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Course : CIVL6087 – Foundation Engineering

Effective Period : February 2017

Deep Foundation

Session 10-13
INTRODUCTION

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TYPES OF PILE FOUNDATION

STEEL PILE

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TYPES OF PILE FOUNDATION

CONCRETE PILE

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TYPES OF PILE FOUNDATION

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TYPES OF PILE FOUNDATION

WOODEN PILE

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TYPES OF PILE FOUNDATION

COMPOSITE PILE
COMBINATION OF:
- STEEL AND CONCRETE
- WOODEN AND CONCRETE
- ETC

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PILE CATEGORIES

Classification of pile with respect to load transmission and functional behaviour:


1. END BEARING PILES
These piles transfer their load on to a firm stratum located at a
considerable depth below the base of the structure and they derive most of
their carrying capacity from the penetration resistance of the soil at the toe
of the pile

2. FRICTION PILES
Carrying capacity is derived mainly from the adhesion or friction of the soil
in contact with the shaft of the pile

3. COMPACTION PILES
These piles transmit most of their load to the soil through skin friction. This
process of driving such piles close to each other in groups greatly reduces
the porosity and compressibility of the soil within and around the groups.
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PILE CATEGORIES

END BEARING PILE

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PILE CATEGORIES

FRICTION PILE

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PILE CATEGORIES

Classification of pile with respect to effect on the soil


- Driven Pile
Driven piles are considered to be displacement piles. In the process of driving the
pile into the ground, soil is moved radially as the pile shaft enters the ground. There
may also be a component of movement of the soil in the vertical direction.

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PILE CATEGORIES

Classification of pile with respect to effect on the soil


- Bored Pile
Bored piles(Replacement piles) are generally considered to be non-displacement piles a void is
formed by boring or excavation before piles is produced.
There are three non-displacement methods: bored cast- in - place piles, particularly pre-formed piles
and grout or concrete intruded piles.

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DETERMINATION OF PILE LENGTH

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BEARING CAPACITY OF PILE

Two components of pile bearing capacity:


1. Point bearing capacity (QP)
2. Friction bearing capacity (QS)

QU  QP  QS

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BEARING CAPACITY OF PILE

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POINT BEARING CAPACITY

For Shallow Foundation


- TERZAGHI
SQUARE FOUNDATION
qu = 1,3.c.Nc + q.Nq + 0,4..B.N
CIRCULAR FOUNDATION
qu = 1,3.c.Nc + q.Nq + 0,3..B.N
- GENERAL EQUATION
qu  c.Nc.Fcs.Fcd.Fci  q.Nq.Fqs.Fqd.Fqi  0,5..B.N.Fs.Fd.Fi

Deep Foundation Where D is pile diameter, the


3rd term of equation is
neglected due to its small
qu = qP = c.Nc* + q.Nq* + .D.N* contribution

qu = qP = c.Nc* + q’.Nq* ; QP = Ap .qp = Ap (c.Nc* + q’.Nq*)


Nc* & Nq* : bearing capacity factor by Meyerhof, Vesic and Janbu
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POINT BEARING CAPACITY
MEYERHOF

PILE FOUNDATION AT UNIFORM SAND


LAYER (c = 0)

QP = Ap .qP = Ap.q’.Nq*  Ap.ql

ql = 50 . Nq* . tan  (kN/m2)

Base on the value of N-SPT :

qP = 40NL/D  400N (kN/m2)

Where:
N = the average value of N-SPT
near the pile point (about 10D
above and 4D below the pile
point)

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POINT BEARING CAPACITY
MEYERHOF

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POINT BEARING CAPACITY
MEYERHOF

PILE FOUNDATION AT MULTIPLE SAND LAYER (c = 0)

QP = Ap .qP

qP  ql l  
q    q   L
l d ll b
 ql d 
10D
Where:
ql(l) : point bearing at loose sand layer (use loose
sand parameter)
ql(d) : point bearing at dense sand layer (use dense
sand parameter)
Lb = depth of penetration pile on dense sand layer

ql(l) = ql(d) = 50 . Nq* . tan  (kN/m2)


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POINT BEARING CAPACITY
MEYERHOF

PILE FOUNDATION AT SATURATED


CLAY LAYER (c  0)

QP = Ap (c.Nc* + q’.Nq*)
For saturated clay ( = 0), from
the curve we get:
Nq* = 0.0
Nc* = 9.0
and

QP = 9 . cu . Ap

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POINT BEARING CAPACITY
BORED PILE

QP =  . Ap . Nc . Cp

Where:
 = correction factor
= 0.8 for D ≤ 1m
= 0.75 for D > 1m
Ap = section area of pile
cp = undrained cohesion at pile point
Nc = bearing capacity factor (Nc = 9)
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FRICTION RESISTANCE

Qs   p.L. f
Where:
p = pile perimeter
L = incremental pile length over which p and f are taken constant
f = unit friction resistance at any depth z

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FRICTION RESISTANCE
SAND

Qs   p.L. f
f  K . v '. tan 

Where:
K = effective earth coefficient
= Ko = 1 – sin  (bored pile)
= Ko to 1.4Ko (low displacement driven pile)
= Ko to 1.8Ko (high displacement driven pile)
v’ = effective vertical stress at the depth under consideration
 = soil-pile friction angle
= (0.5 – 0.8)
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FRICTION RESISTANCE
CLAY

Three of the presently accepted procedures are:

1.  method
This method was proposed by Vijayvergiya and Focht (1972),
based on the assumption that the displacement of soil caused by
pile driving results in a passive lateral pressure at any depth.

2.  method (Tomlinson)
This method base on total stress analysis that relate su to pile
adhesion are based on work by Tomlinson (1957,1970), Randolph
(1983), and Semple and Rigden (1984)

3.  method
This method base on effective stress analysis described by Burland
(1973), Esrig et al. (1977), and Esrig and Kirby (1979) assumes that
the failure occurs in the soil near the pile-soil interface
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FRICTION RESISTANCE
CLAY -  METHOD

Qs   p.L. f av

f av    v '  2cu 
Where:
v’= mean effective vertical stress
for the entire embedment length
cu = mean undrained shear strength
( = 0)

VALID ONLY FOR ONE


LAYER OF HOMOGEN
CLAY
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FRICTION RESISTANCE
CLAY -  METHOD

FOR LAYERED SOIL

cu ,1.L1  cu , 2 .L2  ... A1  A2  A3  ...


cu  v' 
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L L
FRICTION RESISTANCE
CLAY -  METHOD

Qs   p.L. f

f   .cu

For cu  50 kN/m2
=1

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FRICTION RESISTANCE
CLAY -  METHOD

Qs   p.L. f
f   . v '
Where:
v’= vertical effective stress
 = K.tanR
R = drained friction angle of remolded clay
K = earth pressure coefficient at rest
= 1 – sin R (for normally consolidated clays)
= (1 – sin R) . OCR (for overconsolidated clays)
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FRICTION RESISTANCE
BORED PILE

Qs   0.45cu  p L 

Where:
cu = mean undrained shear strength
p = pile perimeter
L = incremental pile length over which p is taken constant

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ULTIMATE AND ALLOWABLE BEARING
CAPACITY

DRIVEN PILE

QU  QP  QS
QU
Qall  FS= 2.5 - 4
FS
QP Q
Qall   S
3 1. 5
BORED PILE
QU
Qall  D < 2 m and with expanded at pile point
2 .5
QU
Qall  no expanded at pile point
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EXAMPLE

A pile with 50 cm diameter is penetrated into clay soil as shown in the following
figure:
NC clay
5m
GWL  = 18 kN/m3
cu = 30 kN/m2
5m R = 30o

OC clay (OCR = 2)
 = 19.6 kN/m3
20 m cu = 100 kN/m2
R = 30o

Determine:
1. End bearing of pile
2. Friction resistance by , , and  methods
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3. Allowable bearing capacity of pile (use FS = 4)
SETTLEMENT OF PILES

S = S1 + S2 + S3

Where:
S = total pile settlement
S1 = elastic settlement of pile
S2 = settlement of pile caused by the load at the pile tip
S3 = settlement of pile caused by the load transmitted
along the pile shaft

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SETTLEMENT OF PILES

S1 
Q wp   .Qws L
A p .E p

Where:
Qwp = load carried at the pile point under working load condition
Qws = load carried by frictional (skin) resistance under working
load condition
Ap = area of pile cross section
Ep = modulus of elasticity of the pile material
L = length of pile
 = the magnitude which depend on the nature of unit friction
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SETTLEMENT OF PILES

S2 
qwp .D
E
1   .I
2
s wp
Where: s
qwp = point load per unit area at the pile point = Qwp/Ap
D = width or diameter of pile
Es = modulus of elasticity of soil at or below the pile point
s = poisson’s ratio of soil
Iwp = influence factor
= r

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SETTLEMENT OF PILES

 Qws  D
S3    
2

1   s .I ws
 pL  Es
Where:
Qws = friction resistance of pile
L = embedment length of pile
p = perimeter of the pile
Iws = influence factor

L
I ws  2  0.35
D
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EXAMPLE

The allowable working load on a prestressed


concrete pile 21 m long that has been driven into
sand is 502 kN. The pile data are as follow:
- Diameter (D) = 356 mm
- The area of cross section (Ap) = 1045 cm2
- Perimeter (p) = 1.168 m
Skin resistance carries 350 kN of the allowable load,
and point bearing carries the rest. Use Ep = 21 x 106
kN/m2, Es = 25,000 kN/m2, s = 0.35 and  = 0.62)
Determine the settlement of the pile.
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EXAMPLE

Q wp  .Q ws L 152  0.6235021


0.104521x106 
S1    0.00353m  3.35mm
A p.Ep

S2 
qwp.D
Es
1 2s .Iwp   0.152  0.356 
 1  0.35 0.85  0.0155m  15.5mm
1045  25,000 
2

L 21
Iws  2  0.35  2  0.35  4.69
D 0.356

Q  D
S3   ws    350  0.356 
1  2s .Iws      
 1  0.35 4.69  0.00084m  0.84mm
2
 pL  Es  1.16821 25,000 

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S = S1 + S2 + S3 = 3.35 + 15.5 + 0.84 = 19.69 mm
NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION

Can occur under condition such as:


- If a fill of clay soil is placed over a granular soil layer into which a pile is
driven, the fill will gradually consolidate. This consolidation process will
exert a downward drag force on the pile during a period of consolidation
- If a fill of granular soil is placed over a layer of soft clay. It will induce the
process of consolidation in the clay layer and thus exert a downward drag
on the pile

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NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION

CLAY FILL OVER GRANULAR SOIL

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NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION

GRANULAR SOIL FILL OVER CLAY

THE UNIT NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION


AT ANY DEPTH FROM z = 0 TO z = L1

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NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION

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GROUP PILES

Lg = (n1 – 1)d + 2(D/2)


Bg = (n2 – 1)d + 2(D/2)

Where:
D = pile diameter
d = spacing of pile (center to center)

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GROUP PILES

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GROUP EFFICIENCY

Qg ( u )

Q u

Where:
 = group efficiency
Qg(u) = ultimate load bearing capacity of the group pile
Qu = ultimate load bearing capacity of each pile without the group
effect

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GROUP PILES IN SAND

2n1  n2  2 d  4 D

p.n1.n2
 2n1  n2  2 d  4 D 
Qg ( u )  . Qu
 p.n1.n2 

If  < 1  Qg(u) = .Qu


If  1  Qg(u) = Qu

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GROUP PILES IN SAND

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GROUP PILES IN SAND

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GROUP PILES IN SAND

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GROUP PILES IN SAND

Summary:

1. For driven group piles in sand with d  3D, Qu(g)


may be taken to be Qu, which includes the
frictional and the point bearing capacities of
individual piles.
2. For bored group piles in sand at conventional
spacings (d  3D), Qg(u) may be taken to be 2/3
to 3/4 times Qu (frictional and point bearing
capacities of individual piles)
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GROUP PILES IN SATURATED
CLAY

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GROUP PILES IN SATURATED
CLAY
Calculation steps:
1. Determine Qu = n1.n2 (Qp + Qs)
where:
QP = 9 . cu . Ap (ultimate end bearing capacity of single pile)

QS = (.p.cu.L) (skin resistance of single pile)

2. Determine the ultimate capacity by assuming that the piles in the group act
as a block with dimensional Lg x Bg x L as follow :
- end bearing capacity of the block
QP’ = Ap . qp = Ap . cu . Nc* with Ap = Lg . Bg
- Skin resistance of the block
QS’= (pg.cu.L) = 2.(Lg+Bg).cu.L
- Ultimate bearing capacity o pile group
Qu = QP’ + QS’
Qu = (Lg . Bg) . cu . Nc* + 2.(Lg+Bg).cu.L

3. Compare the values obtained in step 1 and 2  the lower of the two values
is Qg(u)
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GROUP PILES IN SATURATED
CLAY

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GROUP PILES IN SATURATED
CLAY

Problem:
The section of a 3 x 4 group pile layered saturated clay. The piles
are square in cross section (40 cm x 40 cm). The center to center
spacing, d, of the piles is 100 cm. Determine the allowable load
bearing capacity of the pile group. USE FS = 4

5m Clay 1 : cu = 16.8 kN/m2

Clay 2 : cu = 28.4 kN/m2


15 m

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PILES IN ROCK

For point bearing piles resting on rock, most building


codes specify that Qq(u) = Qu, provided that the
minimum center to center spacing of piles is D + 300
mm. For H-Piles and piles with square cross sections,
the magnitude of D is equal to the diagonal dimension of
the pile cross section.

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CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT OF GROUP
PILES

The Terzaghi formula is valid


with some rules:
1.The consolidation settlement
is occurred from the depth of
2/3 of pile length.
2.The stress increase caused
at the middle of each soil layer
by using 2:1 method
Qg
pi 
B g  zi Lg  zi 

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CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT OF GROUP
PILES

Problem:
A group pile with Lg = 3.3 m
sat = 18 kN/m3 and Bg = 2.2 m as shown in
Cc = 0,3 the figure. Determine the
eo = 0,82 consolidation settlement of
the pile groups. All clays are
normally consolidated.

sat = 18,9 kN/m3


Cc = 0,2
eo = 0,7
sat = 19 kN/m3
Cc = 0,25
eo = 0,75

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ELASTIC SETTLEMENT OF GROUP
PILES

• VESIC

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ELASTIC SETTLEMENT OF GROUP
PILES

• MEYERHOF (Pile groups in sand and gravel)

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ELASTIC SETTLEMENT OF GROUP
PILES

• PILE GROUP SETTLEMENT RELATED TO THE CONE PENETRATION


RESISTANCE

qc = average cone penetration resistance within the seat of settlement

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INSTALLATION METHOD

Pile Installation Equipment

The primary tools used in the actual driving


(installing) of piles are :

• Impact Hammers,
• Vibrator Driver / Extractors
• Special Hydraulic Presses
• Supporting Equipment – power sources,
hoisting & material handling equipment, etc.
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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Types of Impact Hammers


Impact Hammers are identified by their
method of operation or the motive force
employed. They are generally identified as :
• Drop Hammers
• Air or Steam Hammers
• Diesel Hammers
• Hydraulic Impact Hammers

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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Drop Hammers

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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Air (or Steam) Hammers

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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Air (or Steam) Hammers

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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Diesel Hammers

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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Diesel Hammers

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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Hydraulic Impact Hammers

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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Hydraulic Impact Hammers

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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Vibro Driver/Extractors

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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Vibro Driver/Extractors

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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Hydraulic Press Installer

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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Hydraulic Press Installer

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PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Land Based Rigs


Cantilever Fixed Lead

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(With Fixed Bottom Brace) (With Spotter)
PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Land Based Rigs


Under slung Swinging Lead

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(With Fixed Bottom Brace) (With stabbing points)
PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Land Based Rigs


European Style, Fixed Lead with Fixed Bottom Brace

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(Driving Aft Batter with Hydraulic Hammer)
PILE INSTALLATION EQUIPMENTS

Land Based Rigs


European Style, Fixed Lead on Crawler Lower

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DRIVEN PILE INSTALLATION

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BORED PILE INSTALLATION

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PILE QUALITY

Two aspects of final quality of pile:


– Structural integrity of pile.
– Pile ability to support external load, consist of
strength of structure element and relationship
load-settlement between pile and soil support

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STATIC LOADING TEST

TEST METHODS
– Use Static Load
– The load is 200% of working load
– Preparation before testing
– Loading
– Measurement of pile movement
– Instrumentation

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STATIC LOADING TEST

• Loading Methods
– Standard Method of Loading-SML, Monotonic
– Standard Method of Loading-SML, cyclic
– Quick Load Test (Quick ML)
– Constant Rate of Penetration Method (CRP)

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STATIC LOADING TEST

Typical arrangements for


axial compressive load
test

Anchor Pile

Dead Load

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STATIC LOADING TEST

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STATIC LOADING TEST

Test load arrangement


using kentledge

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DYNAMIC LOADING TEST

• PDA (Pile Driving Analyzer)


• DLT (Dynamic Load Test), TNO
• Theory of wave propagation

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DYNAMIC LOADING TEST
PDA computer Strain gauge and
accelerometer

Interpretation
of PDA result

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PULL OUT TESTS

Pullout load by using


hydraulic jack between
beam and reaction frame
(ASTM D 3689-83, 1989)

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PULL OUT TESTS

Pullout load by using


hydraulic jack, one at
each end of the beam
(ASTM D 3689-83,
1989)

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PULL OUT TESTS

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LATERAL LOADING TEST

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LATERAL LOADING TEST

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PILE INTEGRITY TEST

• This test is needed to check the integrity of bored pile or driven


pile.
• Some methods generally adopted is by using the principle of
wave propagation. The test is carried out by applying vibration
and evaluating its reflection.
• Through this test, the defect on pile will be able to detect.

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PILE INTEGRITY TEST

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