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Republic of the Philippines

CENTRAL LUZON STATE UNIVERSITY


Science City of Muñoz Nueva Ecija
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

SOIL TEST AND


INVESTIGATION
CHAPTER 5
SITE INVESTIGATION

■ Site investigation refers to the procedures of


determining surface and subsurface conditions in
the area of the proposed construction.
FACTORS THAT MAY AFFECT
CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES
■ The thickness of vegetation, density and height of
trees
■ The disposal of removed surface materials
particularly in the urban areas
■ Surface water and drainage system
■ Availability of water supply and electric power
■ Proximity of major transportation route
■ Environmental regulations and zoning ordinances of
various government agencies
BORING AND PENETRATION
TEST
Boring test serve to provide a visual identification
of soil strata underlying an area by literally penetrating
into the earth. Subsurface materials are identified in
place or from samples that are taken at a known depth
and brought to the surface for examination.
1. AUGER BORING
■ The simplest device for bearing a hole in the ground
is through the auger. The two variety of hand auger
commonly used for soil identification are:
– The Helical Auger
– The Iwan or Post Hole Auger
■ A portable power driven helical auger is available
from 8cm. to 30cm. oftenly used for making deeper
holes
2. WASH BORING METHOD

■ The method applied in wash boring is to drive a


piece of metal tube with 5 cm. to 10 cm. diameter to
a depth of 1.50 m. to 3.00 meters.
■ This method is similar to the process of installing an
underground water pump where the pipe is cleaned
by wash pipe and water.
3. HALLOW STEM AUGER BORING

■ A truck mounted driving rig turn the auger into the


ground rapidly to a depth of more than 60 meters
using continuous flights of the auger with a hallow
stem where sampling tools are operated.
■ A 6 cm. to 8 cm. diameter auger is commonly used
for this boring.
4. ROTARY DRILLING

■ Rotary drilling is the most rapid method in


penetrating highly resistant materials such as rocks,
clay or even sand. The rotary boring diameter ranges
from 5 cm. to 20cm.
5. PERCUSSION DRILLING

■ Percussion drilling is sometimes called cable tool


drilling used when wash boring or auger boring could
not penetrate exceptionally hard strata of soil or
rocks.
EXCAVATION

■ Is simple as digging of soil after the final marking of


the building outline has been established on the
ground.
EXCAVATION WORK IN BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION IS CATEGORIZED INTO
TWO:
■ Shallow excavation
■ Deep excavation
SHALLOW EXCAVATION

■ Common and occupy the biggest percentage of


works in the field of construction
■ Residential houses and small commercial and
industrial building falls under this category.
■ Includes wall footing, independent wall or combined
footing and isolated footing
Column Footing Wall Footing
DEEP EXCAVATION

■ Requires deeper and sizeable or total extraction of


the earth
■ Bridges, dams and high rise buildings