Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

Plan of Human Body

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Figure 1.4
◦ Interior of body separated from external
environment by a layer of epithelial tissue
◦ Lumen of respiratory system, gastrointestinal
system, and urinary system are part of external
environment

The Body’s External Environment Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Internal environment = fluid surrounding cells

The Body’s Internal Environment Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Exchange Between External and
Internal Environment
◦ Between blood and external environment
 Lungs
 Gastrointestinal tract
 Kidneys

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
◦ Internal environment = fluid surrounding cells =
extracellular fluid (ECF)
◦ 70 kg man
-Total body water = 42 liters
• 28 liters intracellular fluid (ICF)
• 14 liters extracellular fluid (ECF)
-3 liters plasma
-11 liters interstitial fluid (ISF)

Body Fluid Compartments Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Body Fluid Compartments
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,
Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Figure 1.5
II. Homeostasis: A Central Organizing
Principle
of Physiology
• Negative Feedback Control in Homeostasis

• Homeostasis in Action: Thermoregulation

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Process of maintaining stable internal
environment compatible for life

◦ Most organ systems contribute to homeostasis


◦ Exception: reproductive system

Homeostasis Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
◦ Primary mechanism for maintaining
homeostasis
◦ External change  triggers change in regulated
variable in internal environment  triggers
reaction to oppose the change and return
regulated variable toward normal (set point)

Negative Feedback Control in


Homeostasis Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,
Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
◦ Set point = desired level of regulated variable
◦ Sensors detect level of regulated variable and
provide input to integrating center
◦ Integrating center compares set point to actual
level of regulated variable
◦ Error signal = difference between actual level and
set point
◦ Integrating center sends output to effectors to
return regulated variable toward set point

Negative Feedback Mechanisms Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Negative Feedback Control of Car
Speed Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,
Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Figure 1.6a, b
Negative Feedback Control of
Body Temperature Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,
Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Figure 1.6c, d
Negative Feedback Loop
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,
Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Figure 1.7
Positive feedback loops
cause a rapid change in
a variable.

Positive Feedback Loop


Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,
Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Figure 1.8
◦ Homeothermic animals – regulate body
temperature within a narrow range

◦ Poikilothermic animals – do not regulate body


temperature

Thermoregulation Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
◦ Normal body temperature = set point
 Differs in animal species
 Humans: 37oC (98.6oF)
◦ Hypothermia = decrease in body temperature
◦ Hyperthermia = increase in body temperature
 above 41oC, dangerous
 above 43oC, deadly

Homeothermic Animals Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Between
Body and External Environment
◦ Radiation - thermal energy as electromagnetic
waves
◦ Conduction - thermal energy through contact
◦ Evaporation - heat loss through evaporation of
water
 insensible water loss
 sweating
◦ Convection - heat transfer by movement of fluid
or air

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
◦ Thermoregulatory system maintains core
body temperature
◦ Detectors - thermoreceptors (central and
peripheral)
◦ Integrator - hypothalamus
◦ Effectors - sweat glands, blood vessels in
skin, skeletal muscles

Components of Thermoregulatory
System Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,
Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Range of outside temperature where
alterations in blood flow alone regulates
body temperature

25-30oC
◦ Body temperature increase:
 blood flow to skin increases
◦ Body temperature decrease:
 blood flow to skin decreases

Thermoneutral Zone Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Negative Feedback Control of
Body Temperature Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,
Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Figure 1.9a, b
Thermoregulation Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,
Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.
Figure 1.9c
◦ Fever accompanies infections
◦ White blood cells secrete pyrogens
◦ Body temperature set point increases
◦ Fever enhances immune response

Fever Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education,


Inc., publishing as Benjamin
Cummings.