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Sustaining Interaction Through

Learning Outcomes
 To explain group work
 To examine some collaborative learning
 To consider some aspects of educational debate
 To be aware of changing aspects of teaching and
 To apply group work in class and be able to know
the advantages of it
It is a generic term covering a
multiplicity of techniques in
which two or more students are
assigned a task that involves
collaboration and self
initiated language.
Curriculum issues

Prescriptive Curriculum Experiential Curriculum

Teacher-centered Student-centred
Linear & rational Coherent & relevant
Part to whole organisation Whole to part organisation
Teaching as transmitting Teaching as facilitating
Learning as receiving Learning as constructing
Structured environment Flexible environment
Learning in context
Teaching vs learning

John Amos Comensius, a 16th

Century scholar; summarised the
approach that teaching should
follow, “The main object is to find
a method by which teachers teach
less but learners learn more”,
proving that current problems
have noble pedigrees.
Collaborative learning
“Collaborative learning is an umbrella term for a variety of
educational approaches involving joint intellectual effort by
students, or students and teachers together. Usually
students are working in groups of two or more, mutually
searching for understanding, solutions or meanings, or
creating a product.
Collaborative learning activities vary widely, but most center
on students’ exploration or application of the course material,
not simply the teacher’s presentation or explication of it”.

Smith and McGregor (1992)

Educational goals

Co-operation and
Assumptions about learning

Learning is an active constructive

Learning depends on rich contexts
Learners are diverse
Learning is inherently social

Collaborative learning

Co-operative learning

Writing groups
Peer teaching

Learning communities Problem-based learning

Discussion groups

Widespread use

Based on theory and validated by

Amount, generalisability, breadth and
Variety of co-operative learning
methods available
Why use cooperative learning?
 promote student learning and
academic achievement
 enhance student satisfaction with
their learning experience
 help students develop skills in oral
 develop students' social skills
 promote student self-esteem
 increase student retention
 develop a community of learners
5 Elements of cooperative learning

1. Positive interdependence
2. Face-to-face interaction
3. Individual and group accountability
4. Interpersonal and small group skills
5. Group processing
Postive interdependence
 Each group member's efforts
are required and indispensable
for group success

 Each group member has a

unique contribution to make
to the joint effort because of
Sink or swim together!
his or her resources and/or
role and task responsibilities
Face-to-face interaction
 Orally explaining how to
solve problems
 Teaching one's knowledge to
 Checking for understanding
 Discussing concepts being
 Connecting present with past

Promote each other's success

Individual and group accountability
 Keeping the size of the group
 Giving an individual test to each
 Randomly examining students
 Observing each group and
recording the frequency with
which each member-contributes to
the group's work. No hitchhiking! No social loafing
 Assigning one student in each No freeloading
group the role of checker.
 Having students teach what they
learned to someone else.
Interpersonal and small group skills
 Social skills must be
Mutual understanding
Group processing
 Group members discuss how
well they are achieving their
goals and maintaining
effective working
 Describe what member
actions are helpful and not
 Make decisions about what
behaviours to continue or

Jigsaw Approach
Jigsaw Approach
Jigsaw approach

Collaborative learning

Co-operative learning

Writing groups
Peer teaching
Problem-based learning
Learning communities
Discussion groups
Problem based learning (PBL)

PBL is a learning-centred pedagogy

based on current theories of
learning including constructivism,
social constructivism and situated
Problem-based learning clearing house https://chico.nss.udel.edu/Pbl/
PBL - an iterative process
Read the
Brainstorm- Next page

Identify learning Return-Reread-
issues Report-Review

Collaborative learning

Co-operative learning

Writing groups
Peer teaching

Learning communities Problem-based learning

Discussion groups
Learning communities
 Sociocultural and constructivist views of
learning (Lave & Wenger)
 Two important questions:-
1. What social engagements and processes provide the
‘proper’ context for learning?
2. What forms of co-participation might be required
when engaging learners in these forms of learning.
Community types
 Learning community: focus on learning together,
sharing, developing relationships
 Communities of practice: focus on developing
professional practice
 Community of enquiry: focus on enquiring about
and issue/area
 Knowledge community: focus on developing
Cyber communities

Face-to-face Blended Online

“…the cornerstone of an online community lies in the presence of

socially close, strong, intimate ties, the development of trust, shared
values and social organisation.
The quality of peoples’ relations is an important characteristic in an
online community

(This will be the modified role of the teacher as an e-moderator!)

E-Learning (teacher to moderator)

Salmon (2005)
 Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R. T. (1990) Cooperation and Competition:Theory and
Research, Edina, MN; Interaction Book Company
 Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991) Situated learning; legitimate peripheral participation,
Cambridge University Press
 McConnell, D. (2006) E-learning groups and communities, SRHE/OU Press
 Salmon, G. (2005) E-moderating, Open University Press
 Smith, B. L. & McGregor, J. (1992) What is collaborative learning? – National Center
on Postsecondary education