Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 56

Bahir Dar University

School of Civil and Water Resource


Engineering
Chapter Five
Levelling
Definition
It is the art of measuring relative altitudes of points on the
surface of the earth of beneath the surface of the earth.
It involves the measurement of vertical distance relative to
a horizontal line of sight.
Definition of basic terms
Datum:- A datum is any reference surface to which the elevation
(vertical distance) of a points are referred.
Elevation: - Elevation is the vertical distance of a points above or
below on assumed datum (level surface).
Leveling:-The process or methods of determining the vertical
distance of a points relative to on assumed level surface.
Cont...
Level line:- is the surface of which it has a constant height relative to
mean sea level.
Horizontal line:- this is a line which is tangential to the level line or a
line which is normal to direction of gravitas
Bench Mark (BM):- are permanent reference points or marks at
which their elevation (reduced level) has been accurately determined
by leveling from other permanent BM.
Reduced level (RL):- is the height above or below a reference datum-
similar to elevation.
Temporary bench mark (TBM):- are marks let up on stable points
near construction sites which all leveling operation on that particular
site will be referred.
Mean sea level(MSL) : - it is the average observation of tides at any
place over a period of 19 years.
Cont...
Back sight (BS):- is the staff reading taken on points of known
elevation as a BM or a turning points.
Fore Sights (FS):- is the staff reading on points whose elevation is to be
determined as a turning points. It is the last staff reading denoting the
shifting of the instruments.
Intermediate sights (IS):- any other staff reading taken on a points at
unknown elevation from the same set up of the level. All sights b/n BS
& FS are IS.
Turning points (TP):- is a point denoting the shifting at the level. It is
the point on which the back a fore sight are taken.
Station:- is a points of which whose elevation is to be determined.
Instrument station : - the point where the instrument is set up for
observation.
Height of instruments:- is the elevation of plane of collimation
(plane of sight) where the instruments is correctly leveled.
Cont...
Equipments used in leveling
Level – to give the true horizontal line
Staff – to read vertical height
Tape – to measure height of instruments
Note: There are three types of level
Tilting
Automatic
Digital
Classification of levelling
1. Simple levelling
2. Differential levelling
1. Simple levelling : -type of operation for determining the
difference in elevation between two points visible from a
single point of the level.( reading by one set up)
Note : - in order to eliminate the effect of earth curvature
and instrumental error it is always advisable to set up
level on approximate equal length.
2. Differential levelling : -the method of determining the
difference in elevation of two points wither too far apart
or obstructed by an intervening ground. In this method
level is set up at a number of points
Principle of leveling
The instruments are set up and correctly leveling in order to make the
line of sight through the telescope horizontal.

With the instruments set up approximately midway between ground


points A & B. If the reduced level (RL) of points A is known and equals
to 100,000m above a certain reference datum then the reading at
3.00m on vertically herd staff at A gives the reduced level of horizontal
line of sights as 103,000m.
Cont...
This sights on to A is termed as back sights (BS) and reduced level of the
line of sights is called height of plane at collimations (HPC)
Thus, RLA + BS = HPC . . .
The reading of 1,000m on to staff a B is called foresight (FS) and shows the ground point B to be
1,000 below HPC therefore its RL = (103,000 – 1,000)=102.000
Then this is the basic concept of leveling which is then developed in to following leveling.
Cont...
Let RL be reduced level
R = Staff reading.
Then
RLC = TBM
RLD = RLC + (RC – RD)
RLE = RLC + (RC – RE)
RLF = RLE + (RE – RF)
RLG = RLE + (RE – RG)
Method of booking
There are two methods of booking in the field for leveling.
I. Rise & fall method
II. Height of collimation method.
Method 1-Rise & fall method
The basic concept of rise and fall is illustrated as shown below. (Refer the fig above)
Let RLC = TRM = 100, 000m above BM
The line of sight from the instruments at A is truly horizontal. It can be seen
that the higher reading of D i.e 2.50 indicates that it is lower than C (TBM).
This can be written
1.5 – 2.50 = -1.0 indicated fall from C to D
Similarly from C to E
1.5 – 0.5 = +1.0 indicating the rise from C to E.
If the reduced level of TBM = RLC then
RLD = RLC + (RC – RD) but RC – RD = fall
 = 100.00 – 1 = 99.00
Cont...
RL D = RL C + fall
RLE = RLC + (RC – RE)
But RC – RE = Rise
 = 100 + 1 = 101
RLE = RLC + rise.
Staff BS IS FS Rise Fall RL Remark
Position (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m)

C 1.5 100.0 TBM


D 2.5 1.0 99.0
E 2.0 o.5 2.0 101.0 TP
F 2.5 0.5 100.5
G 3.0 0.5 100.0

CHECKS : -  BS   FS   Rise   Fall  LastRL  FirstRL


Method – 2 Height of plane of collimation method

The height of plane of collimation methods sometimes called height of


instruments.
The height of collimation is obtained by adding the staff reading, which
must be back sight, to know RL of the points on which the staff stands.
All other reading are deducted from the height of collimation until the
instruments setting is changed. Where upon the new height of
collimation is determined by adding the back sight to the RL of the
change points.
Staff BS IS FS HPC(HI) RL Distance
position

CHECK : -(BS) - (FS) = Last RL – First RL


Cont...
Examples using the previous fig.
Staff position BS IS FS HPC(HI) RL Remark Distance

C 1.5 101.5 100 BM


D 2.5 99
E 2.0 o.5 103 101 TP
F 2.5 100.5
G 3.0 100

 3.5 3.5
Checks : - Summation of BS– summation of FS = 3.5-3.5 = 0; Eq 1
Last RL – First RL= 100 – 100 = 0, eq 2
Values from eq 1 and eq 2 are equal
The comparison of line of collimation method and
Rise – fall method
Longitudinal and X-sectional levelling
 Longitudinal levelling : -This type of levelling is used to
produce ground profiles for use in the design of roads,
railways and pipelines.
 In the case of such projects, the route centre-line is set out
using pegs at 10-m, 20-m or 30-m intervals. Levels are
then taken at these peg positions and at critical points such
as sudden changes in the ground profiles, road crossings,
ditches, bridges, culverts, etc. The resultant plot of these
elevations is called a longitudinal section. When plotting,
the vertical scale is exaggerated compared
with the horizontal.
Cont...
The longitudinal section is then used in the vertical
design process to produce formation levels for the
proposed route design.
It gives information along a centre-line only
Cross sectional Levelling : -

It gives information at 90° to the centre-line for


20–30 m on each side of the selected work.
Misclosure, Limits and its distribution
Misclosure is leveling operation are an indication of the accuracy of the
work. It is important to realize the amounts of misclosure in leveling
can only be assessed by
 Connecting the leveling back to the BM from which it started or
 Connecting in to another BM of known and ground elevation
When the misclosure is assessed, one must then decide if it is acceptable or not
Alternating the permissible may be based on the distance traveled or no. of
set up involved
A Common Criteria used to assess the misclosure (E) is
E =M K
Where K = distance leveled in Km .
M = Constant in mm (usually from 2-12 mm)
Cont...
In many case in Engineering the distance involved is quite short but the no.
of setup is quite high, in which case the following criteria most be
used .
E= M n
Where n = No ob instrument setup
M = Constant is mm ( 5)

If the misclosure is outside the allowable then the leveling must be repeated
and if it is with in the misclosure has to be contributed equally to all set
up
E
Correction per set up =
n
Longitudinal and X-sectional levelling
 Longitudinal levelling : -This type of levelling is used to
produce ground profiles for use in the design of roads,
railways and pipelines.
 In the case of such projects, the route centre-line is set out
using pegs at 10-m, 20-m or 30-m intervals. Levels are
then taken at these peg positions and at critical points such
as sudden changes in the ground profiles, road crossings,
ditches, bridges, culverts, etc. The resultant plot of these
elevations is called a longitudinal section. When plotting,
the vertical scale is exaggerated compared
with the horizontal.
Mistakes & errors in Leveling
 Some of the mistakes commonly made in leveling are
 confusion of the of numbers is reaching of the staff example 2.345 2.0 3.345
 Recording the back sight is foresight column and vice- versa.
 Faulty addition a subtraction of back sight of foresight is checking every page
between bench marks.
 Rods or staff not held in the same point for foresight and back sight in turning
point. etc.
 Instrumental level.
The errors in leveling might occur due to
1. Instrumental error
2. Field error.
3. Effect of curvature refraction.
1. Instrument error: - these are error which occurs due to the defects of
instrument such as.
Collimation error-:The error occurs if the line of the sight is
not truly horizontal when the tubular bubble is centered i.e the line of
sight is inclined up or down from the horizontal.
Cont...
Two – peg test: - On relative flat site establish tow pegs A & B about
50m apart and set up the instruments of P.

H AB = (a1 – d1e) – (b1 – d2e)


Since the instrument is mid – way between A & B
d1 = d2
 H AB = a1 – b1 ………………….. 1
Cont...
To check this again set up the leveling at Q of a distance of d3 (25m)
form A or B.

H AB = [a2 – (d1 + d2 + d3).e] – [b2 – (d3.e)]


 = (a2 – b2) – (d1 + d2).e ……………………….. 2
Cont...
Equating the two equation
(a1 – b1) = (a2 – b2) – (d1 + d2).e
Therefore collimation error

e
a 2  b2  a1  b1
2 * d1
for filling level an average precision i.e collimation error should be less than
0.00005 red (0.5mm per 10m).
If the error is greater than this the level should be adjusted with the
instruments still set at a horizontal lien of collimation would give a reading
on the staff at A at
a1 – (d1 + d2 + d3)e
Cont...
Defect of staff: - It is possible that the staff production may be
incorrect and new or repaired. The staff shall be corrected using steel
tape
Tripod defects: - stability of tripod should be checked before any field
work. If the metal shoes at the base of each leg are not loose once extended
the leg can be tightened insufficiently.
2. Field error : - These are errors which occur due to the
following.
1) Staff not vertical
2) Handling the instruments & tripod
Cont...
3. Effect of Curvature & Refractions (Reading Assignment)
Cc = 0.0785 D2 , correction for curvature
Cr = 0.0112 D2 , correction for refraction
CC= 0.0673 D2 , Correction for curvature and refraction
Assuming the raduis of the arth as 6370Km
Where D is the distance in Km
Cc combined effect of curvature and refraction in meters
Reciprocal leveling
By means of reciprocal leveling, the need for applying the above correction may
be avoided
reciprocal leveling must be used to obtain accuracy and to eliminate the
following
 Error in instrument adjustment
 Combined effect of earth’s curvature and refraction of atmosphere
Cont...
It is applied when it is not possible to set up the level mid way between
two points as in the case of levelling across large bodies.
Cont...
Taking the average of the two true difference in elevation
i.E Average of two eqns
2 HAB= [a1 – (b1 – e) + (a2 – e) – b2]
 HAB = 1 * [a1-b1] + [a2-b2]
2
The true difference in elevations, therefore equal to the mean of two
apparent differences is elevations obtained by reciprocal observation.

Inverted staff reading


Reduced levels of underside of structures (bridge softest) are
determined by using staff in an inverted position , the inverted staff
reading is booked in a relevant column of the level book with negative
sign
Cont...

RLA = TBM
HPC = RLA + RA
RLB = HPC – (-RB)
= HPC + RB
Fly leveling
The permanent bench mark can be located far away from starting points
of proposed road. So, fly leveling should be done to connect the BM
with starting points of the work in order to locates its RL and then
calculate RLs of different points along the alignments.
Note: In fly leveling only the back sight and foresight reading should be
recorded.
Trigonometric Leveling
is a process of determining the differences of elevations of stations
from observed vertical angles and known distances.
The vertical angle may be measured by means of an accurate thodolite
and the horizontal distances may be measured in the case of plane or
geodetic surveying.
In order to get the difference in elevation between the instrument
station and the object under observation, we shall consider the
following cases:
Case 1: Base of the object accessible
Case 2: Base of the object inaccessible: instrument stations in the same
vertical plane as the elevated object
Case 3: Base of the object inaccessible: instrument stations not in the
same vertical plane as the elevated object
Case 1 Base of the object accessible
R. L. of Q = R. L. of B. M. + S + D tan

Where: - S = reading of staff kept at B. M. with line of sight horizontal


 = angle of elevation from A to Q
D = horizontal distance between P and Q
Case 2 Base of the object inaccessible: the
instrument stations in the same vertical
plane as the elevated object
Case 2 A: Instrument axis at the same level

R.L. of Q = R. L. of B.M. + S + h
Case B: Instrument axis at different level
Example

Case C: Instrument axes at very different level


Case 3 Base of the object inaccessible: the
instrument stations not in the same vertical
plane as the elevated object
Exa
Cont...
Cont...
Cont...
Cont...