Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30

THREE-PHASE

INDUCTION MOTOR

Electrical Machines 1
 Three-phase induction motors are the most common
and frequently encountered machines in industry
 It can be considered to be the cheapest motor.
 It is rugged and requires less maintenance.
 It is simple in design.
 It gives reliable operation.
 Its efficiency is very high.
 It is easy to control
 It runs at constant speed from zero to full load

Electrical Machines 2
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUCTION
MOTOR
Depending on the rotor construction, induction motor
can be classified into two categories:
 Squirrel-cage induction motor.
 Slip-ring induction motor or wound rotor induction
motor.
Depending on the number of phases it can be classified
as:
 Single-phase induction motor
 Three-phase induction motor

Electrical Machines 3
CONSTRUCTION
The three basic parts of an AC motor are the
rotor, stator, and enclosure.
 A stationary stator
 consisting of a steel frame that supports
a hollow, cylindrical core
 core, constructed from stacked
laminations, having a number of evenly
spaced slots, providing the space for the
stator winding
Electrical Machines 4
CONSTRUCTION
 A revolving rotor
 composed of punched laminations, stacked to
create a series of rotor slots, providing space for
the rotor winding
 one of two types of rotor windings
 conventional 3-phase windings made of
insulated wire similar to the winding on the
stator
 aluminum bus bars shorted together at the ends
by two aluminum rings, forming a squirrel-cage
shaped circuit.

Electrical Machines 5
CONSTRUCTION
Squirrel cage type:
Rotor winding is composed of copper bars embedded in the
rotor slots and shorted at both end by end rings
Simple, low cost, robust, low maintenance

Wound rotor type:


Rotor winding is wound by wires. The winding terminals can be
connected to external circuits through slip rings and brushes.
Easy to control speed, more expensive.

Electrical Machines 6
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
When a 3 phase stator winding is connected to a 3 phase
voltage supply, 3 phase current will flow in the
windings, which also will induced 3 phase flux in the
stator. These flux will rotate at a speed called a
Synchronous Speed, ns. The flux is called as Rotating
magnetic Field.
Synchronous speed is given by the expression

Where p = is the number of poles, and


f = the frequency of supply
Electrical Machines 7
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
 This rotating magnetic field cuts the rotor
windings and produces an induced voltage
in the rotor windings
 Due to the fact that the rotor windings are
short circuited, for both squirrel cage and
wound-rotor, and induced current flows in
the rotor windings
 The rotor current produces another
magnetic field
 A torque is produced as a result of the
interaction of those two magnetic fields
Electrical Machines 8
SLIP
The rotor speed of an Induction machine is different from
the speed of Rotating magnetic field. The % difference
of the speed is called slip.

Where; ns = synchronous speed (rpm)


nr = mechanical speed of rotor (rpm)

If the rotor runs at synchronous speed, s = 0. If the


rotor is stationary, s = 1

Electrical Machines 9
Effect of slip on rotor frequency
Where fr is the
rotor
frequency, Er2 is
the rotor emf,
Effect of slip on rotor induced e.m.f.
R2, X2 and Z2 is
the rotor
Effect of slip on rotor resistance, resistance,
reactance and impedance reactance and
impedance
respectively.
f is the supply
frequency, E2 is
the standstill
Electrical Machines
e.m.f. 10
TORQUE EQUATION OF A THREE-
PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
The torque of a three-phase induction motor
depends on the following factors:
 Rotor current (I2)
 Power factor of the rotor circuit
 Flux which links with the rotor (φ)

or

Electrical Machines 11
Torque Equation for Induction
Motor in Running Condition

Where,

Electrical Machines 12
TORQUE SLIP CHARACTERISTICS
 When slip s = 0, Nr = Ns. Under this condition, the
motor stops. So the torque (T) at this value of s is zero.
This shows that the torque slip characteristics starts
from the origin.
 For smaller values of slip, the torque is directly
proportional to the slip.
 For larger values of slip, the torque is inversely
proportional to slip.

Electrical Machines 13
TORQUE SLIP CHARACTERISTICS

Electrical Machines 14
RATIO BETWEEN FULL-LOAD
TORQUE AND MAXIMUM TORQUE

Where Tfl is the full load torque Tmax


is the maximum torque sfl is the slip
at full load and s is the slip at
m

maximum torque.

Electrical Machines 15
RATIO BETWEEN STARTING
TORQUE AND MAXIMUM TORQUE

Where Tst is the starting torque Tmax


is the maximum torque, s is the slipm

at maximum torque.

Electrical Machines 16
EFFECT OF ROTOR RESISTANCE ON
TORQUE–SLIP CHARACTERISTIC

Electrical Machines 17
Equivalent Circuit of Induction
Motor
Equivalent circuit with Rotor open
circuited

Electrical Machines 18
Equivalent Circuit of Induction
Motor
Equivalent circuit with Rotor short
circuited

Electrical Machines 19
Equivalent Circuit of Induction
Motor
Equivalent circuit with electrical
equivalent of mechanical load

Electrical Machines 20
No-load Test

Electrical Machines 21
No-load Test
• The motor is allowed to run freely.
• This test determines the rotational and
core loss of the motor .

Electrical Machines 22
Block Rotor Test

Electrical Machines 23
Block Rotor Test
• In this test, the rotor is blocked from
rotating.
• This test gives the total winding
resistance and leakage reactance of the
motor.

Electrical Machines 24
STARTING OF THREE-PHASE
INDUCTION MOTOR
There are several methods of starting squirrel-cage
induction motors, which include:
i) Direct on-line starting.
ii) Autotransformer starting
iii) Star–delta starting

Electrical Machines 25
Direct on-line (DOL) starter

Electrical Machines 26
Autotransformer starter

Electrical Machines 27
Star-delta starter

Electrical Machines 28
SPEED CONTROL
From the stator side, the speed of an induction motor can be
controlled by the following methods:
i) V/f method of controlling the speed of induction motor
ii) Speed control by changing the supply voltage.
iii) Speed control by changing the number of poles.
iv) Speed control by changing the rheostat connected with
the stator terminals.

From the rotor side the speed of an induction motor can be


controlled by the following methods:
i) Speed control by changing the rheostat connected with the
rotor terminals.
ii) Cascade control
Electrical Machines 29
BRAKING
The braking methods for induction motor are as follows:
i) Regenerative braking of induction motor
ii) Braking by plugging
iii) Dynamic braking

Electrical Machines 30