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Solid fuel preparation and handling:

Introduction & Basics


Solid fuel handling & preparation workshop

6-Jun-17
Solid fuel preparation and handling
Unloading

Crushing Loading

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Solid fuel preparation and handling
Open Storage Aux. Dedusting

Conveying

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A log from a cement plant in the same region which
requested a support visit…

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Coal used

 Any similarities with your coal?

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Observations during the visit
 Dust sources (in the overall coal unloading & transport).
 Wet dust suppresion system installed (at truck unloading) but
out of operation.
 Auxiliary bag filters installed but out of operation.
 Accumulated material.
 Spillage from transport equipment all over.
 Dust accumulation in buildings (on machinery, floor, cable trays,
beams, structure…)
 Accumulated material in hoppers and chutes.

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Accumulation of fine material…

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Accumulation of fine material…

On cable trays and electrical Here was last month


cables a spontaneous fire…

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What’s the difference?

Here was last month


a spontaneous fire…

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Why the auxiliary bag filters where stopped?

Outside buildings

Inside buildings

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Why the wet fog dust suppression system was
stopped?

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Why spillage was not collected and removed?

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Why accumulated material was not removed?

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Short Case study:
 Discuss in groups:
 Why the auxiliary bag filters where stopped?
 Why the wet fog dust suppression system was stopped?
 Why spillage was not collected and removed?
 Why accumulated material was not removed?

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Key Message
 Do not underestimate the risk of fire and explosion of combustible
(high volatile) materials.
 Housekeeping, spillage and dust matters.
 Coal mill, coal mill bag house and fine coal bins (and their safety
concept and its realisations) are not the only areas of concerns. It
is the entire coal handling chain.
 The overall coal safety does not deal with fail-safe protection. The
individuals of the organisation play the most important role in it.
 Maintenance/availability of key equipment (e.g. protection, detection
equipment).
 Risk analyse before executing jobs.
 Housekeeping…
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Basics

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Key Points
 Spillage, material accumulation and dust sources are the most
critical contributor for fire and explosion incidents in the solid
fuel preparation and handling section.
 Often they can not be completely eliminated but reduced.

 Housekeeping and organizational behavior is the key for safe


operation.

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Remember: Mechanism to control
 Fire / Explosion Prevention (active explosion protection)
• Measures to eliminate at least one factor of the fire / explosion triangle

Ignition
Ignition source
source

 Ex-protected Equipment &


Electrical Installations (ATEX)
 Grounding / Lightning Protection

Combustble
Combustble Oxygen
Oxygen
 Measures preventing Flame
Propagation
 Housekeeping  Organizational & Personnel
 Dedusting Measures
 Ventilation

 Inertisation
Oxygen
Focus of this presentation Ignition source

Combustible

Cost of measure
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Combustible elimination: Housekeeping
 Removal of spillage and accumulated dust is very important due
to spontaneous self ignition.
 Fine material (dust and fine spillage) ignites faster than lumps.

Smoldering fire of fines in the mill Smoldering fire in storage yard


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Combustible elimination: Housekeeping
 Remember: Spontaneous ignition is also applicable for material
accumulation.

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Combustible elimination: Housekeeping
 Removal of spillage and dust accumulations…
 Frequent cleaning with portable/fixed vacuum cleaners (ATEX
rated).
 Do not use compressed air for cleaning (risk of explosion)
 Minor but steady dust leaks must be stooped by addressing the root
cause (risk of secondary dust explosions).
 Helps also to prevent the “Ignition source” (smouldering fire).

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Combustible elimination: Dedusting
 Dedudsting removes combustible accumulation at the source
AND removes the dispersion transferring it into a explosion-safe
designed equipment.

This is dangerous and can


turn in a fire

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Combustible elimination: Ventilation / Dedusting /
Housekeeping
 In a semi-open construction the natural air change is enough.
 In a closed room an air-change rate of 3 – 10 times/h is required
(rate depending on local law).
 To reduce the risk of secondary explosions, combustible dust
layers inside the storage / conveyor galley / transfer tower etc..
must be prevented.

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Summary
 Spillage, material accumulation and dust have to be controlled if
else they can turn into fires or explosions.

 Techniques to reduce those are explained under: Basic


technologies to reduce spillage, material accumulation and dust.

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