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Fifth SI Edition

MECHANICS OF
MATERIALS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf
Topic 1:
David F. Mazurek

Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Concept of Stress
Texas Tech University

Modified by:
Tracy Dong Ruan
Swinburne University
of Technology
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Contents
1. Review of Statics
Free-Body Diagram (FBD) and Force Triangle

2. Concept of Stress

3. Normal Stress
Axial Loading
Centric & Eccentric Loading

4. Shearing Stress
Transverse Loading

Single & double shear

5. Bearing Stress in Connections

6. Factor of Safety

7. Stress Analysis & Design Example


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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

1. Review of Statics
Example 1:

• The structure is designed to


support a 30 kN load

• The structure consists of a


boom and rod joined by pins at
the junctions and supports

• Perform a static analysis to


determine the internal force in
each structural member and the
reaction forces at the supports

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics
Method 1 : Free-body diagram (FBD)
• Free-body diagram: structure is detached
from supports and the loads and reaction
forces are indicated.
• Conditions for static equilibrium:
 MC  0 Ax 0.6 m  30 kN0.8 m  0
A x  40 kN
 Fx  0 A x  Cx  0
Cx  Ax  40 kN
 Fy 0 A y  C y  30 kN  0
A y  C y  30 kN

• Ay and Cy can not be determined from


these equations.

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics
Free-body diagram (FBD) of a component

• In addition to the complete structure, each


component must satisfy the conditions for
static equilibrium.

• Consider a free-body diagram for the boom AB:


 M B  0   A y 0.8 m 
Ay  0

substitute into the structure equilibrium


equation
C y  30 kN

• Results:
Bx A  40 kN  C x  40 kN  C y  30 kN 
FAB  Ax  40 kN(tension)
FBC  402  302 kN  50kN (compression)
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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics
Two-force members:

Cy

• The boom and rod are 2-force members, i.e.,


Cx the members are subjected to only two forces
which are applied at member ends.

• For equilibrium, the forces must be parallel to


to an axis between the force application points,
equal in magnitude, and in opposite directions.

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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics
Method 2 : Force triangle

• Pin B is in equilibrium by drawing


the corresponding force triangle:

FAB FBC 30 kN
• FBD of pin B:  
4 5 3
FAB  40 kN FBC  50 kN

Tensile force: “pull”, acts away from the pin


Compressive force: “push”, acts towards the pin

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Sine Law

A general format of
Sine law behind the
force triangle

FAB FBC 30 kN
 
a b c

FAB F 30 kN
 BC 
SinA SinB SinC

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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of statics

Method 1 : Free-body diagram (FBD)


the whole structure
a structural component
a joint / pin

Method 2 : Force triangle


a joint / pin

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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Introduction of representation of material properties

Here are several questions for you to consider

Could internal force be used to represent the inherent


properties of materials such as yield, fracture, break, etc?

Could the dimension of the engineering to be used to predict


the failure of materials?

Neither can do!

So, what can we use to represent these inherent properties of


materials ?

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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

2. Concept of Stress

a. The force per unit area, or intensity of


the forces distributed over a given section, is
called the stress :
P

A

b. Units: Pa, MPa, GPa.

1 Pa = 1 N/m2
1 MPa = 106 Pa
1 GPa = 109 Pa

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept of Stress

c. Signs: positive sign – tensile stress (rod BC)


negative sign – compressive stress (boom AB)

d. Whether or not a component will break under the given loading depends on:
the force
the cross-sectional area
the material of the component

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept of Stress
Example 2: Let us assume that rod BC is made of steel with
a maximum allowable stress  all  165 MPa .
Can rod BC safely support the load to which it
dBC = 20 mm will be subjected?
• From previous statics analysis (Example 1)
FAB = 40 kN (compression)
FBC = 50 kN (tension)

• At any section through member BC, the


internal force is 50 kN with a stress of
20mm 2
A  r 2   ( )   (10 10 3 m) 2  314 10 6 m 2
2

P 50 103 N
 BC    159 MPa
A 314 10-6 m2
• Conclusion: the stress is smaller than the
allowable stress,  all  165MPa , thus the
strength of member BC is adequate.
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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept of Stress
• Design of new structures requires selection of
Example 3: appropriate materials and component dimensions
to meet performance requirements
• For reasons based on cost, weight, availability,
etc., the choice is made to construct the rod from
aluminum all= 100 MPa). What is an
appropriate choice for the rod diameter?
P P 50 103 N
 all  A   500  10 6
m 2

A all 100 106 Pa


d2
A
4

d
4A


4 500 106 m 2 
 2.52 102 m  25.2 mm
 
• An aluminum rod 26 mm or more in diameter is
adequate.
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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

3. Normal Stress
a. In the previous example, rod BC is a two-force member,
the force are directed along the axis of the rod, we say the
rod is under axial loading. The resultant internal forces
for an axially loaded member is normal to a section cut
perpendicular to the member axis.

b. The corresponding stress is defined as the normal


stress in a member under axial loading,
P
 ave 
A

c. The normal stress at a particular point is


F
  lim
A0 A

In general, it may not be equal to the average stress and


it is found to vary across the section. However the
resultant of the stress distribution must satisfy
P   ave A   dF    dA
A

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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Axial Loading: Normal Stress

d. In a slender rod subjected to equal and opposite


concentrated loads P and P’, this variation is small in the
section away from the points of application of
concentrated loads, but it is quite noticeable in the
neighborhood of these points.

e. The detailed distribution of stress is statically


indeterminate, i.e., can not be found from statics alone.
In practice, it will be assumed that the distribution of
normal stresses in an axially loaded member is
uniform.

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Axial Loading: Normal Stress


f. Centric & eccentric loading
• A uniform distribution of stress in a section
infers that the line of action for the resultant of
the internal forces passes through the centroid
of the section.
• A uniform distribution of stress is only
possible if the concentrated loads on the end
sections of two-force members are applied at
the section centroids. This is referred to as
centric loading.
• If a two-force member is eccentrically loaded,
then the resultant of the stress distribution in a
section must yield an axial force and a
moment.
• The stress distributions in eccentrically loaded
members cannot be uniform or symmetric.

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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

4. Shearing Stress
• Forces P and P’ are applied transversely to the
member AB.

• Corresponding internal forces act in the plane


of section C are called shearing forces.

• The resultant of the internal shear force is


defined as the shear of the section and is equal to
the load P.

• The corresponding average shearing stress is,


P
 ave 
A

• The shearing stress distribution cannot be assumed


to be uniform.

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Shearing Stress
Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts, pins and rivets used to
Shearing stress examples : connect various structural members and machine components.

Single Shear Double Shear

P F P F
 ave    ave  
A A A 2A
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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Shearing Stress

Shearing stress examples :

Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts, pins and rivets used to connect various
structural members and machine components.

Consider the two plates A and B, which are connected by a bolt CD. If the plates are
subjected to tension forces of magnitude F, stresses will develop in the section of bolt
corresponding to the plane EE’. Drawing the diagram of the bolt and of the portion
located above the plane EE’, we conclude that the shearing P in the section is equal to F.
The average shearing stress in the section is obtained. (single shear)

If splice plates C and D are used to connect plates A and B, shear will take place in bolt HJ
in each of the two planes KK’ and LL’ (and similarly in bolt EG). The bolts are said to be
in double shear. To determine the average shearing stress in each plane,we draw free-body
diagrams of bolt HJ and of the portion of bolt located between the two planes.

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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

5. Bearing Stress in Connections

• Bolts, rivets, and pins create


stresses in the members they
connect, along the bearing
surfaces, or surfaces of contact.

• an average nominal value of


stress, called the bearing stress,
P P
b  
A td

where, A is the projection of the


bolt on the plate section and is
equal to td.

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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Contents for today’s lecture


6. Factor of Safety

a. Definition
b. Relation to stress-strain curves
c. Determination of F.S .

7. Stress Analysis & Design Example


a. Checking elements
b. Members with fastener holes
c. Pins loaded by several forces

8. Comparison between different failure types


a. Axial loads
b. Shearing Loads

9. Test equipments for material properties

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

6. Factor of Safety
Ultimate load: the largest load that a member can carry, Pu.
Ultimate strength: Pu
u 
A
Allowable load: The maximum load that a member will be allowed to carry,
sometimes is referred as working load or design load.

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Factor of Safety

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Factor of Safety
Factor of safety: the ratio of the ultimate load to the allowable load

or the ratio of the ultimate stress to the allowable stress


F .O.S or F .S .  Factor of safety

Pu ultimate load u ultimate stress


F .S .   F .S .  
Fall allowable load  all allowable stress

If ultimate load or ultimate stress is not given, then


PY yield load Y yield stress
F.S.   F.S.  
Pworking working force  working working (or actual) stress

Structural members must be designed such that the working stresses are less than
the ultimate strength of the material. Thus, only a fraction of the ultimate load
capacity of the member is utilized when the allowable load is applied. The
remaining portion of the load-carrying capacity of the member is kept in reserve
to assure its safe performance.
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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Factor of Safety

Selection of an appropriate F.S. :


It is the most important engineering task.
If F.S. is chosen too small, the possibility of failure becomes unacceptable large.
If F.S. is chosen too large, the result is an uneconomical or un-functional design.

The choice of F.S. requires engineering judgment based on many considerations,


such as:
• uncertainty in material properties / loadings / analyses
• number of loading cycles
• types of failure
• maintenance requirements and deterioration effects
• risk to life and property
• importance of member to structures integrity
• influence on machine function
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Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

7. Stress Analysis and Design Example


The 20-mm diameter rod
BC has flat end of 20 x 40-
mm rectangular cross
section, while boom AB has
a 30x50-mm rectangular
cross section and is fitted
with a clevis at end B. Both
members are connected by
B by a pin from which the
30-kN load is suspended by
means of a U-shaped
bracket. Boom AB is
supported at A by a pin
fitted into double bracket,
while rod BC is connected
at C to a single bracket. All
pins are 25 mm in diameter.

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Stress Analysis and Design Example


Example 4:
• Determine the stresses in
the members and
connections of the structure
shown.

• From a statics analysis:


FAB = 40 kN (compression)
FBC = 50 kN (tension)

• Must consider maximum


normal stresses in AB and
BC, and the shearing stress
and bearing stress at each
pinned connection

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Stress Analysis and Design Example


a. Rod & boom normal stresses

• The rod BC is in tension with an axial force of 50 kN.

• At the rod center, the average normal stress is:

20mm 2
A  r 2   ( )   (10 10 3 m) 2  314 10 6 m 2
2
P 50 103 N
 BC    159 MPa
A 314 10-6 m2

• At the flattened rod ends, the smallest cross-sectional


area occurs at the pin centerline,
A  20 mm40 mm  25 mm  300 10 6 m 2

P 50 103 N
 BC,end    167 MPa
A 300 10 6 m 2

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

If there are fastener holes in structural members, the correct area


to consider depends on whether the member is in Tension or
Compression :

Tension:
Check the minimum area for all sections baring the
tensile force

Compression:
Check baring stress requirement
Check average normal stress requirement

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Calculate normal stress in tension members


For Tension members we use
Force (on pin) the Reduced Tensile area.

tensile stress tensile stress

bearing stress

reduced tensile area


(cross section)

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Calculate normal stress in compression members

But for Compression members


Force (on pin) we use the Nominal area.
bearing stress

compressive /
nominal stress

nominal area
(cross section)
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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Stress Analysis and Design Example

• The boom AB is in compression with an axial force of 40 kN

P 40 103 N 40 103 N
 AB    3
 26.7 MPa
A 30mm  50mm 1.5 10 m 2

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Stress Analysis and Design Example


b. Pin shearing stresses
• The cross-sectional area for pins at A, B,
and C,
2
 25 mm  6 2
A r 
2
  491 10 m
 2 

• The force on the pin at C is equal to the


force exerted by the rod BC,
FBC P 50 103 N
C,ave    6
 102 MPa
A A 49110 m 2

• The pin at A is in double shear with a


total force equal to the force exerted by
the boom AB,
FAB FAB / 2 P 20 kN
 A ,ave     6
 40.7 MPa
2A A A 49110 m 2

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Stress Analysis and Design Example

• Divide the pin at B into sections


to determine the section with the
largest shear force,
PE  15 kN
PG  25 kN (largest)

• Evaluate the corresponding


average shearing stress,

PG 25 kN
 B, ave    6 2
 50.9 MPa
A 491 10 m

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Stress Analysis and Design Example


c. Rod bearing stresses
• To determine the bearing stress at A in
the boom AB,
we have t = 30 mm and d = 25 mm,

P 40 kN
b    53.3 MPa
td 30 mm 25 mm 

• To determine the bearing stress at A in the


bracket,
we have t = 2(25 mm) = 50 mm and d = 25 mm,

P 40 kN
b    32.0 MPa
td 50 mm25 mm

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Tensile failure at different location

Tensile failure in the middle of Tensile failure at the section


the rod with minimum section area

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Comparison between single shear and double shear

Double shear Single shear failure


failure

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Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Summary of formulae and sample problems


Normal Stress: P A will be the reduced area for member
 in tension and nominal area for
A member in compression.

Shearing Stress: single shear double shear


P F P F
 ave    ave  
A A A 2A
Bearing stress:
P P
b  
A td

Factor of safety:
Pu ultimate load u ultimate stress
F .S .   F .S .  
Fall allowable load  all allowable stress

Examples 1, 2, 3 and 4
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