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CONCRETE MIX

DESIGN
Example: From Laboratory Experiment

Properties of Aggregates and Cement:

Sp. Gr. Absorption Dry rodded Moisture


unit weight Content
Cement 3.15 - - -
1 CA 2.82 0.75 2306.79 1.5
¾ CA 2.8 1.12 2130.69 1.2
FA 2.64 3.5 1716.88 6

Fineness Modulus = 2.8


Step 1:

• Choice of Slump = 75 to 100 mm


• Design Strength = 20 MPa or 3000 psi @ 28 days

Step 2:

• Choice of Nominal Size (MSA)


MSA = 1 in. or 25 mm

Step 3:

• Estimating of Mixing Water and Air Content


From Table 2 (Table 1 and 2.pdf)
 Non-Air Entrained
Per 1 m3 of concrete = 1.5%
Water = 193 kg
Illustration:
Cement -
Water 193 kg
1 -
¾ -
Sand -
Air 1.5%

Step 4: Selection of Water-Cement Ratio

• Compute the require average compressive strength


on concrete (MPa or psi), fcr’

fcr ‘ = fc’ + ps

Where: fc’ = specified compressive strength of concrete


(MPa or psi)
s = standard deviation
• from Standards of Concrete Control , choose the standard
deviation

 assume Class of Operation = Ex. “General


Construction Testing-Very Good”standard
deviation.pdf

s = 400 to 500 psi


or 2.8 to 3.5 Mpa
for conservative design, choose 3.5MPa or 500 psi

 Choose value of ps from value of ps.pdf

ps = 2.32s – 500 psi or 2.32s – 3.5 MPa

Therefore:

fcr ’ = fc’ + ps
= (20 + 2.32(3.5) – 3.5) MPa
= 24.62 MPa
• For water-cement ratio, see Table 3.pdf

 for fcr’ = 24.62 Mpa


Interpolate W/C ratio

W/C = 0.616

Step 5: Calculation of Cement Content

Water = 193 kg
W/C = .616

193
= .616
𝐶𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

Cement = 313.31 kg
Step 6: Estimation of Coarse Aggregate Content

From Lab result, FM of sand = 2.8 (Table 4 and 5.pdf)

• Volume of Dry-Rodded CA per unit volume = 0.67

For Blending of Aggregates :

CA = 0.67 [ 0.50 (2306.79) + 0.50 (2130.69)]


CA = 1486.56 kg
say 1487 kg
Step 7: Estimation of Fine Aggregates Content (FA)

I. By Weight (dry rodded)


Water (net mixing) - 193.00 kg
Cement - 313.31 kg
CA (1 and ¾) - 1487.00 kg
Total = 1994.00 kg
From Table 4 and 5.pdf

Fresh Unit Weight of Concrete = 2380 kg/m3


FA Content = 2380 – 1994
= 386 kg (dry)

II. By Absolute Volume (more accurate)

193
• Volume of water = = 0.193 m3
1000
313.31
• Volume of cement = = 0.099 m3
3.15(1000)
1487
• Volume of CA = = 0.529 m3
[0.5 2.82 +0.5 2.8 ]
• Air Content = 1.5% (1 m3) = 0.015 m3
Total 0.836 m3
Estimation of FA = 1-0.836= 0.164 m3
Mass of FA = 0.164 (2.64 x 1000)
FA Content (kg) = 432.96 kg (dry)
Summary:

Batch Weights per m3


By Weight By Volume
Water 193 193
Cement 313.31 313.31
1” CA 743.5 743.5
¾ “ CA 743.5 743.5
FA 386 432.96
Step 6: Adjustment of Aggregate Moisture

Free Moisture = MC – Absorption


MC – Absorption Free Moisture
(%) (%)

1 1.5 – 0.75 0.75


¾ 1.2 – 1.12 0.08
Sand 6 – 3.5 2.5

Water = 193 – 743.5 (0.0075) – 743.5 (0.0008) –


432.96(0.025) = 176 kg

Adjusted : Moist Condition

1 = 743.5 (1.015) = 754.65 kg


¾ = 743.5 (1.012) = 752.42 kg
Sand = 432.96 (1.06) = 458.938 kg
Concrete Proportion at Moist Condition

313.31 0.0995
Cement = 3.15(1000) = 0.0995 m3 = = 1
0.0995

176
Water = = 0.176 m3 = 176 L
(1000)

754.65 752.42 0.536


CA = 2.82(1000) + = 0.536 m3 = = 5.39
2.8(1000) 0.0995

458.938 0.17
FA = 2.64(1000) = .17 m3 = = 1.71
0.0995

Concrete Proportion : 1: 1.71: 5.39@ 176 L of Water