS - System Currents
0.100
0.075
0.050
0.025
Idc
0.000
-0.025 PSCAD circuit layout VLdc
y

Com.

2.5 [ohm]
-0.050 Bus
AM
-0.075 GM
-0.100 0.0001 [H]
IS IL
-0.125

0.035 [H]
#1 #2 Pi by 180
Isrc

V deg. to rad.

0.001 [ohm]
AO
IL - Load cuttents *
0.150 KB

IAF
6 Pulse
Bridge 1
0.100

Itg
#1
CtrlS...
0.050 Block AF

#2
B D
y (kA)

0.000
-0.050

VF
-0.100 1

-0.150 VFdc Simplification:


Block firing signal A dc source has been put in the
IAF_Active Filter Currents (disable AF)
1 3 5
place of dc capacitor, it has
0.150 simplified a control system of

0.001 [ohm]
2 2 2 active filter
g1 g3 g5
0.100 0.002 [ohm] 0.001 [H]

0.050
y (kA)

0.000 4 6 2

-0.050 2 2 2
g4 g6 g2

-0.100
-0.150

0.360 0.380 0.400 0.420 0.440 ...


...
...
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Control system modeling:

 Control systems of power system equipment can be


implemented in any level of complexity.

 Vast selection of control blocks (control, logical,


mathematical) readily available.
Wind Power Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

PSCAD is a choice of major wind farm vendors, utilities,


consultants and researchers:
• Investigate advanced generation
• Design novel control concepts
• Low voltage fault ride-through requirements
• Harmonics and power quality issues
• Mechanical resonance problems
• Power electronic design
• Filters
• Fault contribution and protection of wind farm equipment

Modern wind turbines have complex array of control and protection


functions. EMT simulation is the only practical way to design and
coordinate such systems.
Induction Motors Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Doubly Fed Induction Machine in Wind farms


CTRL

GRID GENERATOR
Converter Converter
& Controls & Controls

Vw ...
SABC GABC

G4

W -3
Wind Park
IM
S
Istator S2TMODE Cp
V 0.28
TL Tm
WindTRQ Vw
Wspd

BUS 8 Wm
W4 + TIME
+ D

Change wind speed fom 12 to 10.5 m/s

A doubly fed induction machine is popular in wind farms due to its


flexible operation under variable wind conditions. PSCAD is used by
wind farm developers and researches to design the complex control
functions of the DFIG.
Wind Power Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Different machine types and connections


• Doubly fed induction machine
• ‘Opti-slip’ controlled induction
machine
• Synchronous machine
• PM machine

Wind turbine and controls


• Aerodynamic model 1
• Power coefficient Pm  C p . . A.v 3
• Pitch control 2
• Maximum power tracking

Wind models
• Ramps, gusts, noise
Wind Power Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Doubly-fed Induction Machine


• Most popular among wind manufacturers
• Detailed model can be implemented only in emt-type (PSCAD)
simulations.

Advantages
• Independent P and Q control
• Speed control

 Allows for reactive power control


 Allows the machine speed to be controlled as the wind speed varies.
Wind Power Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Doubly-fed Induction Machine

CTRL

GRID GENERATOR
Converter
& Controls
Converter
& Controls

Vw ...
Circuit and Modules
SABC GABC

G4

W -3
Wind Park
IM
S
Istator S2TMODE Cp
V T1 D1 T1 D1 T1 D1

BRK
0.28
TL Tm

10000.0
WindTRQ Vw
Wspd
T1 T3 T5
BUS 8 Wm
W4 +
+ D TIME CR-PWM based
F Rotor-side converter
Change wind speed fom 12 to 10.5 m/s Ecap

1.0
V
Ecapref

T2 D2 T2 D2 T2 D2

T4 T6 T2

Rotor side converter

Erb

Erc
Era

Ira

Irb

Irc
GA GB GC
Wind Power Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Doubly-fed Induction Machine


Identification of main stator flux by integrating stator voltage
Circuit and Modules after removal of resistive drop. The washout filter removes any
dc component from the integrated flux without significantly
ffecting the phase
D +
Va -
C
* A 1 phisx
Isa 0.467 sT sT X mag
alfa G r to p
D + Valfa 1 + sT Vsmag phsmag
B 3 to 2 Y
Vb - Transform sT Y phi
C G X
* beta Vbeta 1 1 + sT phis
C
Isa 0.467 D + sT phisy
Vc - Very important signal -
C present location ==> phis
*
Isa 0.467 of rotating stator flux

C
+ in Angle out slpang
Estimation of the stator flux vector rotor_angle D - Resolver

determining the relative difference between


stator flux and rotor position for resolving the
rotor currents
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

PSCAD Demonstration
- Complex control systems (DFIG, HVDC …)
Discussion of other applications Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Discussion of other applications (time permitting)

HVDC
Wind, Solar (PV)
Electric vehicles
Protection and control
Custom Components in PSCAD Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

- PSCAD allows the users to develop custom models. These can be used in
a simulation along with any models from the main (MASTER) Library.

PSCAD implementation of a Super


DC circuit

Conducting Fault Current Limiter DC2 DC1

B
A1
DC

FCL Reactor MMF


A2
Three-limb
Three-phase H
2.046 [mH]
B1
St

B2
I_int

C1

C2

P+jQ
Model validation Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

The full model was validated


with the following methods.

1. Load flow
2. Fault level
3. Fault recordings
Model validation Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Fault recordings

Analog Graph
Near the fault bus A dvanced Graph Frame

DM2 IA Ias4
4.0k
MV1 EA Vas5
600.000k
3.0k
400.000k
2.0k
200.000k
1.0k
bus voltage

0.000

line #2
-200.000k 0.0

-400.000k -1.0k

-600.000k -2.0k

-800.000k

MV1 EB Vcs5
Voltages -3.0k

1.5k
DM2 IB Ics4
Currents
600.000k
1.0k
400.000k
0.5k
200.000k
bus voltage

0.0
0.000

line #2
-0.5k
-200.000k
-1.0k
-400.000k
-1.5k
-600.000k
-2.0k
MV1 EC Vbs5 DM2 IC Ibs4
600.000k 1.5k

400.000k 1.0k

200.000k 0.5k
bus voltage

0.000 0.0
line #2

-200.000k -0.5k

-400.000k -1.0k

-600.000k -1.5k

x 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250 0.275 0.300 0.325 0.350 ... -2.0k

... x 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250 0.275 0.300 0.325 0.350 ...
...
... ...
Model validation Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Fault recordings

Analog Graph
Near the fault bus A dvanced Graph Frame

DM2 IA Ias4
4.0k
MV1 EA Vas5
600.000k
3.0k
400.000k
2.0k
200.000k
1.0k
bus voltage

0.000

line #2
-200.000k 0.0

-400.000k -1.0k

-600.000k -2.0k

-800.000k

MV1 EB Vcs5
Voltages -3.0k

1.5k
DM2 IB Ics4
Current
600.000k
1.0k
400.000k
0.5k
200.000k
bus voltage

0.0
0.000

line #2
-0.5k
-200.000k
-1.0k
-400.000k
-1.5k
-600.000k
-2.0k
MV1 EC Vbs5 DM2 IC Ibs4
600.000k 1.5k

400.000k 1.0k

200.000k 0.5k
bus voltage

0.000 0.0
line #2

-200.000k -0.5k

-400.000k -1.0k

-600.000k -1.5k

x 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250 0.275 0.300 0.325 0.350 ... -2.0k

... x 0.150 0.175 0.200 0.225 0.250 0.275 0.300 0.325 0.350 ...
...
... ...
Model validation Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

Fault recordings
• The simulation shows
6.0k
MV 1 IA
Analog Graph

At a remote bus
Midw ay.Ias5
the same trends
4.0k

2.0k
MW-VT Line #1

0.0

-2.0k

-4.0k

-6.0k

-8.0k
Current • Not all conditions are known at
2.5k

2.0k
MV 1 IC

Voltages
Midw ay.Ibs5

the instant of the fault.


1.5k

1.0k

0.5k
• Load flow
MW-VT Line #1

0.0

• Point on wave
-0.5k

-1.0k

-1.5k

• Reactors / capacitors ON
-2.0k

-2.5k

MV 3 IC Midw ay.Ibs7
3.0k

2.0k

1.0k
or OFF
MW-VT Line #3

0.0

-1.0k

-2.0k

-3.0k

x 0.160 0.180 0.200 0.220 0.240 0.260 0.280 0.300 0.320 0.340 ...
...
...
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre

• Other ideas to be added later


• DG example
• wavelet
• power electronic losss calc
• Energy storage
• Farid Pebb example
• Mrun
• Digital vs analog controls
• Custom control models