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# BITUMINOUS MIX DESIGN

INTRODUCTION
Bituminous mixes (some times called asphalt mixes) are used in the surface
layer of road and airfield pavements. The mix is composed usually of aggregate
and asphalt cements. Some types of bituminous mixes are also used in base
coarse. The design of asphalt paving mix, as with the design of other
engineering materials is largely a matter of selecting and proportioning
constituent materials to obtain the desired properties in the finished pavement
structure.
The desirable properties of Asphalt mixes
Resistance to permanent deformation
Fatigue resistance
Resistance to low temperature cracking
Durability
Resistance to moisture-induced damage
Skid resistance.
Workability
Low noise and good drainage properties
MARSHALL STABILITY TEST
OBJECTIVE OF MIX DESIGN
The overall objective for the design of bituminous mix (DBM) is to determine
and economical blend and gradation of aggregates (within the limit of project
specification) and asphalt that yield a mix having

## 1) Sufficient asphalt to insure a durable pavement.

2) Sufficient mix stability to satisfy the demand of traffic without distortion or
displacement.
3) Sufficient voids in the total compacted mix to allow for a slight amount of
4) Sufficient workability to permit efficient placement of a mix without
segregation.
MARSHALL METHOD OF MIX DESIGN
In this method, the resistance to plastic deformation of a compacted cylindrical
specimen of bituminous mixture is measured when the specimen is loaded
diametrically at a deformation rate of 50.8 mm per minute.
There are two major features of the Marshall method of mix design.
(i) density-voids analysis
(ii) stability-flow tests.
 The Marshall stability of the mix is defined as the maximum load carried
by the specimen at a standard test temperature of 60°C.
 The flow value is the deformation that the test specimen undergoes during
 In this test, an attempt is made to obtain optimum binder content (OBC)
for the type of aggregate mix used and the expected traffic intensity
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1) Pans (Flat bottom or Rounded bottom)
2) Oven
3) Thermometer
4) Balance
5) Mixing spoon: - Spatula (large) or Trowel (small)
6) Compaction pedestal
7) Compaction mould
8) Compaction Hammer
9) Mould Holder
10) Extrusion Jack
11) Marshall Testing Machine
12) Water bath
Marshall Stability & Flow Test Setup Marshall Specimen Extractor
Determination of Physical properties of mix
materials
TEST ON AGGREGATES
The aggregates from different stockpiles are sieved and the properties required
of aggregates for the marshall mix design is calculated.

100

90

80

70

60

% passing
Kapchi
50 Grit
Semi Grit
40
Dust
30 Specification

20

10

0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Sieve Size
SIEVE ANALYSIS RESULT
Sieves
size(mm weight of aggregates % of aggregates cumulative % of cumulative % of
S.no. ) retained retained aggregates retained aggregates passing
1 63
2 53
3 45
4 26.5 0 0 0.0 100.0
5 22.4 487 4.9 4.9 95.1
6 19 1341 13.4 18.3 81.7
7 13.2 6194 0 61.9 0.0 80.2 0.0 19.8 100.0
8 11.2 1640 103 16.4 2.6 96.6 2.6 3.4 97.4
9 9.5 221 206 2.2 5.2 98.8 7.7 1.2 92.3
10 5.6 117 2922 1.2 73.1 100.0 80.8 0.0 19.2 100 100
11 4.75 174 50 12 4.4 2.5 0.6 85.1 2.5 0.6 14.9 97.5 99.4
12 2.36 517 239 0 12.9 12.0 0.0 98.1 14.5 0.6 2.0 85.6 99.4
13 1.18 55 1411 520 1.4 70.6 26.0 99.4 85.0 26.6 0.6 15.0 73.4
14 0.6 177 300 8.9 15.0 93.9 41.6 6.2 58.4
15 0.3 17 466 0.9 23.3 94.7 64.9 5.3 35.1
16 0.15 16 232 0.8 11.6 95.5 76.5 4.5 23.5
17 0.075 124 6.2 82.7 17.3
JOB MIX FORMULA

% of cumulative %
Sieve % of % of Semi % of by weight of
size kapchi Grit grit Dust total cumulative % by
passing passing passing kapchi aggregates mean of weight of total
(20mm) (10mm) (6mm) passing passing the aggregates passing
42 20 14 24 100 range As per MoRTH
37.5 42.0 20.0 14.0 24.0 100.0 100 100
26.5 42.0 20.0 14.0 24.0 100.0 95 90-100
19 34.3 20.0 14.0 24.0 92.3 83 71-95
13.2 8.3 20.0 14.0 24.0 66.3 68 56-80
4.75 3.0 24.4 23.9 51.2 46 38-54
2.36 0.4 12.0 23.9 36.2 35 28-42
0.3 0.7 8.4 9.2 14 7-21
0.075 0.6 4.2 4.8 5 2-8
Preparation of Sample
The coarse aggregate (42%), fine aggregate (34%),, and the filler material
(24%), should be proportioned so as to fulfill the requirements of the relevant
standards.
The required quantity of the mix is taken so as to produce compacted
bituminous mix specimens of thickness 63.5 mm approximately.
1250 gm of aggregates and filler are required to produce the desired
thickness. The aggregates are heated to a temperature of 175° to 190°C.
 the compaction mould assembly and rammer are cleaned and kept pre-
heated to a temperature of 100°C to 145°C.
The bitumen is heated to a temperature of 121°C to 138°C
the required amount of first trial of bitumen (3.75%-4.5% by weight ) is
added to the heated aggregate and thoroughly mixed.
Three samples are prepared for each % of bitumen
The mix is placed in a mould and compacted with 75 number of blows on
both the sides
The sample is taken out of the mould after keeping it for a night using
sample extractor.
Binding properties of plastic
 Characterization of Blend
 Separation test (IRC-SP: 53-1999)
Samples of different composition were prepared and subjected to the
separation test. The following observations were made on the basis of
their softening point values. Homogeneity was obtained approximately
up to 1.5% blend. Beyond this composition, the variation of softening
point was much higher for the top and bottom layer of the test samples
showing that there is a separation of polymer from bitumen on
standing.
 Determination of softening point (IS: 1205-1978)
The blend of different composition with different percentage of plastic
waste has been prepared and their softening points were determined as
given in Table-1. It is observed that the softening point increases by the
addition of plastic waste to the bitumen. Higher the percentage of
plastic waste added, higher is the softening point. The influence over
the softening point may be due to the chemical nature of polymers
 Penetration Test: (IS: 1203-1978)

##  Samples having different percentage of plastic waste in bitumen were prepared

and their penetration values determined as per the IS Code given in Table-2.
The penetration values of blends are decreasing depending upon the
percentage of polymers and the type of polymer added the increase in the
percentage of polymer decreases the penetration value. This shows that the
addition of polymer increases the hardness of the bitumen.
 Ductility
Table-3 shows that the ductility is decreasing by the addition of plastic waste to
Bitumen. The decrease in the ductility value may be due to interlocking of
polymer molecules with bitumen.
 Flash and fire point (IS: 1209-1978)
The studies of flash and fire points of the plastic waste-bitumen blend helps to
understand the inflammability nature of the blend. Flash & fire point of plain
Bitumen is 175-2100C. From the experimental results it is observed that the
inflammability of the blend is decreasing as the percentage of polymer
increases. The blend has developed better resistance to burning.
 Marshall Stability Test
The specimen was prepared as per the IRC
specification using plastic waste-blended bitumen.
This shows that plastic waste-bitumen blend has
higher strength compared to pure bitumen, whose
value is approx. 1200Kg

## Moreover, the Marshall Quotient is also within the

range of tolerance, thus showing that the plastic waste
(polyethylene) blended bitumen mix is better and
more suitable for flexible pavement construction.