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INTRODUCTION

Automated vehicles are technological development in the


field of automobiles. Although the automated vehicles are for
ease of humankind yet they are the most expensive vehicles.
In the paper considering the different features and the cost, on
a small scale a three wheel Vehicular Robotic prototype has
been designed that will automatically reach the destination of
another vehicle to which it is supposed to follow.
We have focused on two applications of an Automated
Vehicles here and designed a prototype vehicle for that.
The one major issue is during heavy traffic a driver has
to continuously push brake, accelerator and clutch to move
to destination slowly.
We have proposed a solution to relaxthe driver in that situation by making vehicle smart enough
to make decisions automatically and move by maintaining a
specified distance from vehicles and obstacles around.
The second issue is when two vehicles have the same
destination but one of the drivers doesn’t know its route. The
driver can make his vehicle follow the front vehicle if they are
known and share their location to reach the same destination.
A three-wheeled Mobile Robot is used for research is given.
The Mobile Robot consists of multiple sensors, which helps it
to communicate with Google Maps API (Application Program
Interface) and makes it determine obstacles in order to follow
the route and move smoothly. The Mobile Robot connects
directly to Google Maps API using GPRS Module, gets route
and moves in that direction. While the ultrasonic sensors,
which have been used for prototype design, helps to avoid
obstacles on run time.
The traffic situation in Pakistan leads to design this project
prototype, which aims at relaxing driver and creating an
automated vehicle whose destination is dynamic unlike Google
car, whose destination is static and fixed. This research has
been a need for Pakistan if implemented in real time.
The remaining paper is organized as the Section II shows
the related work done in this field. Later we have discussed
our methodology to implement this idea and solve the issue in
Section III. Then we have shown performance analysis of our
Mobile Robot in Section IV and finally, we have concluded
the paper in Section V.
After the development of the autopilot airplanes [1], selfdriven
sailboats and ships; the deceptively modest dream that
has rarely ventured beyond the pages of science fiction since
BRIEF HISTORY

1920s
In 1925, HOUDINA RADIO CONTROL demonstrated the radio-controlled "American Wonder" on
New York City streets,
traveling up Broadway and down Fifth Avenue through the thick of the traffic jam.
The American Wonder was a 1926 Chandler that was equipped with a transmitting antennae on
the tonneau and was operated
by a second car that followed it and sent out radio impulses which were caught by the transmitting antennae.
The antennae introduced the signals to circuit-breakers which operated small electric motors that
directed every movement of the car.
Achen Motor, a distributor of cars in Milwaukee and surrounding territory,
used Francis' invention under the name
"Phantom Auto" and demonstrated it in December 1926 on the streets of Milwaukee.
It was demonstrated again in June 1932 on
the streets of Fredericksburg as a feature attraction of Bigger Bargain Day in
which most of the merchants of
the city were participating.
1980s
In the 1980s, a vision-guided Mercedes-Benz robotic van, designed by Ernst Dickmanns and his team at the Bundeswehr
University Munich in
Munich, Germany, achieved a speed of 39 miles per hour (63 km/h) on streets without traffic.Subsequently, EUREKA
conducted the €749,000,000
Prometheus Project on autonomous vehicles from 1987 to 1995.
In the same decade, the DARPA-funded Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV) project in the United States made use of new
technologies developed
by the University of Maryland, Carnegie Mellon University, the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Martin
Marietta and SRI International.
The ALV project achieved the first road-following demonstration that used lidar, computer vision and autonomous robotic
control to direct a robotic vehicle
at speeds of up to 19 miles per hour (31 km/h). In 1987, HRL Laboratories (formerly Hughes Research Labs) demonstrated
the first off-road map and
sensor-based autonomous navigation on the ALV. The vehicle traveled over 2,000 feet (610 m) at 1.9 miles per hour
(3.1 km/h) on complex terrain with
steep slopes, ravines, large rocks, and vegetation. By 1989, Carnegie Mellon University had pioneered the use of neural
networks to steer and otherwise
control autonomous vehicles,forming the basis of contemporary control strategies.
WORKING AND CONCEPT

Autonomous Vehicles primarily consist of 3 components


1.Perception
2.Localization
3.Motion Planning & Control

1) Perception
This deals with the vehicle learning to perceive its environment, like the road segmentation, humans and
other vehicles near it.
Two things happen - data acquisition, data processing.
Primarily three types of sensors are in use today for data acquisition.

1.1 LIDAR - Laser based sensor which gives a high frequency (generally 3D point cloud of the environment.
It measures distances by illuminating the target with laser light, and reading the reflected pulses with a sensor.
Commonly used in Waymo and Uber’s Self driving cars, they are very accurate.
Alas, they are really expensive to produce with current technology on a large scale.
1.2. RADAR - TESLA uses this technology in their L2,L3 autopilot systems, and
they are generally much cheaper than LIDAR sensors.
They are however harder to get to work accurately.
1.3. Cameras - The cheapest, as well as the noisest of the lot. If we plan to get cheap self driving
cars with
current electronic technology, it is pivotal we use cameras in our perception module effectively
due to their low cost.
For data processing, generally machine learning and computer vision is used to process the data
received.
They segment the road, detect objects etc. When dealing with image data, things are generally
more complicated.
Some ongoing state-of-the art research in computer vision can be seen at the yearly organized
CVPR, ICCV,
and other conferences.Recent Deep-Learning trend has made working with image data more
accurate and feasible.
2) Localization
Aim of this module is to localize the vehicle with respect to its environment - - know its position accurately enough to
navigate to its target.
We process data from several of the sensors above, and sometimes perform SLAM - Simultaneous Localization and
Mapping.

GPS is often used to get a rough global estimate of the vehicle’s position, and Kalman filters, particle filters etc. are used to
fuse the information from the other sensors and get accurate localization.
3) Motion Planning & Control

Motion planning deals with giving the vehicle a trajectory to move, taking into account the target position, and the position
of the obstacles.
It’s goal is to ensure the path given is collision-free, and if not, it re-plans in real time to take into account sudden changes.
(person moving suddenly).
Commonly simple motion planners are sampling based (RRT*, D* etc.)
Control in a self-driving vehicle generally deals with the problem of controlling the steering, breaks etc. Given a path to
follow by the motion planning algorithm, what sequence of steering rotations, acceleration should be given to follow that
path?
Control can either be model-based, or model-free. Model based control assumes you have an accurate dynamics model of the
vehicle, but generally work better in practice. Model-free control learn the dynamics of the vehicle by interaction with road,
but generally they do not provide any guarantees on performance.
The advantage of having such a common modular approach to self-driving is they can improved independently. If something
goes wrong, we can generally attribute this error to either of these modules and work on them.
However, this has not stopped companies from having a non-modular approach, and using an end-to-end approach to self-
driving.
Advantages

•Avoid accidents
•Current location can be easily identified by GPS
•Manage traffic Flow.
•Increasing Roadway capacity.
Disadvantage
• If the user is using internet with less security then it can be
caught by the hackers.
• Hackers can turn system on or off.
• Hackers can change the route.
• In case of failure in main senor and backup sensor the
vehicle can create chances of accidents.
CONCLUSION

•The driverless car improves vehicle’s stability


helps to minimize the loss of control.
•Main aim is to minimize the road accidents