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Working with Cloud-based Storage

 The world is creating massive amounts of data.

 A large percentage of that data either is already stored in the

cloud, will be stored in the cloud, or will pass through the cloud
during the data's lifecycle.

 Cloud storage systems are among the most successful cloud

computing applications in use today.

 This chapter surveys the area of cloud storage systems,

categorizes the different cloud storage system types, discusses
file-sharing and backup software and systems

Lecture Outline
 Measuring the digital universe
 Provisioning cloud storage
 Creating cloud storage systems
 Cloud backup solutions
 Cloud storage interoperability

Measuring the Digital Universe

 Facts of hunger for storage

 An email with a 1GB attachment to 3 people can generate
an estimated 5 GB of stored managed data.

 Only 25% of the data stored is unique, while 75% of the

data stored is duplicated.

 70% of the data stored in the world is user initiated.,

remainder is enterprise generated content.

Measuring the Digital Universe

 Facts of hunger for storage

 More than 50% of the data created everyday is the data that
is automatically generated, (called shadow data/digital
shadow ) especially from video cameras and surveillance
photos, financial transaction event logs, performance data
and so on.

 However lots of shadow data does get retained having never

been touched by human bieng

 Much of the data produced is temporal, stored briefly and

get deleted.
Measuring the Digital Universe
 The storage giant EMC has an interest in knowing just how
much data is being stored worldwide.

 EMC has funded some studies over the past decade to assess
the size of what it calls “The Digital Universe.”

 The latest study done by IDC in 2007-2008 predicted that by

2011 the world will store 1800 exabytes (EB) or 1.8 zettabytes
(ZB) of data. By the year 2020,stored data will reach an
astonishing 35ZB

 https://www.emc.com/leadership/digital-universe/index.htm
EMC’s Digital Universe Homepage

Cloud Storage Data Usage in 2020

By International Data Corporation, Digital Universe, May 2010 8

Cloud Storage Definition

 IaaS model
 Storage accessed by Web service API
 Cloudy characteristics
 Network access most often through browser
 On-demand provisioning
 User control
 SaaS model
 Software package on top of cloud storage
for backup, synchronization, archiving, etc.

Storage Devices
 Block storage device
 Raw storage that can be partitioned to create volumes
 Data is transferred in blocks
 Example, hard disk, flash drives
 Faster data transfers/ additional overhead on clients
 File storage device
 Expose its storage to client in a form of files
 Example, file server, most often in the form of Network
Attached Storage (NAS) devise
 Slower transfers/ less overhead from clients

Provisioning Cloud Storage
 Cloud storage may be broadly
categorized into two major classes of

 Unmanaged Storage
 Managed Storage

Cloud Storage Types
 Unmanaged storage
 Unmanaged storage is presented to a user as if it is a
ready-to-use disk drive. The user has little control over
the nature of how the disk is used.

 Preconfigured storage (limited level of mgt)

 Cannot (1) format as your like, (2) install your own
file system (FAT, NTFS), and (3) change drive
properties (compression, encryption)
 Reliable, relatively cheap, easy to work with

 Ex-Application using this storage are SaaS web services

Cloud Storage Types
 Managed storage
 Managed storage involves the provisioning of raw
virtualized disk and the use of that disk to support
applications that use cloud-based storage

 Provided as a raw disk

 Can (1) format and partition the disk, (2) attach or
mount the disk, and (3) make storage assets available
to applications and other users
 Support applications built using Web services

 Ex-Application using this storage are IaaS web services

Unmanaged Cloud Storage
 With the development of high capacity disks in mid to late
1990 a new class of Storage provider known as Storage
Service Provider (SSP) appeared with intent of doing
online storage

 IDrive, FreeDrive, MyVirtualDrive, OmniDrive, Xdrive

offered file hosting services in unmanaged storage form.

 Volumes were accessible using FTP then Utility then

within browsers. DropBox example of file transfer utility.

 In unmanaged cloud, disk space provided to user as a

sized partition. 14
Dropbox – File Transfer Utility

Managed Cloud Storage
 User provisions storage on demand and pays using pay-as-you-
go model

 System appears to user as a raw disk that user must partition

and format

 Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)

 http://aws.amazon.com/s3/
 Rackspace Cloud
 http://www.rackspace.com/index.php
 Google Storage for Developers
 https://cloud.google.com/storage/

Amazon S3 and Rackspace Cloud

Creating Cloud Storage Systems
 Concepts
 Multiple copies of data are stored on
multiple servers and in multiple locations
 Storage virtualization software
 Failover - > changing the pointers to the stored
object’s location
 Example
 Amazon Web Service (EC2, S3) supports
“failover” / load balancing ->but you must
purchase these features
Evaluating Cloud Storage
 Important considerations
 Client self-service
 Strong management capabilities
 Scale up – more disks
 Scale out – additional storage systems
 Performance characteristics such as
 Block-based or file-based protocol support
 Seamless maintenance and upgrades

Cloud Backup Solutions
 Last line of defense in a strong backup routine
 Backup types
 Full system or image backups
 Point-in-time (PIT) backups or snapshots
 Incremental backups
 3-2-1 Backup rule
 3 copies (1 primary and 2 backups)
 2 different media
 1 copy should be stored offside

Backup Types
 Full System/ Image Backups
 Creates a complete copy of volume
including all system files, the boot record
and any other data contained in the disks.

 For create image backup of active system

we need to stop all applications.

 Ex. Ghost

Backup Types
 Point in Time (PIT) or Snapshots
 Referred to as incremental backup, created
so often.

 Lets you restore your data to a point in

time and save multiple copies of any files
that have been changed.

 Ex- Carbonite

Cloud Backup Solutions
 Last line of defense in a strong backup routine
 Backup types
 Full system or image backups
 Point-in-time (PIT) backups or snapshots
 Incremental backups
 3-2-1 Backup rule
 3 copies (1 primary and 2 backups)
 2 different media
 1 copy should be stored offside

Cloud Backup Features
 Logon authentication
 High encryption of data transfers
 Automated and scheduled backup
 Fast backup (snapshots) after full online
backup, with 10-30 historical versions of
a file retained
 Ability to retrieve historical versions of

Cloud Backup Features (2)
 Multiplatform support (Win/ Mac / Linux)
 Web-based management console with ease
to use features such as drag and drop.
 24x7 technical support
 Logging and reporting of operations
 Multisite storage or replication, enabling data

Cloud Attached Backup

 CTERA sells a server referred to as Cloud Attached Storage,
which is meant for the Small and Medium Business (SMB)
market, branch offices, and the Small Office Home Office
(SOHO) market.

 The CTERA Cloud Attached Storage backup server has the

attributes of a NAS (Network Attached Storage), with the added
feature that after you set up which systems you want to back
up, create user accounts, and set the backup options through a
browser interface, the system runs automated backup copying
and synchronizing of your data with cloud storage. Backed up
data may be shared between users

Cloud Storage Interoperability
 Open standards (operating-system
neutral and file-system neutral)
 Workgroups
 Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI)
from Storage Networking Industry
Association (SNIA)
 http://www.snia.org
 Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI)
from SNIA and Open Grid Forum (OGF)
 http://www.ogf.org
 Chapter 15 of Course Book: Cloud
Computing Bible, 2011, Wiley Publishing