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Psychology as just focus on
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Psychology is
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 The word psychology= psyche + ology
 Psyche means mind or soul
 Ology refers to the study of something

 Psychology can be defined as the scientific study of behaviour and the mental
 The scientific method consists of a set of orderly steps used to analyse and solve
 Behaviour is the actions or responses that can be directly observed, e.g. facial
 Mental process refers to the internal thought process that cannot be directly observed
(i.e. covert) and thus be inferred from observable, measurable responses, e.g. feeling
Description Explanation Prediction Controlling

• WHAT is happening? • WHY is it happening? • WHEN will it happen • How can it be

• The first step in • Assign an explanation to again? changed/modified?
understanding anything the observed behaviour. • Likelihood that a certain • To change a behaviour
is to describe it. • For example: To behaviour will occur from an undesirable one
• For example: Your understand why it is again to a desirable one.
teacher has observed a happening, she takes • For example: Based on • For example: The teacher
gradual drop in the feedback from the the feedback, she is able to control your
average grade of your students. predicts that if she behaviour in the class,
class. makes her teaching style thus getting a desirable
more interactive, outcome.
students will pay more
 Psychology is generally categorised as a social
 Degrees are offered both in the faculty of
science and social science, at undergraduate and
postgraduate levels (i.e. BA/BSc; MA/MSc)
 Psychology as a natural science
 Application of scientific method to study behaviour
 Psychologists try to exclude their personal biases
as much as possible to make the theories objective
 It is considered a ‘soft’ science due to the dynamic
nature of human and animal behaviour
 Psychology as a social science
 Studies human behaviour in their socio-cultural
 Considers humans as social beings
• Distinct professions but both
involve mental health
Psychologist Psychiatrist treatment.
• Often work in collaboration
where the psychologist offers
Has a doctorate in Has a medical behavioural interventions and
psychology, but degree and can
cannot prescribe prescribe the psychiatrists prescribes
medications. medications medications, to best address
the symptoms.
Can provide Specialises in
psychotherapy diagnosis and
involving treatment of
interventions psychological
 Start planning early! – After 10th std.
 Psychology is offered in 11th and 12th std. in most schools
 Available as an option in all 3 streams
 A background in statistics will be beneficial
 Maintaining good grades is important

 Undergraduate Programs
 Progs. usually include modules of all different fields of
 Statistics and Research Methodology are important modules
 Try to figure out what field interests you the most
 Maintain good grades- AGAIN!

 Postgraduate programs
 Either a specialised course or a general course (viz. Applied Psychology)
 Opportunity to intern in different settings
 Preparation of a dissertation (i.e. a research project)
 Diagnose and treat psychological disorders such as anxiety
 Research on causes of disorders and treatment effectiveness
 Can practice in clinical/hospital settings, teach in universities, or just do research
 A Doctoral level degree is essential
 Premier institutes for PhD Prog. in India:
 Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi (Jharkhand)
 National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Banglore (Karnataka)
 Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied Sciences, New Delhi (Delhi)

 An eminent clinical psychologist:

 Dr. Kamna Chhibber
 Head, Department of Mental Health and Behavioural Sciences at Fortis Healthcare
 Cognitive Behaviour Therapist
 Deal with a variety of problems like marriage, family issues, personal adjustment,
vocational and career planning, and substance use/abuse issues.
 Can work in schools, colleges or universities, hospitals/clinics or have a private
 Help people recognise their strengths and resources to cope in the face of
 School counsellors help students in the school with their everyday problems or
other adjustment issues
 Career counsellors help take action on career and work problems
 Dr. Nisha Khanna is a famous marriage and family counsellor
 CEO of Byetense Clinic in New Delhi
 The aim is to understand how employees’ affects the workplace and how the
workplace environment affects their job satisfaction and performance
 Study the factors that promote motivation, teamwork and productivity
 Help the organisation in the recruitment, training and promotion process
 Can hold interventions in times of organisational change
 Can work with private or public organisations, corporate companies, government
 Fred Luthans
 A management professor specialising in organisational behaviour
 Applied the principles of positive reinforcement to improve employee performance
 Author of the book on Organisational Behaviour (1973)
 Examine how an individual’s social environment influences their behaviour,
thoughts and feelings
 Interested in topics like attitude formation, conformity and obedience to authority,
helping behaviour like volunteerism and altruism, social evils like prejudice,
discrimination, aggression and intergroup and intragroup relations
 Conduct research on such social phenomenon and provide insight into ways to
improve them
 Can work in various fields:
 Academic
 Advertising
 Government agencies

 Dr. Purnima Singh

 Dept. of Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT Delhi
 Research interests include intergroup relations, social and organisational justice
 Help the community to address physical and mental health problems
 Rural areas: Work to establish a mental health centre
 Urban areas: May design a drug rehabilitation programme or other interventions
 Can work with specific population like the elderly
 Empower people to improve their circumstances, prevent problems and strengthen
 Blend research and practice to collaborate with citizens for community based
 Can work for mental health agencies, private organisations and state governments
 Examine the brain and hormonal processes that underlie behaviour
 The aim is to understand how the normal brain works to support cognition, emotion
and sensorimotor function
 Areas of interest include memory related problems, language deficits, executive
functioning problems and behavioural issues
 Use imaging techniques to study the brain, like Positron Emission Tomography
(PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Functional
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
 Can also assess and treat people
 Can work with people with brain-injuries and facilitate their recovery
Specialisation Major focus
Cognitive Study of mental processes such as perception memory, problem-solving,
planning and consciousness

Developmental Study of physical, mental, emotional and social development across the entire
life span

Educational Study of psychological aspects of the educational process, i.e. curriculum

research and teacher training along with student motivation

Experimental Lab research on basic processes such as learning, perception and memory

Cultural/Cross- Study of cultural transmission, psychological similarities and differences

cultural among people from different cultures

Quantitative Focus on methods and techniques for designing experiments and analysing

Health Focus on how mental, emotional and social factors influence health and illness
Specialisation Major focus

Sports Facilitate athletic performance and use sports to improve mental and physical

Engineering and Use the understanding of human mind and behaviour in the designing and
architecture improvements of technology, consumer products, work settings and living

Forensic Application of psychological principles to the field of criminal investigation

and law

Rehabilitation Work with stroke and accident victims, or traumatised victims to help them
adapt to their lives; Also focus on pain management

Environmental Deals with behaviour in relation to the physical environment. For e.g., how
climate change influences mood, population stress, etc.

Evolutionary A theoretical approach to study psychology that attempts to explain mental and
psychological traits as adaptation
 Applying psychological insights into human behaviour to understand their
economic decision-making
 Studies consumer behaviour for marketing strategies
 Nudge Theory
 Companies/Organisations use this to subtly promote a choice that they want you to make
 Alter human behaviour in a predictable way

 Example:
 The small products placed near the billing counter in a store
 The decoy effect
 The Indian society is currently facing a host of complex social problems
 Bullying, violence and aggression in schools
 Environmental pollution and cleanliness issues
 Psychologists can use knowledge about human behaviour to design, implement
and assess intervention programs.
 Examples:
 Introducing the Happiness Curriculum in government schools
 Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan
 An interdisciplinary academic field
 Focus is on politics, politicians and political behaviour from a psychological
 Helps the political parties in preparing their manifesto during the election
 Example:
 Politicians using fear, hope and patriotism to motivate the citizens to vote for their party
 Associating BJP with Hindus and INC with Muslims
 Psychologists can work either independently or collaborate with other fields to
contribute to the society.
 They can work in multiple settings like hospitals, universities, government
agencies, political parties, advertising, marketing, and so on
 Many universities offer psychology as a course like University of Delhi, Jamia Millia
Islamia, Allahabad University, University of Calcutta, Mumbai University,
Barkhatullah Vishwavidyalaya, Chennai University.
 NCERT and The Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) offer various diploma and
certificate courses
 For PhD: NIMHANS, Banglore; IBHAS, New Delhi; CIP, Ranchi