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Cell Organelles

© Cramer 2007
Cell Organelles

Animal Cell
Organelle= “little organ”

Found only inside eukaryotic


cells

All the stuff in between the


organelles is cytosol

Everything in a cell except the


nucleus is cytoplasm
Cell (Plasma) Membrane

Nickname: Security Guard


Boundary of the cell
Lets some material in, waste out, and blocks
harmful materials
Nucleus
Nickname: The Boss
Control center of the
cell
Nucleolus contains
DNA, the cells
instruction manual
Surrounded by a double
membrane
Usually the easiest
organelle to see under
a microscope
Usually one per cell
Cytoskeleton
Acts as skeleton and
muscle
Provides shape and
structure
Helps move
organelles around the
cell
Made of three types of
filaments
Centriole
Aids in cell division

Usually found only in


animal cells

Made of microtubules

Part of the Cytoplasm


Ribosome
Nickname: Worker
Makes protein
Found attached to
rough ER or floating
free
Produced in a part of
the nucleus called the
nucleolus
Endoplasmic
Reticulum (ER)
Nickname: Roads
Connected to nuclear
membrane
Highway of the cell
Rough ER:
Rough appearance
because it has
ribosomes
Helps make proteins,
that’s why it has
ribosomes
Endoplasmic
Reticulum (ER)
Smooth ER:
No ribosomes;
It makes fats or
lipids
Breaks down toxic
material that could
damage the cell

Sac of material
Golgi Apparatus
Nickname: The Shippers
Looks like a stack of
pancakes
Packages, modifies, and
transports materials to
different locations
Materials transported to and from
the Golgi by means of vesicles
Cells that make saliva or mucus
have lots of Golgi bodies
Lysosomes
Nickname: Clean-up
Crew

Circular but bigger


than ribosomes
Small bubbles filled
with digestive
material
Breaks down ‘food’
into particles the rest
of the cell can use
Found mainly in
animal cells
Lysosomes
Nickname: Clean-up
Crew
Garbage disposal of
the cell
Gets rid of waste
Destroys damaged
organelles
Helps white blood
cells destroy bacteria
Sometimes called
the Suicide Sac
because it ‘kills’
worn out cells
Mitochondria
Nickname: Powerhouse
of the cell

Converts ‘food’ into


energy the cell can use

Needs oxygen like a


furnace to convert
energy

Many mitochondria found


in muscle cells
Cytoplasm
Nickname: Factory
Floor

Clear jelly-like fluid


that contains all the
organelles
Made mostly of water
Moves materials
throughout the cells
Plant Cells
Have most of the
same organelles
as animal cells
Plant Cell
Vacuole

Cell Membrane
Vacuoles
Function: Storage container for
water, food, etc.
Large central vacuole
usually in plant cells
Many smaller vacuoles in
animal cells
Stores water in plants
This is what makes lettuce crisp
When there is no water, the plant
wilts
Plant Cell
Vacuole

Chloroplasts

Cell Membrane
Chloroplast
Function: traps energy
from the sun to
produce food for the
plant cell
Found only in plant
cells
Green in color because
of chlorophyll, which is
a green pigment
Plant Cell
Vacuole

Chloroplasts

Cell Membrane

Cell Wall
Cell Wall
Function: provides support
and protection to the cell
membrane
Found in plant and
bacterial cells
Rigid, protective barrier
Located outside of the
cell membrane
Made of cellulose (fiber)
 That’s what makes celery
crunchy
Quick Review
Which organelle is the control center of the cell?
Nucleus
Which organelle holds the cell together?
Cell membrane
Which organelles are not found in animal cells?
Cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplasts
Which organelle helps plant cells make food?
Chloroplasts
What does E.R. stand for?
Endoplasmic reticulum