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# Fifth SI Edition

MECHANICS OF
MATERIALS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf
Topic 1:
David F. Mazurek

Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Concept of Stress
Texas Tech University

Modified by:
Tracy Dong Ruan
Swinburne University
of Technology
Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Contents
1. Review of Statics
Free-Body Diagram (FBD) and Force Triangle

2. Concept of Stress

3. Normal Stress

4. Shearing Stress

## 5. Bearing Stress in Connections

6. Factor of Safety

## 7. Stress Analysis & Design Example

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

1. Review of Statics
Example 1:

## • The structure consists of a

boom and rod joined by pins at
the junctions and supports

## • Perform a static analysis to

determine the internal force in
each structural member and the
reaction forces at the supports

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics
Method 1 : Free-body diagram (FBD)
• Free-body diagram: structure is detached
from supports and the loads and reaction
forces are indicated.
• Conditions for static equilibrium:
 MC  0 Ax 0.6 m  30 kN0.8 m  0
A x  40 kN
 Fx  0 A x  Cx  0
Cx  Ax  40 kN
 Fy 0 A y  C y  30 kN  0
A y  C y  30 kN

## • Ay and Cy can not be determined from

these equations.

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics
Free-body diagram (FBD) of a component

## • In addition to the complete structure, each

component must satisfy the conditions for
static equilibrium.

## • Consider a free-body diagram for the boom AB:

 M B  0   A y 0.8 m 
Ay  0

## substitute into the structure equilibrium

equation
C y  30 kN

• Results:
Bx A  40 kN  C x  40 kN  C y  30 kN 
FAB  Ax  40 kN(tension)
FBC  402  302 kN  50kN (compression)
Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics
Two-force members:

Cy

## • The boom and rod are 2-force members, i.e.,

Cx the members are subjected to only two forces
which are applied at member ends.

## • For equilibrium, the forces must be parallel to

to an axis between the force application points,
equal in magnitude, and in opposite directions.

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics
Method 2 : Force triangle

## • Pin B is in equilibrium by drawing

the corresponding force triangle:

FAB FBC 30 kN
• FBD of pin B:  
4 5 3
FAB  40 kN FBC  50 kN

## Tensile force: “pull”, acts away from the pin

Compressive force: “push”, acts towards the pin

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Sine Law

A general format of
Sine law behind the
force triangle

FAB FBC 30 kN
 
a b c

FAB F 30 kN
 BC 
SinA SinB SinC

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of statics

## Method 1 : Free-body diagram (FBD)

the whole structure
a structural component
a joint / pin

## Method 2 : Force triangle

a joint / pin

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## Could internal force be used to represent the inherent

properties of materials such as yield, fracture, break, etc?

## Could the dimension of the engineering to be used to predict

the failure of materials?

## So, what can we use to represent these inherent properties of

materials ?

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

2. Concept of Stress

## a. The force per unit area, or intensity of

the forces distributed over a given section, is
called the stress :
P

A

## b. Units: Pa, MPa, GPa.

1 Pa = 1 N/m2
1 MPa = 106 Pa
1 GPa = 109 Pa

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept of Stress

## c. Signs: positive sign – tensile stress (rod BC)

negative sign – compressive stress (boom AB)

d. Whether or not a component will break under the given loading depends on:
the force
the cross-sectional area
the material of the component

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept of Stress
Example 2: Let us assume that rod BC is made of steel with
a maximum allowable stress  all  165 MPa .
Can rod BC safely support the load to which it
dBC = 20 mm will be subjected?
• From previous statics analysis (Example 1)
FAB = 40 kN (compression)
FBC = 50 kN (tension)

## • At any section through member BC, the

internal force is 50 kN with a stress of
20mm 2
A  r 2   ( )   (10 10 3 m) 2  314 10 6 m 2
2

P 50 103 N
 BC    159 MPa
A 314 10-6 m2
• Conclusion: the stress is smaller than the
allowable stress,  all  165MPa , thus the
strength of member BC is adequate.
Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept of Stress
• Design of new structures requires selection of
Example 3: appropriate materials and component dimensions
to meet performance requirements
• For reasons based on cost, weight, availability,
etc., the choice is made to construct the rod from
aluminum all= 100 MPa). What is an
appropriate choice for the rod diameter?
P P 50 103 N
 all  A   500  10 6
m 2

## A all 100 106 Pa

d2
A
4

d
4A

4 500 106 m 2 
 2.52 102 m  25.2 mm
 
• An aluminum rod 26 mm or more in diameter is
Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

3. Normal Stress
a. In the previous example, rod BC is a two-force member,
the force are directed along the axis of the rod, we say the
for an axially loaded member is normal to a section cut
perpendicular to the member axis.

P
 ave 
A

F
  lim
A0 A

## In general, it may not be equal to the average stress and

it is found to vary across the section. However the
resultant of the stress distribution must satisfy
P   ave A   dF    dA
A

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## d. In a slender rod subjected to equal and opposite

concentrated loads P and P’, this variation is small in the
section away from the points of application of
concentrated loads, but it is quite noticeable in the
neighborhood of these points.

## e. The detailed distribution of stress is statically

indeterminate, i.e., can not be found from statics alone.
In practice, it will be assumed that the distribution of
normal stresses in an axially loaded member is
uniform.

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• A uniform distribution of stress in a section
infers that the line of action for the resultant of
the internal forces passes through the centroid
of the section.
• A uniform distribution of stress is only
possible if the concentrated loads on the end
sections of two-force members are applied at
the section centroids. This is referred to as
• If a two-force member is eccentrically loaded,
then the resultant of the stress distribution in a
section must yield an axial force and a
moment.
• The stress distributions in eccentrically loaded
members cannot be uniform or symmetric.

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

4. Shearing Stress
• Forces P and P’ are applied transversely to the
member AB.

## • Corresponding internal forces act in the plane

of section C are called shearing forces.

## • The resultant of the internal shear force is

defined as the shear of the section and is equal to

P
 ave 
A

## • The shearing stress distribution cannot be assumed

to be uniform.

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Shearing Stress
Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts, pins and rivets used to
Shearing stress examples : connect various structural members and machine components.

## Single Shear Double Shear

P F P F
 ave    ave  
A A A 2A
Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Shearing Stress

## Shearing stress examples :

Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts, pins and rivets used to connect various
structural members and machine components.

Consider the two plates A and B, which are connected by a bolt CD. If the plates are
subjected to tension forces of magnitude F, stresses will develop in the section of bolt
corresponding to the plane EE’. Drawing the diagram of the bolt and of the portion
located above the plane EE’, we conclude that the shearing P in the section is equal to F.
The average shearing stress in the section is obtained. (single shear)

If splice plates C and D are used to connect plates A and B, shear will take place in bolt HJ
in each of the two planes KK’ and LL’ (and similarly in bolt EG). The bolts are said to be
in double shear. To determine the average shearing stress in each plane,we draw free-body
diagrams of bolt HJ and of the portion of bolt located between the two planes.

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## • Bolts, rivets, and pins create

stresses in the members they
connect, along the bearing
surfaces, or surfaces of contact.

## • an average nominal value of

stress, called the bearing stress,
P P
b  
A td

## where, A is the projection of the

bolt on the plate section and is
equal to td.

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## Contents for today’s lecture

6. Factor of Safety

a. Definition
b. Relation to stress-strain curves
c. Determination of F.S .

## 7. Stress Analysis & Design Example

a. Checking elements
b. Members with fastener holes
c. Pins loaded by several forces

## 9. Test equipments for material properties

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

6. Factor of Safety
Ultimate strength: Pu
u 
A
Allowable load: The maximum load that a member will be allowed to carry,

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Factor of Safety

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Factor of Safety
Factor of safety: the ratio of the ultimate load to the allowable load

## or the ratio of the ultimate stress to the allowable stress

F .O.S or F .S .  Factor of safety

## Pu ultimate load u ultimate stress

F .S .   F .S .  
Fall allowable load  all allowable stress

## If ultimate load or ultimate stress is not given, then

PY yield load Y yield stress
F.S.   F.S.  
Pworking working force  working working (or actual) stress

Structural members must be designed such that the working stresses are less than
the ultimate strength of the material. Thus, only a fraction of the ultimate load
capacity of the member is utilized when the allowable load is applied. The
remaining portion of the load-carrying capacity of the member is kept in reserve
to assure its safe performance.
Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Factor of Safety

## Selection of an appropriate F.S. :

It is the most important engineering task.
If F.S. is chosen too small, the possibility of failure becomes unacceptable large.
If F.S. is chosen too large, the result is an uneconomical or un-functional design.

## The choice of F.S. requires engineering judgment based on many considerations,

such as:
• types of failure
• maintenance requirements and deterioration effects
• risk to life and property
• importance of member to structures integrity
• influence on machine function
Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## 7. Stress Analysis and Design Example

The 20-mm diameter rod
BC has flat end of 20 x 40-
mm rectangular cross
section, while boom AB has
a 30x50-mm rectangular
cross section and is fitted
with a clevis at end B. Both
members are connected by
B by a pin from which the
means of a U-shaped
bracket. Boom AB is
supported at A by a pin
fitted into double bracket,
while rod BC is connected
at C to a single bracket. All
pins are 25 mm in diameter.

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## Stress Analysis and Design Example

Example 4:
• Determine the stresses in
the members and
connections of the structure
shown.

## • From a statics analysis:

FAB = 40 kN (compression)
FBC = 50 kN (tension)

## • Must consider maximum

normal stresses in AB and
BC, and the shearing stress
and bearing stress at each
pinned connection

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## Stress Analysis and Design Example

a. Rod & boom normal stresses

## • At the rod center, the average normal stress is:

20mm 2
A  r 2   ( )   (10 10 3 m) 2  314 10 6 m 2
2
P 50 103 N
 BC    159 MPa
A 314 10-6 m2

## • At the flattened rod ends, the smallest cross-sectional

area occurs at the pin centerline,
A  20 mm40 mm  25 mm  300 10 6 m 2

P 50 103 N
 BC,end    167 MPa
A 300 10 6 m 2

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## If there are fastener holes in structural members, the correct area

to consider depends on whether the member is in Tension or
Compression :

Tension:
Check the minimum area for all sections baring the
tensile force

Compression:
Check baring stress requirement
Check average normal stress requirement

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## Calculate normal stress in tension members

For Tension members we use
Force (on pin) the Reduced Tensile area.

bearing stress

## reduced tensile area

(cross section)

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## But for Compression members

Force (on pin) we use the Nominal area.
bearing stress

compressive /
nominal stress

nominal area
(cross section)
Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## • The boom AB is in compression with an axial force of 40 kN

P 40 103 N 40 103 N
 AB    3
 26.7 MPa
A 30mm  50mm 1.5 10 m 2

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## Stress Analysis and Design Example

b. Pin shearing stresses
• The cross-sectional area for pins at A, B,
and C,
2
 25 mm  6 2
A r 
2
  491 10 m
 2 

## • The force on the pin at C is equal to the

force exerted by the rod BC,
FBC P 50 103 N
C,ave    6
 102 MPa
A A 49110 m 2

## • The pin at A is in double shear with a

total force equal to the force exerted by
the boom AB,
FAB FAB / 2 P 20 kN
 A ,ave     6
 40.7 MPa
2A A A 49110 m 2

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## • Divide the pin at B into sections

to determine the section with the
largest shear force,
PE  15 kN
PG  25 kN (largest)

## • Evaluate the corresponding

average shearing stress,

PG 25 kN
 B, ave    6 2
 50.9 MPa
A 491 10 m

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## Stress Analysis and Design Example

c. Rod bearing stresses
• To determine the bearing stress at A in
the boom AB,
we have t = 30 mm and d = 25 mm,

P 40 kN
b    53.3 MPa
td 30 mm 25 mm 

## • To determine the bearing stress at A in the

bracket,
we have t = 2(25 mm) = 50 mm and d = 25 mm,

P 40 kN
b    32.0 MPa
td 50 mm25 mm

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## Tensile failure in the middle of Tensile failure at the section

the rod with minimum section area

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## Double shear Single shear failure

failure

Edition
Fifth SI
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

## Summary of formulae and sample problems

Normal Stress: P A will be the reduced area for member
 in tension and nominal area for
A member in compression.

## Shearing Stress: single shear double shear

P F P F
 ave    ave  
A A A 2A
Bearing stress:
P P
b  
A td

Factor of safety:
Pu ultimate load u ultimate stress
F .S .   F .S .  
Fall allowable load  all allowable stress

Examples 1, 2, 3 and 4