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MESIN PERKAKAS FRAIS (MILLING)

Oleh : Ade Sumpena, ST., M.Kom


Jurusan Teknik Mesin Politeknik Negeri Jakarta
 Prinsip
Proses pemesinan frais (milling) adalah proses penya-
yatan benda kerja menggunakan alat potong, dengan
mata potong jamak yang berputar.
 Gerakan utama mesin Frais (Milling)
 Bentuk-bentuk dasar yang dapat di buat pada
mesin Frais (Milling)
 Jenis Mesin Frais
1. Mesin Frais Horizontal

 Axis of spindle is in
horizontal plane and
parallel to It’s table.
 Generally cutters are
mounted on long arbor.
2. Mesin Frais Vertikal

 Position of spindle is
vertical or 90º to the
work table.
 It’s suitable for
boring pocket milling
profile milling& key
way cutting.
3. Mesin Frais Universal
 Bagian-bagian utama mesin Frais

Mesin Frais Horizontal Mesin Frais Vertikal


 Typical milling operation
 Metode pemakanan pada mesin Frais
 Klasifikasi proses Frais
 Types of milling cutters
 Pisau jari (End mill cutter)
 Cutter insert
 Carbide insert
 Milling Acessories
 Pemegang alat potong (Tool Holder)
 Arbor
 STUB ARBOR

 The arbors are hold


with the machine.
 The arbors are of three
types A,B,C as shown
in picture.
 TYPES OF ARBORS

 Types A is used to
mount the shell and
mills and similar
cutters.
 The cutter is tightened
on the arbor using the
screw.
 TYPES OF ARBOR

 It is used to mount
large face milling
cutters.
 The cutter is held on
arbor by four
screw(b), it has a
slot(c),which fits over
spindle (d).
 TYPES OF ARBOR

 It is a morse taper
adaptor arbor used to
hold drills, reamers,
chucks etc.
 Pemegang benda kerja
a. Plain vise
Jaws parallel or 90º to axis of spindle
b. Swivel base vise
Can swivel through 360º in horizontal plane
c. Universal vise
Can swivel through 360º in horizontal plane
and tilted from 0º to 90 in vertical plane
Meja yang dapat diatur sudutnya
Rotary table untuk mesin frais
vertikal

Rotary table yang dapat di atur


Rotary table sudutnya
Rotary table dapat digunakan pada mesin frais horizontal da vertikal
 Milling Set Up
 Work Holding Method
* The vice jaws and the workpiece must be free from burrs, chips, and cutting fluid.
* Smaller workpiece should be supported by parallel bars to provide the supporting
datum.
* Round bar must be placed between the workpiece and the movable jaw to ensure
that the workpiece is in perfect contact with the fix jaw.
* The vice handle should be tightened by hand to avoid over clamping of the
workpiece as well as the vice. Hide face hammer should be used to assure that the
workpiece is in perfect contact with the supporting base.
* On completion of the milling of the first face, the workpiece should be unloaded,
deburred, and cleaned before the next operation.
* To machine the second and the third faces, the workpiece should be clamped with
its preceding machined surface facing against the fix jaw of the vice.
* Similar clamping method can be applied in the machining of the fourth face.
* Yet it can also be clamped on the vice without the round bar.
* Both ends of the workpiece can be machined with the periphery flutes of the
cutter using up cut milling as shown in figure
 Pemegangan benda kerja tanpa ragum
 Milling Attachment
 VERTICAL MILLING ATTACHMENT

 This attachment
mounted on column of
universal Milling
machine.
 Which consists
housing spindle head
and bevel drive gears
 SLOTTING ATTACHMENT

 It’s used for cutting at


any angle in vertical
plane to produce key
ways , slots and
corners.
 It’s provide
reciprocating drive for
single point cutting
tool.
 RACK MILLING ATTACHMENT
 It’s mounted between the
face of column and outer
support on a plain or
universal milling machine.
 It consists a fixed housing
and a spindle.
 A special rack indexing
attachment used to move
the work longitudinally
with accurate spacing of
teeth.
 UNIVERSAL SPIRAL ATTACHMENT

 It’s used to mill spirals


with a plain milling
machine.
 It’s useful for cutting
helical threads , gears ,
worms and racks.
 Perhitungan proses pengerjaan pada mesin Frais
A. Kecepatan Potong/Cutting Speed (V)
Rumus :

Hal – hal yang mempengaruhi Cutting speed adalah :


1. Material benda kerja,
2. Material alat potong,
3. Pendinginan ( cooling ).
Tabel Kecepatan Potong

HSS Carbide
Materials

Fine Coarse Fine Coarse

Tool Steel 75 – 100 25 – 45 185 – 230 110 – 140

Low carbon Steel 70 – 90 25 – 40 170 – 215 90 – 120

Medium Carbon Steel 60 – 85 20 – 40 140 – 185 75 – 110

Cast Iron 40 – 45 25 – 30 110 – 140 60 – 75

Brass 85 – 110 45 – 70 185 – 215 120 – 150

Alumunium 70 – 100 30 – 45 140 – 215 60 – 90


B. Asutan/Pemakanan (Feeding)
Rumus :
 Pemakanan/Asutan (Feeding)
 Perhitungan Waktu Pemesinan (Time Calculation)

Rumus :

Dimana :
L = panjang langkah …………….. mm
i = jumlah langkah.
s = feed per minute, satuannya ..... mm/min

Rumus umum menghitung panjang langkah (L) adalah :


 Dividing Head (Kepala Pembagi)
 Bagian-bagian dividing head

Ada dua sistem


Pembagian :
1, Pembagian
Langsung
2. Pembagian
Tidak Langsung

Piring Pembagi Tetap


SIMPLE INDEXING MECHANISM

 It’s used to obtain


greater number of
divisions that can
not be obtained by
direct indexing.
 It’s carried out using
40:1 ratio of the
worm and worm
mechanism.
 Piring Pembagi
 Bentuk-bentuk benda kerja hasil dari dividing head
Contoh untuk pembagian langsung :

Contoh untuk pembagian tidak langsung :


 Macam-macam roda gigi yang dapat dibuat pada
mesin Frais dengan bantuan kepala pembagi

 HELICAL GEAR
 Elements of teeth are
twisted or helical.
 Used for connecting shaft
at an angle in same or
different planes.
 Smooth acting gearing.
 MITRE GEARING

 When the shafts are at


90º and two bevel
gears are of same size,
known as “miter
gears”.
 SPUR GEAR

 Teeth element
parallel to rotating
shafts are known as
spur gear.
 Used to transmit
power and motion
through parallel
shafts.
 HERRINGBONE GEAR

 It’s equivalent to
two helical
gears,one having a
right hand and
other a left hand
helix.
 It’s used in heavy
duty machines like
steel roll mills.
 BEVEL GEAR

 When two shafts are in


same plane but at
another,bevel gears an
angle with one are used.
 It’s a frustum of a cone
having all elements of teeth
intersecting at a point.
 HYPOID GEARS

 Modification of a
bevel gear where
the shaft are at
right angle but they
don’t intersect as
do the shaft for
bevel gears.
 RACK GEARS
 Rack gears are
straight and have
no curvature.
 Used for feeding
mechanism and
reciprocating
drives.
 WORM GEAR

 When a large speed


reduction is desired
worm gear are
used.
 Worm will always
be the driver &
used for teeth
mechanism.s
 ANNULAR GEAR

 A gear with internal


teeth is known as
annular gear are
used in
automobiles.
 Membuat Roda Gigi Lurus (Spur Gear)
 Rumus Roda Gigi Lurus
 Rumus Roda Gigi Helik (Helical Gear)
Thank You